The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Abrams, Marc D. 1985. Age-diameter relationships of Quercus species in relation to edaphic factors in gallery forests of northeast Kansas. Forest Ecology and Management. 13: 181-193. [10377]
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  • 11. Brown, Russell G.; Brown, Melvin L. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Port City Press. 347 p. [21844]
  • 12. Burton, Joseph C. 1972. Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by prairie legumes. In: Zimmerman, James H., ed. Proceedings, 2nd Midwest prairie conference; 1970 September 18-20; Madison, WI. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Arboretum: 116-121. [2909]
  • 13. Burton, Philip J.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1991. Tree seedling emergence on interactive temperature and moisture gradients and in patches of old-field vegetation. American Journal of Botany. 78(1): 131-149. [13443]
  • 14. Collingwood, G. H.; Brush, Warren D.; [revised and edited by Butcher, Devereux]. 1964. Knowing your trees. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: The American Forestry Association. 349 p. [22497]
  • 15. DeMars, Brent G.; Runkle, James R. 1992. Groundlayer vegetation ordination and site-factor analysis of the Wright State University Woods (Greene County, Ohio). Ohio Journal of Science. 92(4): 98-106. [19823]
  • 16. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 17. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
  • 18. Fitch, Henry S.; Kettle, W. Dean. 1983. Ecological succession in vegetation and small mammal populations on a natural area of northeastern Kansas. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 117-121. [3211]
  • 2. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Ecological role of fire in gallery forests in eastern Kansas. In: Koonce, Andrea L., ed. Prescribed burning in the Midwest: state-of-the-art: Proceedings of a symposium; 1986 March 3-6; Stevens Point, WI. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin, College of Natural Resources, Fire Science Center: 73-80. [16271]
  • 20. George, Ronnie R.; Farris, Allen L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; [and others]. 1978. Effects of controlled burning on selected upland habitats in southern Iowa. Iowa Wildlife Research Bulletin No. 25. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Conservation Commission Wildlife Section. 38 p. [4422]
  • 21. Geyer, Wayne A. 1989. Biomass yield potential of short-rotation hardwoods in the Great Plains. Biomass. 20: 167-175. [10135]
  • 22. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 23. Gutknecht, Kurt W. 1989. Xeriscaping: an alternative to thirsty landscapes. Utah Science. 50(4): 142-146. [10166]
  • 24. Hook, D. D. 1984. Waterlogging tolerance of lowland tree species of the South. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 8: 136-149. [19808]
  • 25. Krinard, R. M.; Johnson, R. L. 1981. Description and yields of an 11-year-old hardwood stand on Sharkey clay soil. Res. Note SO-265. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 2 p. [4229]
  • 27. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 28. McGinnes, Burd S.; Ripley, Thomas H. 1962. Evaluation of wildlife response to forest-wildlife management--a preliminary report. In: Southern forestry on the march: Proceedings, Society of American Foresters meeting; [Date of conference unknown]; Atlanta, GA. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher unknown]. 167-171. [16735]
  • 29. Melichar, M. W.; Geyer, W. A.; Ritty, P. M. 1986. Hardwood tree control with herbicide applications. In: Proceedings, 40th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]: Northeastern Weed Science Society: 210-211. [10484]
  • 3. Abrams, Marc D.; Gibson, David J. 1991. Effects of fire exclusion on tallgrass prairie and gallery forest communities in eastern Kansas. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 3-10. [16627]
  • 30. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731]
  • 31. Nixon, Elray S. 1975. Successional stages in a hardwood bottomland forest near Dallas, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 20: 323-335. [12250]
  • 33. Reichman, O. J. 1987. Forests. In: Konza Prairie: A tallgrass natural history. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas: 115-124. [4255]
  • 34. Shankman, David. 1990. Forest regeneration on abandoned agricultural fields in western Tennessee. Southeastern Geographer. 30(1): 36-47. [17640]
  • 36. Stubbendiek, James; Conard, Elverne C. 1989. Common legumes of the Great Plains: an illustrated guide. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 330 p. [11049]
  • 37. Townsend, A. M. 1989. The search for salt tolerant trees. Arboricultural Journal. 13(1): 67-73. [13061]
  • 39. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 4. Avgerinos, George C.; Wang, Daviel I. C. 1980. Utilization of mesquite and honey locust pods as feedstocks for energy production. In: Proceedings, workshop on tree crops for energy co-production on farms; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. Golden, CO: Solar Energy Research Institute: 209-217. [23163]
  • 41. Vankat, John L.; Snyder, Gary W. 1991. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to old field-diciduous forest succession in southwestern Ohio. I. Undisturbed vegetation. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(4): 365-376. [18758]
  • 42. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 43. Wilson, A. A. 1991. Browse agroforestry using honeylocust. Forestry Chronicle. 67(3): 232-235. [23162]
  • 44. McBride, Joe. 1973. Natural replacement of disease-killed elms. The American Midland Naturalist. 90(2): 300-306. [8868]
  • 45. Hupp, Cliff R. 1992. Riparian vegetation recovery patterns following stream channelization: a geomorphic perspective. Ecology. 73(4): 1209-1226. [19499]
  • 5. Batzell, Peter. 1985. Edible pods. Bio-dynamics. 155: 55-58. [23161]
  • 7. Biswell, Harold H. 1935. Effects of environment upon the root habits of certain deciduous forest trees. Botanical Gazette. 96(4): 676-708. [3076]
  • 8. Blair, Robert M. 1990. Gleditsia triacanthos L. honeylocust. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 358-364. [21819]
  • 9. Bratton, Gerald F. 1990. Windbreak renovation studies--update, 1964-1989. In: Great Plains Agricultural Council, compiler. Windbreaks: Living with the wind: Proceedings, windbreak renovation workshop; 1990 October 23-25; Hutchinson, KS. Great Plains Agriculture Council Publ. No. 133. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 17-20. [15253]
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève. External link.
