Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs, rarely shrubs or small trees (Heteromorpha and Steganotaenia). Stipules 0. Leaves alternate, usually compound, occasionally simple.

Flowers arranged in simple or more usually compound umbels, rarely whorled or capitate. In compound umbels, the scales at the base of the primary branches (rays) are called bracts while those at the base of the branches of the secondary (or partial) umbels (referred to as pedicels) are called bracteoles.

Petals 5, usually white, but sometimes yellowish, greenish, pinkish or rarely blue. Stamens 5. Styles 2, usually divergent, usually with a well-developed stylopodium. Ovary inferior, 2-locular. Fruit dry, consisting of two indehiscent carpels separated by a commissure; carpels adnate or suspended from an axis (carpophore) usually separating when ripe, usually prominently 5- or 9-ribbed.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Aceria peucadani causes gall of leaf of Apiaceae

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / nest
female of Andrena proxima provisions nest with pollen of Apiaceae

Foodplant / visitor
imago of Anoplodera sexguttata visits for nectar and/or pollen flower of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / sap sucker
Anuraphis subterranea sucks sap of root of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis sambuci sucks sap of live root of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Calyptella campanula is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Apiaceae

Foodplant / sap sucker
Cavariella sucks sap of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / sap sucker
Cavariella aegopodii sucks sap of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / sap sucker
Cavariella pastinacae sucks sap of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / open feeder
crepuscular & nocturnal larva of Chrysolina oricalcia grazes on live leaf of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dendryphiella dematiaceous anamorph of Dendryphiella infuscans is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dendryphiella dematiaceous anamorph of Dendryphiella vinosa is saprobic on dead, fallen stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Dendryphion dematiaceous anamorph of Dendryphion nanum is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Diaporthe arctii is saprobic on dead, blackened stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 7-11

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthopsis angelicae is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 7-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Discocistella grevillei is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 4-8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Fusariella dematiaceous anamorph of Fusariella hughesii is saprobic on dead leaf of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 4-6
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Heteropatella anamorph of Heterosphaeria patella is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: -9

Foodplant / sap sucker
Hyadaphis foeniculi sucks sap of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / sap sucker
Hyadaphis passrinii sucks sap of live Apiaceae
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyalopeziza millepunctata is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Hypera arundinis grazes on Apiaceae
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / gall
larva of Kiefferia pimpinellae causes gall of fruit of Apiaceae

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Lasiobelonium mollissimum is saprobic on dead, standing stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 4-7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Lasioptera carophila causes gall of umbel (base) of Apiaceae

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Leptosphaeria doliolum is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
larva of Leucozona laternaria is associated with aphid-infested Apiaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
Liniophloeus tessulatus feeds on Apiaceae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Liophloeus tessulatus feeds on root of Apiaceae

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Liparus coronatus feeds within rootstock of Apiaceae
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Liparus germanus feeds within rootstock of Apiaceae
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Lixus iridis feeds within stem of Apiaceae

Foodplant / saprobe
partly immersed pseudothecium of Lophiostoma fuckelii var. fuckelii is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / gall
larva of Macrolabis heraclei causes gall of leaf of Apiaceae

Plant / associate
larva of Melangyna umbellatarum is associated with aphid-infested Apiaceae

Plant / associate
larva of Meliscaeva auricollis is associated with aphid-infested flower of Apiaceae

Foodplant / saprobe
at first immersed, later often erumpent pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Metasphaeria complanata is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Periconia dematiaceous anamorph of Periconia cookei is saprobic on dead, blackened stem of Apiaceae

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Phaedon tumidulus grazes on live leaf of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: -late 8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, or becoming erumpent, often in elongated groups of 2 to 5 pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis hysteriola is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Phytoecia cylindrica feeds within live stem of Apiaceae

Plant / associate
larva of Pipizella is associated with aphid-infested root of Apiaceae

Foodplant / gall
sporangium of Plasmopara pimpinellae causes gall of live leaf of Apiaceae

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Pleospora phaeocomoides is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 2-10
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
embedded chlamydospore of Protomyces macrosporus causes gall of stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 3-10

Plant / associate
Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata is associated with mildewed Apiaceae

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Pyrenopeziza pastinacae is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae

