Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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In the United States, broadleaf lupine distribution extends from Washington south to California and east to Utah, Nevada, and New Mexico. In Canada, it is only found in British Columbia. Plants Database provides a distributional map of broadleaf lupine.

Varieties: Lupinus latifolius var. latifolius occurs from British Columbia south to California [45,47,60]. Lupinus latifolius var. barbatus, L. l. var. dudleyi, L. l. var. parishii, and L. l. var. viridifolius occur in California [45]. Lupinus latifolius var. columbianus is found throughout the Intermountain West [11,45,80].

  • 11. Barneby, Rupert C. 1989. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 3, Part B: Fabales. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden. 279 p. [18596]
  • 45. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 47. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 60. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AZ CA NV NM OR UT WA

CANADA
BC

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [16]:

1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

3 Southern Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau
  • 16. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: caudex, forb, strigose

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available [11,38,46,47,50,59,60,80].

Broadleaf lupine is a native perennial forb. It has a bushy, densely branched growth habit originating from a woody caudex and an extensive root system [39]. Plant heights range from 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) on erect stems that are subglabrous to minutely strigose [59,60,80]. The leaves are palmately compound with 5 to 10 leaflets. The leaflets are elliptic to lance-shaped, 1 to 3 inches (2.5-7.6 cm) long, glabrous above, and minutely strigose beneath. The inflorescence is a showy raceme from 4 to12 inches (10-30 cm) long with numerous whorled or scattered pea-like flowers. The fruit is a legume that is 0.8 to 1.8 inches (2-4.5 cm) long and densely hairy. The legume pod contains 6 to 10 dark brown seeds [11,38,45,53,59,80].

Physiology: Broadleaf lupine is a nitrogen-fixing legume [17,61]. Seventeen years after thinning on a coast Douglas-fir site, broadleaf lupine was 1 of 2 species that accounted for only 1% of understory biomass, yet contributed 1/3rd of the nitrogen annually cycled [57].

  • 11. Barneby, Rupert C. 1989. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 3, Part B: Fabales. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden. 279 p. [18596]
  • 17. Bormann, Bernard T. 1988. A masterful scheme: Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Arboretum Bulletin. 51(2): 10-14. [6796]
  • 38. Halverson, Nancy M., comp. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on national forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233]
  • 39. Halvorson, J. J.; Black, R. A.; Smith, J. L.; Franz, E. H. 1991. Nitrogenase activity, growth and carbon and nitrogen allocation in wintergreen and deciduous lupine seedlings. Functional Ecology. 5(4): 554-561. [62869]
  • 45. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 46. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167]
  • 47. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 53. Lesher, Robin D.; Henderson, Jan A. 1989. Indicator species of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP003-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 79 p. [15376]
  • 59. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 60. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 61. O'Dell, T. E.; Massicotte, H. B.; Trappe, J. M. 1993. Root colonization of Lupinus latifolius Agardh. and Pinus contorta Dougl. by Phialocephala fortinii Wang & Wilcox. New Phytologist. 124(1): 93-100. [62873]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 50. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 57. Miller, Richard E.; Lavender, Denis P.; Grier, Charles C. 1976. Nutrient cycling in the Douglas-fir type--silvicultural implications. In: America's renewable resource potential--1975: The turning point; 1975 Society of American Foresters national convention; 1975 September 28 - October 2; Washington, DC. [Bethesda, MD]: Society of American Foresters: 359-390. [8514]

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Physical Description

Perennial, Herbs, Taproot present, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems 1-2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems hollow, or spongy, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules setiform, subulate or acicular, Stipules persistent, Stipules adnate to petiole, Leaves compound, Leaves palmately 5-11 foliate, Leaf or leaflet mar gins entire, Leaflets 5-9, Leaves hairy on one or both surfaces, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence terminal, Bracts conspicuously present, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Bracteoles present, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx 2-lipped or 2-lobed, Calyx hairy, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals blue, lavander to purple, or violet, Banner petal ovoid or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing tips obtuse or rounded, Keel petals auriculate, spurred, or gibbous, Stamens 9-10, Stamens or anthers dimorphic, alternating large and small, Stamens monadelphous, united below, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit internally septate between the seeds, Fruit hairy, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black, Seed surface mot tled or patchy.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: eruption, mesic, natural, xeric

The following table describes site characteristics for broadleaf lupine throughout its distribution.

