Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Dioecious or monoecious herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent, spiny or unarmed, sometimes with milky latex. Hairs 0, simple, stellate or stinging. Stipules present or 0. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or in whorls, usually simple, less often lobed or compound. Glands sometimes present near the apex of the petiole and base of lamina. Inflorescences various, sometimes in cyathia. Flowers unisexual, usually actinomorphic and very small. Calyx usually of 3-6 lobes or free sepals. Corolla with 3-6 free or ± united petals or 0. Disk present or 0. Stamens 3-many. Ovary superior, 1-4(-20)-locular, most commonly 3-locular. Styles (1-)3(-20). Fruit usually splitting into three 2-valved cocci, less often indehiscent. Seeds 1-2 per loculus, with or without a caruncle.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Euphorbiaceae Jorge173

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 4752
Specimens with Sequences: 4835
Specimens with Barcodes: 2998
Species: 1410
Species With Barcodes: 1289
Public Records: 1760
Public Species: 221
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Euphorbiaceae

This article is about the spurge family, sometimes called "euphorbias" in ordinary English. For the genus see the euphorbia article

Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, in common English sometimes called "euphorbias",[2] which is also the name of a genus in the family. It is a large family of flowering plants with about 300 genera and 7,500 species.[citation needed] Most[citation needed] spurges are herbs, but some, especially in the tropics, are shrubs or trees. Some are succulent and resemble cacti because of convergent evolution.[citation needed] Laypersons may refer to euphorbias having a growth form and succulence similar to cacti as being "cactuses".[citation needed]

This family occurs mainly in the tropics, with the majority of the species in the Indo-Malayan region and tropical America a good second. A large variety occurs in tropical Africa, but they are not as abundant or varied as in the two other tropical regions. However, Euphorbia also has many species in nontropical areas such as the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, South Africa, and southern USA.

The leaves are alternate, seldom opposite, with stipules. They are mainly simple, but where compound, are always palmate, never pinnate. Stipules may be reduced to hairs, glands, or spines, or in succulent species are sometimes absent.

The plants can be monoecious or dioecious. The radially symmetrical flowers are unisexual, with the male and female flowers usually on the same plant. As can be expected from such a large family, there is a wide variety in the structure of the flowers. The stamens (the male organs) number from one to 10 (or even more). The female flowers are hypogynous, that is, with superior ovaries.

The genera in tribe Euphorbieae, subtribe Euphorbiinae (Euphorbia and close relatives) show a highly specialized form of pseudanthium ("false flower" made up of several true flowers) called a cyathium. This is usually a small, cup-like involucre consisting of fused-together bracts and peripheral nectary glands, surrounding a ring of male flowers, each a single stamen. In the middle of the cyathium stands a female flower: a single pistil with branched stigmas. This whole arrangement resembles a single flower.

The fruit is usually a schizocarp, but sometimes a drupe. A typical schizocarp is the regma, a capsular fruit with three or more cells, each of which splits open at maturity into separate parts and then breaks away explosively, scattering the small seeds.

The family contains a large variety of phytotoxins (toxic substances produced by plants), mainly diterpene esters, alkaloids, glycosides, and ricin-type toxins.

A milky latex is a characteristic of the subfamilies Euphorbioideae and Crotonoideae. The latex is poisonous in the Euphorbioideae, but innocuous in the Crotonoideae.[citation needed] White mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha), or blind-your-eye mangrove latex causes blistering on contact and temporary blindness if it contacts the eyes. Other common names are milky mangrove, buta buta (Malay), and gewa (Bangladesh). The latex of spurge was used as a laxative.

Recent molecular studies have shown that the enigmatic family Rafflesiaceae, which was only recently recognized to belong to order Malpighiales, is derived from within Euphorbiaceae.[3]

Uses[edit]

A number of plants of the spurge family are of considerable economic importance. Prominent plants include cassava (Manihot esculenta), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas), and the Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Many are grown as ornamental plants, such as poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) are invasive weeds in North America. In medicine, some species of Euphorbiaceae proved effective against genital herpes (HSV-2).[4]

Vulnerability[edit]

Some species, despite their medicinal benefits, are facing the risk of becoming extinct. These include the Euphorbia species E. appariciana, E. attastoma, E. crossadenia and E. gymnoclada.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  2. ^ Euphorbia, Merriam Webster Dictionary, [1]
  3. ^ (Davis et al. 2007).
  4. ^ LA Betancur-Galvis; GE Morales; JE Forero & J Roldan (2002), "Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Euphorbia genus", Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2002, pp. 541-546. Retrieved through Bioline International (keywords: herpes simplex - Bioline Code: oc02103)
  5. ^ Names.cria.org.br
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