Overview

Brief Summary

Description

The flame tree, also known as royal poinciana or flamboyant, is a member of the bean family (Leguminosae) and is widely regarded as one of the most beautiful tropical trees in the world (2) (1) (3). This aptly named tree produces striking flame-like scarlet and yellow flowers in spring before the leaves emerge (2) (3). As the trees mature, they develop broad umbrella-shaped crowns, and are often planted for their shade-giving properties (2). The delicate, fern-like leaves are composed of small individual leaflets, which fold up at the onset of dusk (2). This tree produces brown, woody seed pods that reach lengths of up to 60 cm (2) (3); they turn reddish-brown to almost black when ripe (4).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Biology

The beautiful flowers of the flame tree are pollinated by birds (2). The flowers are produced in spring and summer and the leaves are shed in the dry season (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 2.0 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

Tree, ± flat-topped, often multi-trunked and branching near the base. Leaves alternate, c. 40 × 20 cm with c.15 pairs of opposite pinnae, each pinna bearing 25-30 pairs of opposite leaflets. Petiole and rhachis channelled above. Leaflets 8 × 3 mm, oblong, minutely pubescent. Sepals 3 × 0.7 cm, narrowly elliptic, green on the back, scarlet on the adaxial side, acute. Petals 5; lower four petals long-clawed; lamina 5 cm, elliptic, scarlet; upper petal longer, yellow. Pods 35 - 80 cm, pendulous.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

regia: splendid, royal
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Planted as gardens and along roadsides
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

D. regia is endemic to Madagascar. In the wild, it is found in the west (Tsingy de Bemaraha) and the north (including Orangea, Cap d’Ambre peninsulas and around Baie de Diego, the Ankarana and Analamerana Massifs) and possibly from Nosy Be. It is also cultivated in most areas of Madagascar and across much of the tropics as a street tree. Based on the distribution of herbarium specimens, the extent of occurrence (EOO) of the wild populations is 68,334 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is 58,156 km². It occurs from sea level up to 400 m and occasionally as high as 750 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Worldwide distribution

Native of Madagascar; very commonly planted in Zimbabwe as a street tree.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Maharashtra: Kolhapur
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

This tree is native to west and north Madagascar (1), but it has been widely cultivated elsewhere (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: A native of Madagascar, now cultivated throughout the tropics; common throughout plains of W. Pakistan.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

A native of western Madagascar not known in a wild state until 1932, widely cultivated in the tropics.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules deciduous, Stipules free, Stipules toothed or laciniate, Leaves compound, Leaves bipinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Leaves hairy on one or both surfaces, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence panicles, Inflorescence terminal, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Petals clawed, Petals red, Petals orange or yellow, Stamens 9-10, Stamens completely free, separate, Stamens monadelphous, united below, Stamens long exserted, Filaments hairy, villous, Filaments pink or red, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit tardily or weakly dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit or valves persistent on stem, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 11-many seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

A large deciduous tree, c. 12-17 m high. Leaves bipinnate, up to 60 cm long, pinnae 11-18 pairs, leaflets 20-30 pairs on each pinna, oblong, 7.5-10 mm long, 3.5-4 mm wide. Stipules lateral, pinnately compound. Inflorescence lax terminal or axillary raceme. Flowers 10 cm across, bright red in colour. Sepals 5, crimson on inside. Petals 5, 4 c. 3.7 cm wide, clawed, 1 petal (standard) c. 5 cm wide, yellow or white, streaked with red. Stamens 10, free, much exserted. Pods 30-50 cm long, 5 cm broad, compressed, firm, rather thick. Seeds 20-40, oblong, transverse, mottled.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

200-1000 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Dry Deciduous Forests Habitat

Boophis goudotii is found in the Madagascar dry deciduous forests ecoregion among other ecoregions in Madagascar. This ecoregion in western Madagascar represents some of the world’s most species rich and most distinctive tropical dry forests. They are characterized by very high local plant and animal endemism at the species, genera and family levels.This ecoregion also contains spectacular limestone karst formations, known as tsingy.

