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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Prostrate or straggling annual or perennial herb up to c. 1 m high. Stems sometimes woody near the base, more or less densely covered in rough hairs, sparsely armed with short, prickles. Leaves sensitive, twice compound with (1-)2 pairs of pinnae; rhachis very short, making the leaf appearing palmately divided. Flowers in ovoid-globose heads, c. 1.3 × 1 cm, in the upper leaf axils, lilac or pink. Pods in clusters, 1-2 cm long, densely prickly or bristly on the margins only.
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Miscellaneous Details

Roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: On bunds of rice fields & marshy areas
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

native to south America; an introduced weed in Africa.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

Mimosa pudica is widespread in Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean. This taxon has also been introduced to many countries around the world.
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"Found along waysides, fallows and watercourses from plains to 1000m. Common. Native of tropical America, now pantropical."
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"
Global Distribution

Native of South America; now Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Maharashtra: Kolhapur
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Distribution: Probably native of S. America; cultivated in gardens of West Pakistan.
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Pantropic, native of tropical America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary heads; pink. Flowering from November-March.

Fruit

A flat pod, slightly undulate, jointed, bristly along margin, horned; seeds 2-5, ovoid, compressed. Fruiting from January-May.

Field tips

Stem well branched with highly sensitive leaves. Prickles short, curved.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-distichous

Leaf Type

Bipinnate

Leaf Shape

Elliptic-oblong

Leaf Apex

Acute

Leaf Base

Truncate-obtuse

Leaf Margin

Entire-ciliate

"
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Physical Description

Perennial, Shrubs, Stems woody below, or from woody crown or caudex, Taproot present, Nodules present, Stems prostrate, trailing, or mat forming, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems 1-2 m tall, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Trunk or stems armed with thorns, spines or prickles, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Stems with hooked uncinate hairs or prickles, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules setiform, subulate or acicular, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves bipinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10- many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Flowers solitary in axils, or appearing solitary, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, Inflorescences globose heads, capitate or subcapitate, Inflorescence axillary, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals united, valvate, Petals white, Imperfect flowers present, dioecious or polygamodioecious, Stamens 9-10, Stamens completely free, separate, Stamens long exserted, Filaments glabrous, Filaments pink or red, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit a loment, jointed, separating into articles, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit spiny, bur-like, with hooked bristles or prickles, Fruit beaked, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seed with elliptical line or depression, pleurogram, Seeds subquadrate, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

A low spreading shrub, branches hairy and prickly, hairs glandular. Leaf very sensitive; stipulate, stipules linear-lanceolate, c. 7-8 mm long; rachis c. 2.5 cm long, grooved and prickly, pinnae 1-2 pairs, c. 2.5-5 cm long, sessile, situated at the end of the rachis; leaflets 12-20 pairs, sessile, 6-8 mm long, c. 5-6 mm broad coriaceous, linear-acute, glabrous above, hairy on the margin and below. Flowers in peduncled more or less globose heads, yellow, peduncle 2-2.5 cm long; densely hairy, head c. 6-8 mm in diameter solitary or in axillary pairs along the branches, bracts small, linear-acute. Calyx minute. Corolla pink c. 2-3 mm long, divided into 4 obtuse lobes. Stamens 4, much exserted. Fruit c. 12-18 mm long, c. 2-4 mm broad, flat, recurved, having 3-5 or 1 seeded parts, glabrous, light brown; joints separating from the persistent, spinous sutures.
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Elevation Range

200-1200 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Straggling subshrubs; stem 4-angular, without prickles. Leaves alternate to 12 cm long; rachis, tomentose; pinnae 5-10 pairs; leaflets c.20 pairs, oblong, 3-7 by 0.75-1 mm, overlapping, base oblique-truncate, apex acute-mucronate. Flowers pink. Lomentum flat, margin with recurved prickles; seeds 3-5, subrhombic."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A small spreading, armed herb, upto 30cm."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Undershrub
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
M. pudica inhabits thickets, savannas, roadsides in pine or oak-pine forest.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

"Common on moist and ungrazed places. Near riverbanks, bunds of arable lands, fallow lands and water courses. Found in plains from the coast to 1300m. Native of South America, now pantropical."
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General Habitat

Weed in the plains
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Population Biology

Frequency

Probably rare as a naturalised species in Zimbabwe.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-January
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. September-October.
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Leaves fold in response to touch: sensitive plant
 

Leaves of the sensitive plant protect themselves from predators and environmental conditions by folding in response to touch.

   
  "When the leaf is touched, it quickly folds its leaflets and pinnae and droops downward at the petiole attachment…The leaves also droop at night, and when exposed to rain or excessive heat. This response may be defenses against herbivorous insects, leaching loss of nutrients, or desiccation. The folds of different leaves are interconnected and compatible with each other, and the whole structure can be folded and unfolded from a single or multiple driving points." (Patil 2007: 19-23)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Patil, H. S.; Vaijapurkar, Siddharth. 2007. Study of the Geometry and Folding Pattern of Leaves of Mimosa pudica. Journal of Bionic Engineering. 4(1): 19-23.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Mimosa pudica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mimosa pudica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Groom, A.