Foodplant / visitor
imago of Rutpela maculata visits for nectar and/or pollen flower of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 5-9
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Semiaphis pimpinellae causes gall of leaf of Apiaceae

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Stachybotrys dematiaceous anamorph of Stachybotrys cylindrospora is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula uncialis is saprobic on dead, decaying stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: spring-summer

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Urceolella crispula is saprobic on dead stem of Apiaceae
Remarks: season: 5-11
Other: major host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 4429
Specimens with Sequences: 3578
Specimens with Barcodes: 1774
Species: 1689
Species With Barcodes: 1060
Public Records: 778
Public Species: 282
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Apiaceae

The Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae), commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, are a family of mostly aromatic plants with hollow stems. The family, which is named after the type genus Apium, is large, with more than 3,700 species spread across 434 genera; it is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants.[1] Included in this family are the well-known plants: angelica, anise, arracacha, asafoetida, caraway, carrot, celery, Centella asiatica, chervil, cicely, coriander (cilantro), culantro, cumin, dill, fennel, hemlock, lovage, Queen Anne's lace, parsley, parsnip, sea holly, and the now extinct silphium.

Description[edit]

Most Apiaceae are annual, biennial or perennial herbs (frequently with the leaves aggregated toward the base), though a minority are shrubs or trees.They are multicellular plants. Their leaves are of variable size and alternately arranged, or alternate with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. In some taxa, the texture is leathery, fleshy, or even rigid, but always with stomata. They are petiolate or perfoliate and more or less sheathing, the blade usually dissected and pinnatifid, but entire in some genera. Most commonly, crushing their leaves emits a marked smell, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some members. The flowers are nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, simple or compound, often umbelliform cymes, rarely in heads.

The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence: a simple or compound umbel. Flowers across the Apiaceae are fairly uniform and are usually perfect (hermaphroditic) and actinomorphic, but some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or even dioecious (as in Acronema), with a distinct calyx and corolla, but the calyx if often highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, yellow, pink or purple. The flowers are nearly perfectly pentamerous, with 5 petals, sepals, and stamens. The androecium contains of 5 stamens, but there is often variation in the functionality of the stamens even within a single inflorescence. Some flowers are functionally staminate (where a pistil may be present but has no ovules capable of being fertilized) while others are functionally pistillate (where stamens are present but their anthers do not produce viable pollen). Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant (geitonogamy) is common. The gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. When mature, the fused carpels separate into two mericarps. Stylopodiums secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, mosquitoes, gnats, beetles, moths, and bees.

The fruits are nonfleshy schizocarp of two mericarps, each with a single seed; they separate at maturity and are dispersed by wind. Some fruit segments (like those in Daucus spp. are covered in bristles and spread via external transport. The seeds have an oily endosperm[2][3] and generally contain large quantities of fatty oils, with the fatty acid petroselinic acid occurring universally throughout the family while rarely being found outside of the Apiaceae.

Systematics[edit]

Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836.[4] The name is derived from the type genus Apium, which was originally used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a celery-like plant.[5] The alternative name for the family, Umbelliferae, derives from the inflorescence being generally in the form of a compound umbel. The family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 Historia generalis plantarum. With Robert Morison’s 1672 Plantarum umbelilliferarum distribution nova it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published.

The family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III classification system. It is closely related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited largely based on fruit morphology, and the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. The subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is currently in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic.[1]

Genera[edit]

According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014 there are 434 genera in the family Apiaceae.[1]

Ecology[edit]

The black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, utilizes the Apiaceae family for food and host plants during oviposition.[7]

Uses[edit]

Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. The plant structure includes a tap root, which can be large enough to be useful in food, as with parsnips (Pastinaca sativa), carrots (Daucus carota), and Hamburg parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Many plants of this group are also adapted to conditions that encourage heavy concentrations of essential oils, and as a result some are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley (Petroselinum crispum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), culantro, and dill (Anethum graveolens). The plentiful seeds of the umbels, likewise, are sometimes used in cuisine, as with, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and caraway (Carum carvi).

Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), angelica (Angelica spp.), celery (Apium graveolens), arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), sea holly (Eryngium spp.), asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida), galbanum (Ferula gummosa), cicely (Myrrhis odorata), anise (Pimpinella anisum), lovage (Levisticum officinale), and hacquetia (Hacquetia epipactis).[2]

Cultivation[edit]

Generally all members of this family are best cultivated in the cooler season garden, indeed they may not grow at all if the soils are too warm.

Almost every widely cultivated plant of this group is a considered useful as a companion plant. One reason is because the tiny flowers clustered into umbels, are well suited for ladybugs, parasitic wasps, and predatory flies, which actually drink nectar when not reproducing. They then will prey upon insect pests on nearby plants.

Some of the members of this family that are considered "herbs" produce scent that are believed to mask the odours of nearby plants, thus making them harder for insect pests to find.

Other uses[edit]

The poisonous members of the Apiaceae have been used for a variety of purposes globally. The poisonous Oenanthe crocata has been used to stupefy fish, Cicuta douglasii has been used as an aid in suicides, and arrow poisons have been made from various other family species.

Daucus carota has been used as coloring for butter and its roots used as a coffee substitute.

Dorema ammoniacum, Ferula galbaniflua, and Ferula sumbul are sources of incense.

The woody Azorella compacta Phil. has been used in South America for fuel.

Chemistry[edit]

Polyacetylenes can be found in Apiaceae vegetables like carrot, celery, fennel, parsley and parsnip where they show cytotoxic activities.[8] Many species contain coumarins or coumarin derivatives, such as furanocoumarins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008.
  2. ^ a b Watson, L., Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards) The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 4 March 2011.
  3. ^ She, M., Pu, F., Pan, Z., Watson, M., Cannon, J.F.M., Holmes-Smith, I., Kljuykov, E.V., Phillippe, L.R., Pimenov, M.G. (2005). "Apiaceae". Flora of China 14: 1–205. 
  4. ^ Lindley, J. (1836) An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, 2nd Edition. Longman, London.
  5. ^ Michael G. Simpson (20 July 2010). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374380-0. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  6. ^ Woodville, W. (1793) Medical Botany. James Phillips, London.
  7. ^ Hall, Donald W. 2011 "Featured Creatures - Eastern Black Swallowtail." Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/bfly/bfly2/eastern_black_swallowtail.htm#life
  8. ^ Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae Vegetables Carrot, Celery, Fennel, Parsley, and Parsnip and Their Cytotoxic Activities. Christian Zidorn, Karin Jöhrer, Markus Ganzera, Birthe Schubert, Elisabeth Maria Sigmund, Judith Mader, Richard Greil, Ernst P. Ellmerer and Hermann Stuppner, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (7), pages 2518–2523, doi:10.1021/jf048041s

Further reading[edit]

  • Apiaceae. 2011. Utah State University Intermountain Herbarium. 20 October 2011. http://herbarium.usu.edu/taxa/apiaceae.htm
  • Constance, L. (1971). “History of the classification of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae).” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 1–11. Academic Press, London.
  • Cronquist, A. (1968). The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • French, D. H. (1971). “Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae.” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 385–412. Academic Press, London.
  • Hegnauer, R. (1971) “Chemical Patterns and Relationships of Umbelliferae.” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 267–277. Academic Press, London.
  • Heywood, V. H. (1971). “Systematic survey of Old World Umbelliferae.” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 31–41. Academic Press, London.
  • Judd, W. S. et al. (1999). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
  • Plunkett, G. M. and S. R. Downie (1999). “Major lineages within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: a comparison of chloroplast restriction site and DNA sequence data.” American Journal of Botany, 86, 1014–1026.
  • Plunkett, G. M., D. E. Soltis, and P. S. Soltis (1996). “Higher Level Relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of rbcL Sequences.” Botanical Society of America, 83 (4), 499–515.
  • Plunkett, G. M., D. E. Soltis, and P. S. Soltis (1996). “Evolutionary Patters in Apiaceae: Inferences Based on matK Sequence Data.” American Society of Plant Taxonomists, 21 (4), 477–495.
  • Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Jury, Stephen Leonard & Herrero Nieto, Alberto (eds.) Flora iberica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Vol. X. "Araliaceae-Umbelliferae" (2003) Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC (in Spanish).
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