The climate of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests is tropical, with temperatures ranging from a mean maximum of 30° to 33°C and a mean minimum of 8° to 21°C. There is a wet and a dry season, with most of the rainfall from October to April. Precipitation declines from an annual average of around 1500 millimetres (mm) in the north to about 1000 mm in the south of the region.

The geology of the ecoregion is varied, being rather complex in some zones, and includes ancient Precambrian basement rocks, unconsolidated sands, and Tertiary and Mesozoic limestone. While most of the forest on the Tertiary limestone has been destroyed, the spectacular karsts of the Mesozoic limestone and the associated forest patches are more or less intact. The ecoregion is a mosaic of dry deciduous forest, degraded secondary forests and grasslands.

Some of the distinctive plants in the forests include the flamboyant tree, Delonix regia (family Leguminosae), and several species of baobabs (Adansonia, family Bombacaceae), including the Near Threatened Fony baobab (A. rubrostipa) and the Endangered Suarez baobab (A. suarezensis).

Endemic mammal species to the ecoregion include the Golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz), Lowland western forest rat (Nesomys lambertoni), Golden-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis), Northern rufous mouse lemur (M. tavaratra), Western rufous mouse lemur (M. myoxinus), Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus diadema perrieri), Milne-Edwards’s sportive lemur (Lepilemur edwardsi), and the Endangered big-footed mouse (Macrotarsomys ingens). Lemur species, particularly the Brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus), may be critical to the regeneration of the forests because they are some of the few and potentially most important seed dispersers in this diverse forest. The dry deciduous forests are one of the primary habitats for the island’s largest predator, the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), and some of the smaller endemic Carnivora.

The rivers and lakes of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests ecoregion are critically important habitats for the endemic and endangered Madagascar sideneck turtle (Erymnochelys madagascariensis). This species represents a significant "Gondwanaland relic", since its closest relatives are in the Podocnemis genus of in South America. The scrubland and bamboo forests of the ecoregion are the habitat of one of the most endangered reptiles in the world, the ploughshare tortoise (Geochelone yniphora). Other critical endemic reptiles of the ecoregion include the chameleons Brookesia bonsi and B. decaryi. At least three chameleon species are endemic to this ecoregion, including Furcifer tuzetae, F. rhinoceratus, and F. angeli. The dwarf chameleons Brookesia exarmata and B. perarmata are endemic to the Tsingy of Bemaraha. The colorful arboreal snake Lycodryas (Stenophis) citrinus is only recorded from Tsingy de Bemaraha and Namoroka region. Several geckos are endemic to this ecoregion including Paroedura maingoka, P. vazimba, P. tanjaka, Uroplatus geuntheri, and Lygodactylus klemmeri; the latter is only known from the Tsingy de Bemaraha. Futher, the region also holds several endemic skinks species including Mabuya tandrefana, Pygomeles braconnieri, and Androngo elongatus. Recently new species of plated lizard were described from the ecoregion – Zonosaurus bemaraha in the southern portion and Z. tsingy in the northern portion.

Notable amphibians in the ecoregion include the Near Threatened Ambohimitombo bright-eyed frog (Boophis majori); the Antsouhy tomato frog (Dyscophus insularis); the Betsileo golden frog (Mantella betsileo); Betsileo Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus betsileanus); the Betsileo reed frog (Heterixalus betsileo); the Central Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus opiparis); Forest Bright-eyed frog (Boophis erythrodactylus), who typically breeds in wide forest streams; Goudot's Bright-eyed frog (Boophis goudotii); Madagascar bullfrog (Laliostoma labrosum), a Madagascar endemic that is fossorial outside its breeding season; and the Marbled rainfrog (Scaphiophryne marmorata), who breeds in shallow temporary pools.

The ecoregion contains important habitats for 131 of the 186 resident terrestrial bird species listed for Madagascar. Several of these species are associated with lakes and rivers of the region, such as the Manambolo, Betsiboka, Mahajamba, and their satellite lakes. These species include Bernier’s teal (Anas bernieri), Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides), Humblot’s heron (Ardea humbloti) and the Sakalava rail (Amaurornis olivieri). These birds are dependent on wetlands and they are becoming increasingly isolated and restricted due to habitat fragmentation and conversion to rice paddy. Some of these species also use the fringes of the mangroves on the western coast of Madagascar. Several bird species are confined to the western forests, have limited or disjunct ranges, in some cases associated with habitat fragmentation including Van Dam’s vanga (Xenopirostris damii), and White-breasted mesite (Mesitornis variegata).