Reviewer/s
Hilton-Taylor, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Mimosa pudica is very widespread in Central America, South America and the Caribbean. This taxon is known to occur within a number of protected areas throughout the species range and seeds have been collected and stored by the Millennium Seed Bank Project as a method of ex situ conservation. It is common and not considered to be threatened or in decline. This taxon is therefore rated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This taxon is considered to be common.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This taxon is not considered to be threatened or in decline.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This taxon is known to occur within the protected areas network and seeds have been collected and stored by the Millennium Seed Bank Project.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

Indigenous Information: Leaves are used for the treatment of piles. The fumes from the leaves drive away the bees during honey collection.
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Uses

Leaves and roots are used in traditional medicines.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Mimosa pudica

Mimosa pudica (from Latin: pudica "shy, bashful or shrinking"; also called sensitive plant, sleepy plant and the touch-me-not), is a creeping annual or perennial herb often grown for its curiosity value: the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shaken, to protect them from predators, re-opening minutes later. The species is native to South America and Central America, but is now a pantropical weed. It grows mostly in shady areas, under trees or shrubs.

Description[edit]

Flower
Mimosa pudica folding leaflets inward.
Mimosa pudica with mature seed pods on plant
The whole plant of Mimosa pudica includes thorny stem and branches, flower head, dry flowers, seed pods, and folded and unfolded leaflets

The stem is erect in young plants, but becomes creeping or trailing with age. It can hang very low and become floppy. The stem is slender, branching, and sparsely to densely prickly, growing to a length of 1.5 m (5 ft). The leaves of the mimosa pudica are compound leaves.

The leaves are bipinnately compound, with one or two pinnae pairs, and 10–26 leaflets per pinna. The petioles are also prickly. Pedunculate (stalked) pale pink or purple flower heads arise from the leaf axils in mid summer with more and more flowers as the plant gets older. The globose to ovoid heads are 8–10 mm in diameter (excluding the stamens). On close examination, it is seen that the floret petals are red in their upper part and the filaments are pink to lavender. The fruit consists of clusters of 2–8 pods from 1–2 cm long each, these being prickly on the margins. The pods break into 2–5 segments and contain pale brown seeds some 2.5 mm long. The flowers are pollinated by the wind and insects.[2] The seeds have hard seed coats which restrict germination.[3]

Plant movement[edit]

Video clip showing leaves closing after being touched

Mimosa pudica is well known for its rapid plant movement. Like a number of other plant species, it undergoes changes in leaf orientation termed "sleep" or nyctinastic movement. The foliage closes during darkness and reopens in light.[4] This was first studied by the French scientist Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan.

The leaves also close under various other stimuli, such as touching, warming, blowing, or shaking. These types of movements have been termed seismonastic movements. The movement occurs when specific regions of cells lose turgor pressure, which is the force that is applied onto the cell wall by water within the cell vacuoles and other cell contents. When the plant is disturbed, specific regions on the stems are stimulated to release chemicals including potassium ions which force water out of the cell vacuoles and the water diffuses out of the cells, producing a loss of cell pressure and cell collapse; this differential turgidity between different regions of cells results in the closing of the leaflets and the collapse of the leaf petiole. This characteristic is quite common within the Mimosoideae subfamily of the legume family, Fabaceae. The stimulus can also be transmitted to neighboring leaves. It is not known exactly why Mimosa pudica evolved this trait, but many scientists think that the plant uses its ability to shrink as a defense from herbivores. Animals may be afraid of a fast moving plant and would rather eat a less active one. Another possible explanation is that the sudden movement dislodges harmful insects.[citation needed]

Taxonomy and nomenclature[edit]

Mimosa pudica was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum in 1753.[5] The species epithet, pudica, is Latin for "bashful" or "shrinking", alluding to its shrinking reaction to contact.

Common names[edit]

The species is known by numerous common names including

Non-English common names in other European language/culture areas include não-me-toque (touch-me-not) in Portugal, Africa, and Rio de Janeiro.[citation needed] It is also known as dorme-dorme ("sleep-sleep"), sensitive (sensitive), and dormideira (roughly "sleeper") elsewhere in Brazil.[citation needed] In Spanish, it varies in names such as morí-viví or moriviví (Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and other Spanish-speaking Caribbean islands, roughly translating to "I died, I lived")[9] and dormilona (Costa Rica and elsewhere in Central America, roughly translating to "sleepyhead", as in Brazil).[citation needed]

In Austronesia names vary more: in the Philippines it is called makahiya, with maka- meaning "quite" or "tendency to be", and -hiya meaning "shy", or "shyness"),[citation needed] while in Tonga for example it is known as mateloi (false death),[10] being putri malu (shy princess) in Indonesia and pokok semalu (shy plant) in Malaysia. In Sinhala (Sri Lanka) it is called Nidi Kumba (sleeping plant).

