The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Barkley, T.M., L. Brouillet, and J. L. Strother. 2006. Asteraceae. Pages 3-69 in Flora of North America, vol. 19. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Bayer, R. J. and J. R. Starr. 1998. Tribal phylogeny of the Asteraceae based on two noncoding chloroplast sequences, the trnL intron and the trnL-F intergenic spacer. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 242-256.
  • Beentje, H.J. & Ghazanfar, S.A. (eds.) (2005) Compositae (Part 3) FTEA
  • Beentje, H.J. (ed.) (2000) Compositae (Part 1) FTEA
  • Beentje, H.J. (ed.) (2002) Compositae (Part 2) FTEA
  • Bremer, K. 1994. Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Bremer, K., and M. H. G. Gustafsson. 1997. East Gondwana ancestry of the sunflower alliance of families. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 9188-9190.
  • Carlquist, S. 1976. Tribal interrelationships and phylogeny of the Asteraceae. Aliso 8: 465-492.
  • Cassini, H. 1819a. Sexième mémoire sur la famille des Synanthérées, contenant les caractères des tribus. J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 88: 150-163.
  • Cassini, H. 1819b. Suite du sexième mémoire sur la famille des Synanthérées, contenant les caractères des tribus. J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 88: 189-204.
  • De Villiers, S. E., and A. Cadman. 2001. An analysis of the palynomorphs obtained from Tertiary sediments at Koingnaas, Namaqualand, South Africa. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 33: 17-47.
  • Elsik, W. C., and T. E. Yancey. 2000. Palynomorph biozones in the context of changing paleoclimate, middle Eocene to lower Oligocene of the Northwest Gulf of Mexico. Palynology 24: 177-186.
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2011. Fl. China 20–21: 1–992. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. External link.
  • Funk, V. A ., R. J. Bayer, S. Keeley, R. Chan, L. Watson, B. Gemeinholzer, E. E. Schilling, J. L. Panero, B. G. Baldwin, N. T. García Jacas, A. Susanna, and R. K. Jansen. 2005. Everywhere but Antarctica: using a supertree to understand the diversity and distribution of the Compositae. Pages 343-373 in Plant diversity and complexity patterns-local, regional and global dimensions, (I. Friis and H. Balslev, eds.). Biol. Skr. 55.
  • Goertzen, L. R., J. J. Cannone, R. R. Gutell, and R.K. Jansen. 2003. ITS secondary structure derived from comparative analysis: implications for sequence alignment and phylogeny of Asteraceae. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 29: 216-234.
  • Graham, A. 1996. A contribution to the geologic history of the Compositae. Pages 123-140 in Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, (D. J. N. Hind and H. Beentje, H. J. eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Harris, E. M. 1995. Inflorescence and floral ontogeny in Asteraceae: a synthesis of historical and current concepts. Botanical Review 61: 93-278.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939. External link.
  • Jansen, R. K., and J. D. Palmer. 1987. A chloroplast DNA inversion marks an ancient evolutionary split in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84: 5818-5822.
  • Jeffrey, C. 2007. Compositae: Introduction with key to tribes. Pages 61-87 in Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. VIII, Flowering Plants, Eudicots, Asterales (J. W. Kadereit and C. Jeffrey, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Kedves, M. 1971. Presence de types sporomorphs importants dans les sediments prequaternaires Egyptiens. Acta. Bot. Hung. 17: 371-378.
  • Kim K.-J., K. S. Choi, and R. K. Jansen. 2005. Two chloroplast DNA inversions originated simultaneously during the early evolution of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 1783-1792.
  • Kim K.-J., R. K. Jansen. 1995. ndhF sequence evolution and the major clades in the sunflower family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 10379-10383.
  • Lane, M., 1996. Pollination biology of Compositae. Pages 61-80 in Compositae: Biology and Utilization, Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, (P. D. S. Caligari and D. J. N. Hind, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • McNeill, J., F. Barrie, H. Burdet, V. Demoulin, D. Hawksworth, K. Marhold, D. Nicolson, et al. 2006. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 146. xviii + 568
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi. External link.
  • O Prirozenosti Rostlin 254. 1820. (Jan--Feb 1820) (Prir. Rostlin)
  • Panero, J. L., and V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 115: 909-922.
  • Panero, J. L., and V. A. Funk. 2008. The value of sampling anomalous taxa in phylogenetic studies: major clades of the Asteraceae revealed. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 47: 757-782.
  • Pope, G.V. (1992) Compositae FZ 6(1)
  • Prir. Rostlin: 254. Jan-Apr 1820.
  • Rieseberg, L. H., O. Raymond, D. M. Rosenthal, Z. Lai, K. Livingstone, T. Nakazato, J. L. Durphy, A. E. Schwarzbach, L. A. Donovan, C. Lexer. 2003. Major ecological transitions in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization. Science 301: 1211-1216.
  • Robinson, H. 2004. New supertribes Helianthodae and Senecionodae, for the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 86: 116-120.
  • Robinson, H. 2005. Validation of the supertribe Asterodae. Phytologia 87: 72-88.
  • Scott, L., A. Cadman, and I. McMillan. 2006. Early history of Cainozoic Asteraceae along the southern African west coast. Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno. 142: 47-52.
  • Soltis, D. E., E. V. Mavrodiev, J. J. Doyle, J. Rauscher, and P. S. Soltis. 2008. ITS and ETS sequence data and phylogeny reconstruction in allopolyploids and hybrids. Syst. Bot. 33: 7-20.
  • Song, Z. C., Y. H. Zheng, and M. Y. Li. 1999. Paleogene palynostratigraphy. Pages 141-265 in Fossil Spores and Pollen of China: The Late Cretaceous and Tertiary Spores and Pollen (Z. C. Song, Y. H. Zheng, M. Y. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, W. M. Wang, D. N. Wang, C. B. Zhao, S. F. Zhou, Z. H. Zhu, and Y. N. Zhao, eds.). Science Press, Beijing.
  • Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 8, June 2007 [and more or less continuously updated since]. (Accessed March 27, 2008).
  • Stuessy, T.F., and D. Garver. 1996. The defensive role of pappus in heads of Compositae. Pages 81-91 in Compositae: Biology and Utilization, Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, (P. D. S. Caligari and D. J. N. Hind, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tekhno-Botanicheskīĭ Slovar': na latinskom i rossīĭskom iazykakh. Sanktpeterburgie 55. 1820. (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar.)
  • Thorne, R. F., and J. L. Reveal. 2007. An updated classification of the class Magnoliopsida ("Angiospermae"). Bot. Rev. 73: 67-181.
  • Timme, R. E., B. B. Simpson, and C. R. Linder. 2007. High-resolution phylogeny for Helianthus (Asteraceae) using the 18S-26S ribosomal DNA external transcribed spacer. Am. J. Bot. 94: 1837-1852.
  • Wagenitz, G., 1976. Systematics and phylogeny of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 125: 29-46.
  • WoRMS (2015). Asteraceae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Zavada, M.C., and S. E. De Villiers. 2000. Pollen of Asteraceae from the Paleocene-Eocene of South Africa. Grana 39: 39-45.


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