  • C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar dry deciduous forests. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
  • Lowry, P.P. II, G.E. Schatz, and P.B. Phillipson. 1997. The classification of natural and anthropogenic vegetation in Madagascar. pp. 93-123 in: S.M. Goodman and B. D.Patterson (eds.). Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. ISBN: 1560986832
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund

Supplier: C. Michael Hogan

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 5.0 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
D. regia is a deciduous tree up to 30 m tall. It is found within the dry forest especially on limestone (Du Puy et al. 1995, 2002). It has distinctive large, bright red flowers, and is thought to be pollinated by sunbirds (Du Puy et al. 2002).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This tropical tree can grow in a wide range of habitats, including disturbed sites (3). It grows in full sun and can tolerate sandy, loamy, clay, acidic and alkaline soils (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Summer months.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Delonix regia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Delonix regia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rivers, M.

Reviewer/s
Hilton-Taylor, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Delonix regia is listed as Least Concern as it has a wide distribution, sometimes being locally common. There have been collections made recently, and it is known from several protected areas. D. regia does not qualify for a threatened category based on geographic range (the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both large), nor is it likely to be declining fast enough to qualify for a threatened rating. There is no precise information to assess the population size and trends of the species. However, its native habitat the dry forest, is fragmented and degraded, and continues to decrease in quality and extent; these trends should be monitored to determine whether the population of this species is declining.

History
  • 1998
    Vulnerable
  • 1997
    Indeterminate
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: One of the most exclusively planted ornamental trees in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world and locally escaping or naturalized. Southern Florida including Florida Keys, southern California, Bermuda, and throughout West Indies. Widely planted along roadsides in both the moist and dry areas almost throughout Puerto Rico. Sometimes escaping cultivation and becoming naturalized.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU B1+2c) on the IUCN Red List 2003 (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
GIS analysis estimates that D. regia has three subpopulations (Rivers et al. 2010). Genetically (only samples from the northern distribution) D. regia contains levels of genetic diversity that are high compared to the average for Delonix s.l. (Rivers et al. 2011). The variation is not evenly distributed geographically. During a collection trip in 2007, D. regia was spotted in several locations that were previously unrecorded for the species. However, little regeneration was seen.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
D. regia is thought to be rare in its native habitat (Du Puy et al. 2002), although this seems to be an exaggeration (M. Rivers pers. obs.). The natural vegetation of Madagascar is under threat from habitat loss and fragmentation, as a result of conversion of land for slash-and-burn agriculture, grazing, charcoal production and collection of firewood (Moat and Smith 2007). The Madagascar dry forests are severely fragmented and often in small blocks. Expanding rural populations and selective logging is also adding to the pressure (WWF 2001). The dry forest is one of the vegetation types that are declining significantly in Madagascar with an estimated rate of loss of 0.4-0.7% per year (Harper et al. 2007, MEFT et al. 2009). Climate change modelling predicted that approximately 10% of the present climatically suitable range will be lost by 2100 (Rivers et al. 2011).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat destruction has been particularly severe in Madagascar. Most of the human population of the island are found in rural communities dependent on the resources of the forest for survival (6). Since humans arrived on the island around 2000 years ago, a staggering 80% of the forest cover has been lost (6). The major native populations of the flame tree which occur around Antsiranana are found in areas greatly threatened by charcoal production (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
D. regia is widely cultivated across Madagascar and in the rest of the tropics as an ornamental tree. It can be found in some protected areas (Analamerana, Ankarana, Lokobe, Montagne des Français, Tsingy de Bemaraha), although the effectiveness of this official protection is not always adequate. Seed collections have been made and are held by the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB, Wakehurst Place, UK) as well as in-country by Silo National des Graines Forestières (SNGF). Botanic garden collections exist according to BGCI (www.bgci.org).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Although widely cultivated around the world and widely loved for its dazzling display of flowers in spring and summer, unfortunately the native populations of the flame tree are classified as globally Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Delonix regia

"Gulmohar" redirects here. For other uses, see Gulmohar (disambiguation).