State/Region Site Characteristics
California Moist areas in shady to open woods below 11,000 feet (3,500 m) [45,59,60]
Nevada Moist soils on streambanks, mountain ridges, and meadows, 5,000 to 9,000 feet (1,500-2,700 m) [50]
Utah, Zion National Park Oakbrush (Quercus spp.) and streamside communities at 4,000 feet (1,200 m) [80]
Washington (eastern) Lowland prairies to alpine ridges, also found in moist, well-drained riparian and wetland zones [51]
Washington (northwest) Open, subalpine ridges to wooded slopes and natural openings [36]
Olympic National Forest, Washington High elevation, drier environmental zones and moist subalpine meadows [53]
Olympic National Park, Washington Subalpine meadow and mesic grass communities with late snowmelt [20,64]
Oregon (western) and southwestern Washington Open sites, dry to moist, lowlands to upper elevations [38]
Pacific Northwest Open, subalpine ridges to wooded slopes, occasionally on low-elevation grasslands [46]

Soils: Broadleaf lupine can persist in low-fertility soils because of its ability to fix nitrogen [40]. It may increase soil fertility. On sites in the Olympic Mountains, the soils directly surrounding the nitrogen-fixing broadleaf lupine plants had twice the nitrogen, more organic matter, and more phosphorus than adjacent soils [15].

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens provided a unique opportunity to study the growth response of broadleaf lupine on the newly deposited volcanic substrates. A greenhouse study on 4 soil samples taken from the site during the summers of 1980 and 1981 revealed that broadleaf lupine exhibited the greatest growth response on tephra and the least growth on the pyroclastics (volcanic rock fragments). Subsequent soil samples collected from 1982 and 1983 revealed a large growth response on 3 substrates (pyroclastics, mud, and tephra) [27].

The soil descriptions for 2 plant communities where broadleaf lupine is dominant follow.

Olympic National Forest, subalpine fir/broadleaf lupine association: Soils are shallow, coarse-textured, and very rocky. They have high permeability and low water holding capacity. Soils are cold in winter and warm in summer; the mean soil temperature for August is 54 °F (12 °C). The soil temperature regime is frigid, and the soil moisture regime is xeric. Stands in this type have burned frequently in the past, which may have contributed to the apparently low fertility of these sites. Other associations in which broadleaf lupine was a minor component have shallow, rocky soils [43].

Mount Rainier National Park, green fescue meadows: Soils are relatively dry, well-drained loams that are primarily derived from geologically young deposits of glacial till and volcanic ash [73].

  • 15. Belsky, J.; Del Moral, R. 1982. Ecology of an alpine-subalpine meadow complex in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 779-788. [6740]
  • 20. Canaday, B. B.; Fonda, R. W. 1974. The Influence of subalpine snowbanks on vegetation pattern, production, and phenology. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 101(6): 340-350. [62879]
  • 27. del Moral, Roger; Clampitt, Christopher A. 1985. Growth of native plant species on recent volcanic substrates from Mount St. Helens. The American Midland Naturalist. 114(2): 374-383. [62875]
  • 36. Hall, Frederick C. 1974. Key to some common forest-zone plants of northwestern Washington. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 34 p. [3235]
  • 38. Halverson, Nancy M., comp. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on national forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233]
  • 40. Halvorson, Jonathan J.; Franz, Eldon H.; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Black, R. Alan. 1992. Nitrogenase activity, nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen inputs by lupines at Mount St. Helens. Ecology. 73(1): 87-98. [62868]
  • 43. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. [23405]
  • 45. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 46. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167]
  • 51. Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Clausnitzer, Rodrick R. 2004. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian, and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington: series description. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-593. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 354 p. [53329]
  • 53. Lesher, Robin D.; Henderson, Jan A. 1989. Indicator species of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP003-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 79 p. [15376]
  • 59. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 60. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 64. Pfitsch, W. A.; Bliss, L. C. 1985. Seasonal forage availability and potential vegetation limitations to a mountain goat population, Olympic National Park. The American Midland Naturalist. 113(1): 109-121. [62887]
  • 73. Sharrow, Steven H.; Kuntz, David E. 1999. Plant response to defoliation in a subalpine green fescue community. Journal of Range Management. 52(2): 174-180. [62874]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 50. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Key Plant Community Associations

In addition to the plant communities listed above, broadleaf lupine is known to
occur in a variety of other communities. Communities where broadleaf lupine is
dominant include:

Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

broadleaf lupine/American bistort (Polygonum bistortoides)

Sitka valerian (Valeriana sitchensis)/broadleaf lupine

greenleaf fescue (Festuca viridula)/broadleaf lupine

pink mountainheath (Phyllodoce empetriformis)/broadleaf lupine [32,44]
Eastern Washington national forests

broadleaf lupine [51]
Olympic National Forest, Washington

subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)/broadleaf lupine [43].



Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Washington

coast Douglas-fir/vine maple/western fescue
(Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii/Acer circinatum/Festuca occidentalis) [78].
Blue Mountains, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

poke knotweed (Polygonum phytolaccifolium) [35]
Broadleaf lupine is a component of the vegetation in the following communities:

California

quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) riparian forest [48]

giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) [42,71]



Eastern Washington national forests

timber oatgrass (Danthonia intermedia)

black alpine sedge (Carex nigrans)

saw-leaved sedge (Carex scopulorum var. prionophylla)

subalpine fir/cascade azalea (Rhododendron albiflorum)/arrowleaf ragwort (Senecio triangularis)

subalpine fir/false bugbane (Trautvettaria caroliniensis)

subalpine fir/globeflower (Trollius laxus)

subalpine fir/mountain arnica (Arnica latifolia)-skunkleaf
polemonium (Polemonium pulcherrimum)

subalpine fir/Labrador tea (Ledum glandulosum)-grouse
huckleberry (Vaccinium scoparium)

subalpine fir/twinflower (Linnaea borealis var. longiflora) [51]
Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

gray alder/blue wildrye (Alnus incana/Elymus glaucus) [54]
Pacific Northwest

western moss heather (Cassiope mertensiana)-pink mountainheath

Sitka valerian-green false hellebore (Veratrum viride)

showy sedge (Carex spectabilis)

American saw-wort (Saussurea americana)

purple monkeyflower (Mimulus lewisii) [31,32]
Broadleaf lupine is rare along riparian areas of Zion National Park, Utah [41].

  • 31. Franklin, Jerry F. 1988. Pacific Northwest forests. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 103-130. [13879]
  • 32. Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-8. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 p. [961]
  • 35. Hall, Frederick C. 1973. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. R6-Area Guide 3-1. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 82 p. [1059]
  • 41. Harper, K. T.; Sanderson, S. C.; McArthur, E. D. 1992. Riparian ecology in Zion National Park, Utah. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 32-42. [19092]
  • 42. Hartesveldt, Richard J.; Harvey, H. Thomas; Shellhammer, Howard S.; Stecker, Ronald E. 1975. The giant sequoia of the Sierra Nevada. NPS 120. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 180 p. [4233]
  • 43. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. [23405]
  • 44. Henderson, Jan Alan. 1974. Composition, distribution, and succession of subalpine meadows in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 150 p. Dissertation. [63713]
  • 48. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
  • 51. Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Clausnitzer, Rodrick R. 2004. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian, and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington: series description. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-593. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 354 p. [53329]
  • 54. McNeil, Robert Curlan. 1975. Vegetation and fire history of a ponderosa pine - white fir forest in Crater Lake National Park. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 171 p. Thesis. [5737]
  • 71. Rundel, Philip Wilson. 1969. The distribution and ecology of the giant sequoia ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada, California. Durham, NC: Duke University. 205 p. Dissertation. [37436]
  • 78. Topik, Christopher. 1989. Plant association and management guide for the grand fir zone, Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-TP-006-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 110 p. [11361]

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Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: cover

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [74]:

103 Green fescue

108 Alpine Idaho fescue

203 Riparian woodland

216 Montane meadows

410 Alpine rangeland

411 Aspen woodland

413 Gambel oak

418 Bigtooth maple

422 Riparian
  • 74. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [30]:

205 Mountain hemlock

206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir

207 Red fir

208 Whitebark pine

210 Interior Douglas-fir

211 White fir

212 Western larch

213 Grand fir

215 Western white pine

217 Aspen

218 Lodgepole pine

224 Western hemlock

226 Coastal true fir-hemlock

229 Pacific Douglas-fir

230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock

233 Oregon white oak

243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer

246 California black oak

256 California mixed subalpine
  • 30. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

KUCHLER [52] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:

K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest

K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest

K003 Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest

K004 Fir-hemlock forest

K005 Mixed conifer forest

K007 Red fir forest

K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest

K012 Douglas-fir forest

K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest

K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest

K015 Western spruce-fir forest

K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest

K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest

K025 Alder-ash forest

K026 Oregon oakwoods

K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026

K029 California mixed evergreen forest

K047 Fescue-oatgrass

K052 Alpine meadows and barren
  • 52. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [33]:

