Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: A regional endemic of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of southeast Virginia to South Carolina. In North Carolina, populations are relatively common in the Sandhills mainly on properties with fire management and are less common in the counties of the Coastal Plain (NCHP 2006).
Comments: Sandhills and sandy woods; dry sandy soil. In Virginia the habitat of historical occurrences included sandy roadsides and dry woodland border. In North Carolina the habitat is characterized as dry to xeric sandy upland areas with pine-oak-wiregrass or pine-oak communities; sand ridges with pine and/or oak; powerlines, gaslines, roadsides, or other maintained open areas (B. Sorrie, NCHP, pers. comm. 2005).
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Comments: In Virginia, no extant occurrences are known but no surveys have been done for this species. It is estimated that such surveys could find fewer than 5 occurrences. In North Carolina, it is estimated that there are over 50 extant populations in at least 13 counties. In South Carolina, this plant is listed from fifteen counties in Radford et al. (1968) and probably extant in most of these. The species is most abundant in the sandhills region, especially in Chesterfield County, where it is abundant in the Sandhills State Forest and Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. It is less abundant farther to the south and is apparently restricted to regions north of the Santee River in the outer coastal plain. (A report from Georgia is false; this species has never been found in Georgia.)
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: A regional endemic with a restricted range, but there are likely over 100 populations in the Carolinas as well as a small number in Virginia.
Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Comments: Requires dry, sandy soil and open or absent canopy.
Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Comments: Trend in Virginia is unknown, but the species is thought to be declining in the Carolinas. In North Carolina it is currently known from approximately half of the counties in its historic range.
Global Long Term Trend: Unknown
Comments: Fire suppression and conversion of natural habitat to pine plantations, housing, etc. and maintenance activities on roadsides and in right-of-ways are expected to impact this species into the future (B. Sorrie, NCHP, pers.comm. 2005). Declines are expected in the Carolinas.
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