Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"South India (Kerala: Chinnar WLS, Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri hills, Palni hills), North-east India (Himalayas, Kashmir, Manipur, Naga hills, Orissa), Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, New Zealand, Siberia, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Europe, North & South America, Africa, Australia and Oceania."
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 4-10 or more mm, with a basal antheridial branch, medium green to yellowish green; leafless proximally with leaves crowded and bulbiform distally, sometimes laxly foliate throughout. Leaves smaller proximally, distal leaves 2-4 mm, deeply concave, oblong-ovate to broadly obovate distally, acute to apiculate or short-acuminate, entire or weakly serrulate distally; costa subpercurrent to short-excurrent; distal laminal cells thin-walled and inflated, hexagonal or oblong-hexagonal becoming much more oblong proximally. Seta usually (12-)20-45(-80) mm, slender and flexuose, usually hygroscopic. Capsule 2-3.5 mm, pyriform, asymmetric, curved to straight, horizontal to pendent or merely inclined or nearly erect, becoming sulcate when dry below the strongly oblique mouth; annulus revoluble, operculum slightly convex; peristome brown, papillose-striate proximally and papillose distally, strongly trabeculate, becoming appendiculate distally, forming a lattice by fusion of the tips; endostome segments lanceolate about 2/3 as long as the teeth, yellowish, finely papillose-striate. Calyptra cucullate, smooth. Spores mostly 12-21 µm, finely papillose.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Plants green to yellowish-green, in loose to compact tufts, simple or branched; stem slender, erect, 1-1.5 mm long; leaves up to 3 x 1 mm, concave, obovate to lanceolate, acute, entire, at lower half small, leaves curved and folded when dry, spreading when moist; costa strong ending below apex; cells at upper half subhexagonal, elongated, 40-42 x 30-33 mm, cells at base rectangular, 33-77 x 20-25 mm, slightly narrower at margin; seta erect, terminal, reddish at maturity, up to 3.5 cm long, twisted, hygroscopic; capsule horizontal to pendulous, curved, pyriform, mouth narrow, globose at back, orange-brown, operculum large, convex, mouth wide, bear two rows of teeth, closely and obliquely arranged in a spiral turn, each row of 16 teeth, calyptra persistant, cucullate, smooth; spores brownish, rounded, 13-16 mm in diameter."
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"On moist soil, land cuttings, rocks and brick walls in large patches."
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / associate
gregarious apothecium of Anthracobia subatra is associated with gametophyte of Funaria hygrometrica

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Arrhenia retiruga parasitises gametophyte of Funaria hygrometrica

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Clavaria guilleminii is associated with Funaria hygrometrica

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Clavaria tenuipes is associated with Funaria hygrometrica

Plant / grows among
gregarious apothecium of Lamprospora carbonicola grows among gametophyte of Funaria hygrometrica
Remarks: season: esp. Spring

Plant / grows among
apothecium of Octospora roxheimii grows among gametophyte of Funaria hygrometrica

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This is one of the most common, weedy, and widely distributed mosses in the world (Flora of North America 2007 volume 27).

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Risk Statement

Cosmopolitan
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Wikipedia

Funaria hygrometrica

Funaria hygrometrica is a common type of water moss which grows on moist, shady, and damp soil. It can also be found on moist walls and the crevices of rocks and places where recent fires have taken place.

The plant body is green, soft, and upright. The rhizoids presen\t in this species are multi-cellular and branched. They have oblique septa. The main axis of the plant, which is upright, bears a set of spirally arranged, sessile leaves having a clearly distinguishable midrib.

At the apex of the main plant axis, the antheridium is borne. This is the male part of the shoot. A lateral branch from the main plant axis bears the female shoot archegonium at its meristem.

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Notes

Comments

Funaria hygrometrica is one of the most common, weedy, and widely distributed mosses in the world; its distribution closely parallels that of Bryum argenteum. It is widely illustrated in textbooks to demonstrate the life cycle of a typical moss, possibly because of the abundant conspicuous sporophytes produced and its frequent presence in greenhouses. However, the peristome with opposite, instead of alternate, teeth in the two peristome rows is clearly atypical among the majority of mosses. Most of the varieties that have been described probably do not merit recognition because of the morphological plasticity of the species in response to environmental conditions.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Following FNA (vol. 27, 2007), this is the record for Funaria hygrometrica in the broad sense including F. calvescens (as F. hygrometrica var. calvescens).

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Comments: Anderson et al. (1990) accept the narrow treatment of Funaria hygrometrica, excluding F. calvescens as a separate species. FNA (vol. 27, 2007) accept the broader treatment, with F. calvescens as a variety of F. hygrometrica.

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