Delonix regia is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is noted for its fern-like leaves and flamboyant display of flowers. In many tropical parts of the world it is grown as an ornamental tree and in English it is given the name Royal Poinciana or Flamboyant. It is also one of several trees known as Flame tree.

In India it is known as Gulmohar in Hindi. It is also known there as Krishnachura or Krusnachuda (Bengali/Oriya: crown of the Krishna) and Krishnasura (in Assamese and Bengali). In Kerala, it is known as Kaalvaripoo (കാൽവരിപ്പൂവ്). In Vietnam, it is known as Phượng vĩ (means "Phoenix's Tail) (Vietnamese), Malinche, and Tabachine.[1] In Khmer, the tree and the flower is known collectively as "Peacock" or ដើម (tree) or ផ្កា (flower) «ក្ងោក»។ . In Guatemala, Antigua Guatemala, it is known as llama del bosque, in Paraguay as chivato, and in Cuba as flamboyán (taken from the French flamboyant).

This species was previously placed in the genus Poinciana, named for Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy, the 17th century governor of Saint Christophe (Saint Kitts). It is a non nodulating legume.

Description[edit]

The tree's vivid red/vermilion/orange/yellow flowers and bright green foliage make it an exceptionally striking sight.

Flower, leaves & pods in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Delonix regia var. flavida is a rarer, yellow-flowered variety.[2]
Closeup of leaves

The Delonix Regia is found in Madagascar's dry deciduous forests. In the wild it is endangered, but it is widely cultivated elsewhere. In addition to its ornamental value, it is also a useful shade tree in tropical conditions, because it usually grows to a modest height (mostly 5 meters, but it can reach an maximum height of 12 meters) but spreads widely, and its dense foliage provides full shade. In areas with a marked dry season, it sheds its leaves during the drought, but in other areas it is virtually evergreen. Flowers appear in corymbs along and at the ends of branches. Pods are green and flaccid when young and turn dark-brown and woody.[3]

Flower (Kibbutz Ginnosar, Israel)
Flamboyant tree (Ateneo de Manila University).
The Royal Poinciana (Island of Mauritius)

The flowers are large, with four spreading scarlet or orange-red petals up to 8 cm long, and a fifth upright petal called the standard, which is slightly larger and spotted with yellow and white. The naturally occurring variety flavida has yellow flowers.[2] Seed pods are dark brown and can be up to 60 cm long and 5 cm wide; the individual seeds, however, are small, weighing around 0.4 g on average. The compound leaves have a feathery appearance and are a characteristic light, bright green. They are doubly pinnate: Each leaf is 30–50 cm long and has 20 to 40 pairs of primary leaflets or pinnae on it, and each of these is further divided into 10-20 pairs of secondary leaflets or pinnules.

Environmental requirements[edit]

The Royal Poinciana requires a tropical or near-tropical climate, but can tolerate drought and salty conditions. The Poinciana prefers an open, free-draining sandy or loamy soil enriched with organic matter. The tree does not like heavy or clay soils and flowers more profusely when kept slightly dry. The Poinciana is very widely grown in the Caribbean, Africa, Northern Australia (the southern extremes previously limited to South East Queensland, although it now grows and blooms successfully in Sydney with flowering trees identified in the suburbs of Petersham, Parramatta, Guildford, Warwick Farm and Kurmond), Hong Kong, the Canary Islands, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Cyprus, Malta, Thailand, Philippines, Taiwan, southern China. It is the official tree in Vietnam Tainan, Taiwan; Xiamen, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China; and Shantou, Canton Province, People's Republic of China. National Cheng Kung University, a university located in Tainan, put Royal Poinciana on its emblem. It also grows throughout southern Brazil, with ornamental trees in Rio Grande do Sul (Canoas and Porto Alegre).[4] [5]

Geographical growth range[edit]

Close up of bark
Gordonvale, Queensland. Seed pods visible on upper branches.