In South Asia many unrelated names are also common. In Hindi it is known as chhui-mui ("that which dies upon touch"). In Bengali, the shrub is known as lojjaboti ("the bashful girl"). In Malayalam it is called thottavaadi ("wilts by touch"). In Marathi it is called lazalu ("shy"). In Tamil, it is called thotta-siningi ("acts when touched") and in Kannada, it is known as muttidare muni (ಮುಟ್ಟಿದರೆ ಮುನಿ ಗಿಡ; "angered by touch"). In Burmese (Myanmar) it is called hti ka yoan, which means "crumbles when touched".

In Liberia it is known as the pickerweed.

Distribution[edit]

Mimosa pudica is native to South America and Central America. It has been introduced to many other regions and is regarded as an invasive species in Tanzania, South Asia and South East Asia and many Pacific Islands.[7] It is regarded as invasive in parts of Australia and is a declared weed in the Northern Territory,[11] and Western Australia although not naturalized there.[12] Control is recommended in Queensland.[13] It has also been introduced to Nigeria, Seychelles, Mauritius and East Asia but is not regarded as invasive in those places.[7] In the United States of America, it grows in Florida, Hawaii, Virginia, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Texas, and the Virgin Islands.[14]

Agricultural impacts[edit]

The species can be a troublesome weed in tropical crops, particularly when fields are hand cultivated. Crops it tends to affect are corn, coconuts, tomatoes, cotton, coffee, bananas, soybeans, papaya, and sugar cane. Dry thickets may become a fire hazard.[2] In some cases it has become a forage plant although the variety in Hawaii is reported to be toxic to livestock.[2][15]

Mimosa pudica can form root nodules that are habitable by nitrogen fixing bacteria.[16] The bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen, which plants cannot use, into a form that plants can use. This trait is common among plants in the Fabaceae family.

Cultivation[edit]

In cultivation, this plant is most often grown as an indoor annual, but is also grown for groundcover. Propagation is generally by seed.

Chemical constituents[edit]

Mimosa pudica contains the toxic alkaloid mimosine, which has been found to also have antiproliferative and apoptotic effects.[17] The extracts of Mimosa pudica immobilize the filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in less than one hour.[18] Aqueous extracts of the roots of the plant have shown significant neutralizing effects in the lethality of the venom of the monocled cobra (Naja Kaouthia). It appears to inhibit the myotoxicity and enzyme activity of cobra venom.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mimosa pudica information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  2. ^ a b c "Mimosa pudica L.". US Forest Service. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  3. ^ Chauhan, Bhagirath S. Johnson; Davi, E. (2009). "Germination, emergence, and dormancy of Mimosa pudica". Weed Biology and Management 9 (1): 38–45. doi:10.1111/j.1445-6664.2008.00316.x. 
  4. ^ Raven, Peter H.; Evert, Ray F.; Eichhorn, Susan E. (January 2005). "Section 6. Physiology of Seed Plants: 29. Plant Nutrition and Soils". Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. p. 639. ISBN 978-0-7167-1007-3. LCCN 2004053303. OCLC 56051064. 
  5. ^ "Mimosa pudica". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Mimosa pudica L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  7. ^ a b c "Mimosa pudica". Usambara Invasive Plants. Tropical Biology Association. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  8. ^ Cairns.com.au
  9. ^ "The Sensitive Plant". Union County College Biology Department. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  10. ^ Churchward, C. Maxwell (1959). Tongan Dictionary. Tonga: Government Printing Press. p. 344. 
  11. ^ "Declared Weeds in the NT – Natural Resources, Environment and The Arts". Archived from the original on 2008-02-26. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  12. ^ "Declared Plants- Sensitive plant common (Mimosa pudica)". Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  13. ^ "Common Sensitive Plant". Invasive plants and animals. Biosecurity Queensland. Archived from the original on 2009-04-19. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  14. ^ Distribution of Mimosa pudica in the United States of America Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
  15. ^ "Mimosa pudica (PIER species info)". Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  16. ^ Elmerich, Claudine; Newton, William Edward (2007). Associative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanobacterial associations. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4020-3541-8 
  17. ^ "Antiproliferative effect of mimosine in ovarian cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  18. ^ Robinson RD, Williams LA, Lindo JF, Terry SI, Mansingh A (1990). "Inactivation of strongyloides stercoralis filariform larvae in vitro by six Jamaican plant extracts and three commercial anthelmintics". West Indian Medical Journal 39 (4): 213–217. PMID 2082565. 
  19. ^ "Journal of Ethnopharmacology : Neutralisation of lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom by Mimosa pudica root extracts". ScienceDirect. Retrieved 2011-07-15. 
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Notes

Comments

The plant has been tried as green manure. It is said to have medicinal proper-ties also. Because of the sensitivity of the aerial parts it is valued as an interesting ornamental plant.
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