The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Fischer, A., V. Wiebe, S. Pääbo, and M. Przeworski. 2004. Evidence for a complex demographic history of chimpanzees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21:799-808.
  • Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Belknap Press.
  • Kaessmann, H., V. Wiebe, and S. Pääbo. 1999. Extensive nuclear DNA sequence diversity among chimpanzees, Science 286:1159-1162.
  • Patterson, N., D. J. Richter, S. Gnerre, E. S. Lander, and D. Reich. 2006. Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees. Nature 441:1103–1108.
  • Stone, A. C., R. C. Griffiths, S. L. Zegura, and M. F. Hammer. 2002. High levels of Y-chromosome nucleotide diversity in the genus Pan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 99:43-48.
  • Whiten A., J. Goodall, W.C. McGrew, T. Nishida, V. Reynolds, Y. Sugiyama, C. E. G. Tutin, R. W. Wrangham, and C. Boesch. 1999. Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399(6737):682-685.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Yu, N., M. I. Jensen-Seaman, L. Chemnick, J. R. Kidd, A. S. Deinard, O. Ryder, K. K. Kidd, and W.-H. Li. 2003. Low nucleotide diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Genetics 164:1511-1518.


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