Delonix regia is endemic to the western forests of Madagascar, but has been introduced into tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. In the continental United States, it grows in South Florida, Central Florida,[6] the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas, ranging from the low deserts of Southern Arizona (to as high as Tucson), and Southern California. It also grows in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Hawaii, Mexico (especially in the Yucatan peninsula), Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is the official tree of the islands, and in Israel. It is much loved in the Caribbean; many Dominican & Puerto Rican paintings feature Flamboyant Trees. It can also be found in The Bahamas. The Poinciana is the national flower of St. Kitts and Nevis. The islands of Mauritius and La Réunion have widespread distribution of the Royal Poinciana where it announces the coming of the new year.

Royal Poinciana seeds after soaking them in water for 6 days

The Royal Poinciana is regarded as naturalised in many of the locations where it is grown. It is a popular street tree in the suburbs of Brisbane, Australia. The tree is also found in India, where it is referred to as the Gulmohar, or Gul Mohr.[7] In West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh it is called Krishnachura.

The town of Peñuelas, Puerto Rico, located about 12 miles west of Ponce, is nicknamed "El Valle de los Flamboyanes" ("The Valley of the Poinciana Trees"), as many Flamboyant trees are found along the surrounding Río Guyanes, Río Macana, and Río Tallaboa Rivers.

In Vietnam, this tree is called "Phượng vỹ", or phoenix's tail, and is a popular urban tree in much of Vietnam. Its flowering season is May - July, which coincides with the end of the school year in Vietnam. Because of this timing, the flower of Poinciana is sometimes called the "flower of pupil". Hai Phong city is nicknamed "Thành phố hoa phượng đỏ" ("City of red Poinciana").

Cultural significance[edit]

In the Indian state of Kerala, Royal Poinciana is called Kaalvarippoo which means the flower of Calvary. There is a popular belief among Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala that when Jesus was crucified, there was a small Royal Poinciana tree nearby his Cross. It is believed that the blood of Jesus Christ was shed over the flowers of the tree and this is how the flowers of Royal Poinciana got a sharp red color.[8]

Propagation[edit]

The Royal Poinciana is most commonly propagated by seeds. Seeds are collected, soaked in warm water for at least 24 hours, and planted in warm, moist soil in a semi-shaded, sheltered position. In lieu of soaking, the seeds can also be 'nicked' or 'pinched' (with a small scissors or nail clipper) and planted immediately. These two methods allow moisture to penetrate the tough outer casing, stimulating germination. The seedlings grow rapidly and can reach 30 cm in a few weeks under ideal conditions.

Less common, but just as effective, is propagation by semi-hardwood cuttings. Branches consisting of the current or last season's growth can be cut into 30 cm sections and planted in a moist potting mixture. This method is slower than seed propagation (cuttings take a few months to root) but is the preferred method for ensuring new trees are true to form. As such, cuttings are a particularly common method of propagation for the rarer yellow-flowering variety of the tree.

Flowering season[edit]

Royal poinciana in Martin County, Florida, May
Gulmohar flowers in New Delhi
  • Bangladesh: April–May
  • South Florida: May–June
  • Egypt: May–June
  • Vietnam: May–July
  • Caribbean: May–September
  • Indian Subcontinent: April–June
  • Australia: November–February
  • Northern Mariana Islands: March–June
  • United Arab Emirates: May–July
  • Brazil: November–February
  • Southern Sudan: March–May
  • Thailand: April–May
  • Philippines: April–May
  • Peru (coast): January-March
  • Zambia and Zimbabwe: October–December
  • Hong Kong: May–June
  • Mauritius: November–December
  • Israel: May–June


References[edit]

  1. ^ Presentación de PowerPoint
  2. ^ a b Don Burke (1 November 2005). The complete Burke's backyard: the ultimate book of fact sheets. Murdoch Books. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-74045-739-2. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  3. ^ http://greencleanguide.com/2012/07/25/delonix-regia/
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ http://gardendrum.com/2013/02/06/is-that-a-poinciana/
  6. ^ http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/st228
  7. ^ Cowen, D. V. (1984). Flowering Trees and Shrubs in India, Sixth Edition. Bombay: THACKER and Co. Ltd. p. 1. 
  8. ^ Annamma Thomas; T. M. Thomas (1984). Kerala Immigrants in America: A Sociological Study of the St. Thomas Christians. Simons Printers. p. 34. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Flamboyant Tree is one of the most beautiful avenue trees.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!