  • Ali,S.I. 1973. Flora of Pakistan, No.54 Caesalpiniaceae. Karachi:Univ Karac
  • Brenan,J.P.M. 1967. Caesalp.In:Flora Trop.East Africa. Milne-Redhead & Polhill
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • Czerepanov,S.K. 1981. Plantae Vasculares, URSS. Leningrad.
  • Grossheim, A.A. 1952. Flora Kavkaza, Vol.5. Moscow,Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Heywood,V.H. & Ball,P.W. 1968. Leguminosae.In:Flora Europaea Vol.2.ed.Tutin, al.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Holotype: Standley, P. C. 1919. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 20: 185.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Li,L.C. 1988. Gleditsia. In: Fl.Reip.Pop.Sinicae, 39 (Leguminosae 1)
  • Linnaeus,C.von. 1753. Sp.Pl.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Palibin, I.V. 1941. In:Flora URSS, Vol.11. Mosqua, Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Polhill,R,M. 1990. Legumineuses.In:Flore des Mascareignes,Vol 80.J. Bosser et a
  • Roskov Y.R., Bisby F.A. (†), Zarucchi J.L. & White R.J. (eds) (2013). ILDIS World Database of Legumes (version 10.04, Sep 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Sanjappa,M. 1992. Legumes of India. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra..
  • Yakovlev, G.P. 1987. In:Flora Partis Europaeae URSS, Vol.6. Leningrad.(Rus)
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    3. Bicknell, Susan H., and William H. Smith. 1975. Influence  of soil salt, at levels characteristic of some roadside  environments, on the germination of certain tree seeds.  Plant and Soils 43:719-722.
    5. Bonner, F. T., J. D. Burton, and H. C. Grigsby. 1974. Gleditsia  L. Honeylocust. In Seeds of woody plants in the  United States. p. 431-433. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coordU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    7. Boyce, John Shaw. 1938. Forest pathology.  McGraw-Hill, New York and London. 600 p.
    9. Carpenter, Stanley B., and James W. Hanover. 1974.  Comparative growth and photosynthesis of black walnut and  honeylocust seedlings. Forest Science 20:317-324.
    11. Chase, Spencer B. 1947. Propagation of thornless  honeylocust. Journal of Forestry 45:715-722.
    13. Funk, David T. 1965. Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos  L.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. p. 198-201. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    15. Graham, Edward H. 1941. Legumes for erosion control and  wildlife. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous  Publication 412. Washington, DC. 153 p.
    17. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    19. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees,  vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1146. Washington, DC.  9 p., 313 maps.
    21. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    23. Mattoon, H. Gleason. 1943. Farm use for tree crops. Forest  Leaves 33(6):5-7,10-11.
    25. Monk, Ralph W., and Herman H. Wiebe. 1961. Salt tolerance  and protoplasmic salt hardiness of various woody and  herbaceous ornamental plants. Plant Physiology  36(4):478-482.
    27. O'Rourke, F. L. 1949. Honeylocust as a shade and lawn tree.  American Nurseryman 90:24-29.
    29. Petheram, H. D., and Hugh G. Porterfield. 1941. Cold storage  of deciduous planting stock. Journal of Forestry 39:336-338. 
    31. Ponder, H. G., and A. L. Kenworthy. 1976. Trickle irrigation  of shade trees growing in the nursery: 1. Influence on  growth. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science  101(2):100-103.
    33. Santamour, Frank S., Jr. 1977. The selection and breeding of  pest-resistant landscape trees. Journal of Arboriculture  3(8):146-152.
    35. Schuder, Donald L. 1958. Insect pests of honeylocust.  American Nurseryman 107(10):13,90-91.
    37. Society of American Foresters. 1980. Forest cover types of  the United States and Canada. F. H. Eyre, ed. Society of  American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    39. Stoutemyer, V. T., F. L. O'Rourke, and Wilmer W. Steiner.  1944. Some observations on the vegetative propagation of  honey locust. Journal of Forestry 42(l):32-36.
    41. Terry, J. R. 1972. The relative feeding preference of the  walkingstick for hardwoods in the mountainous region of west  Arkansas and east Oklahoma. Environmental Entomology  1(4):521- 522.
    43. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1907. Honey locust (Gleditsia  triacanthos). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular  74, Forest Planting Leaflet. Washington, DC. 3 p.
    45. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory.  1974. Wood handbook: Wood as an engineering material. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 72.  Washington, DC. 415 p.
    47. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the  Southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1104 p.
    49. Wheeler, A. G., Jr., and Thomas J. Henry. 1976. Biology of  the honeylocust plant bug, Diaphnocoris chlorionis, and  other Mirids associated with ornamental honeylocust. Annals  of the Entomological Society of America 69(6):1095-1104. 
    51. Whitcomb, Carl E. 1976. Know it and grow it-a guide to the  identification and use of landscape plants in the southern  States. Oil Capital Printing Co., Tulsa, OK. 500 p.
    53. Wright, Ernest, and H. R. Wells. 1948. Tests on the  adaptability of trees and shrubs to shelterbelt planting on  certain Phymatotrichum root rot infested soils of  Oklahoma and Texas. Journal of Forestry 46(4):256-262.


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