FRES20 Douglas-fir

FRES22 Western white pine

FRES23 Fir-spruce

FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce

FRES25 Larch

FRES26 Lodgepole pine

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES37 Mountain meadows

FRES44 Alpine
  • 33. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

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General Ecology

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: controlled burn, cover, frequency, mesic, presence

The presence of broadleaf lupine was recorded on 3-, 55-, and 81-year old burns on
a mountain hemlock-subalpine fir forest of the Olympic Mountains in
Washington [2]. The percent cover of broadleaf lupine in
mature coast Douglas-fir/Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum)
stands (230 to 320 years old) of the eastern Cascade Range in Washington was <1%,
while the percent cover increased to 10% with a 60% frequency in the same plant
community type 4 years following a slash burn that escaped into the adjacent
mature forest [62]. In the Sierra Nevada, Lupinus latifolius spp. latifolius commonly
appears in great numbers following fires, particularly on mesic sites including
giant sequoia groves and mixed-conifer stands dominated by white fir [69,70].
Broadleaf lupine was dominant after a controlled burn on a
dwarf fireweed-woodland ragwort (Epilobium minutum-Senecio sylvaticus) community
on Goldstream Summit, Vancouver Island, British Columbia [23]. For further information on that study,
see Other Management Considerations.
  • 2. Agee, James K.; Smith, Larry. 1984. Subalpine tree reestablishment after fire in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Ecology. 65(3): 810-819. [6102]
  • 23. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1945. The ecological relationships of the food of the Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in the coast forest region of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 15(2): 110-139. [16006]
  • 62. Ossinger, Mary C. 1983. The Pseudotsuga-Tsuga/Rhododendron community in the northeast Olympic Mountains. Bellingham, WA: Western Washington University. 50 p. Thesis. [11435]
  • 69. Rundel, Philip W. 1971. Community structure and stability in the giant sequoia groves of the Sierra Nevada, California. The American Midland Naturalist. 85(2): 478-492. [10504]
  • 70. Rundel, Philip W.; Parsons, David J.; Gordon, Donald T. 1977. Montane and subalpine vegetation of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 559-599. [4235]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Broadleaf lupine is likely top-killed by fire. Established plants are probably resistant to fire-induced mortality because of perennating buds on the deep, lateral root system.

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: geophyte, root crown

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [75]:
Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
  • 75. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: caudex, mesic, severity, top-kill

Fire adaptations: Broadleaf lupine has a deep, lateral root system and is capable of spreading vegetatively from root sprouts [3]. It is likely that these characteristics provide for regeneration following fire. Depending on the severity of top-kill by fire, sprouting from the caudex would also be a possibility. Information is lacking on the regeneration of broadleaf lupine seed after fire. Further research is needed in this area.

FIRE REGIMES for the mesic communities where broadleaf lupine occurs most often are mostly mixed- to high-severity with fire return intervals ranging from 35 to 200 years. In some cases, fire return intervals may be >200 years [19].

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where broadleaf lupine is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
silver fir-Douglas-fir Abies amabilis-Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii >200
grand fir Abies grandis 35-200 [7]
tamarack Larix laricina 35-200 [63]
western larch Larix occidentalis 25-350 [8,13,26]
Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa 35 to >200 [7]
whitebark pine* Pinus albicaulis 50-200 [1,5]
Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine* Pinus contorta var. latifolia 25-340 [12,13,76]
Sierra lodgepole pine* Pinus contorta var. murrayana 35-200
western white pine* Pinus monticola 50-200 [7]
quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [7,34,56]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (x=10) [6,7]
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [7,9,10]
coastal Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii 40-240 [7,58,67]
California mixed evergreen Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii-Lithocarpus densiflorus-Arbutus menziesii <35 [7]
California oakwoods Quercus spp. <35
Oregon white oak Quercus garryana <35
western redcedar-western hemlock Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla >200
western hemlock-Sitka spruce Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis >200
mountain hemlock* Tsuga mertensiana 35 to >200 [7]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review
  • 6. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
  • 7. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
  • 26. Davis, Kathleen M. 1980. Fire history of a western larch/Douglas-fir forest type in northwestern Montana. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 69-74. [12813]
  • 56. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [26669]
  • 58. Morrison, Peter H.; Swanson, Frederick J. 1990. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-254. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 77 p. [13074]
  • 1. Agee, James K. 1994. Fire and weather disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Cascades. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-320. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p. (Everett, Richard L., assessment team leader; Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment; Hessburg, Paul F., science team leader and tech. ed., Volume III: assessment). [23656]
  • 3. Antos, Joseph A.; Halpern, Charles B. 1997. Root system differences among species: implications for early successional changes in forests of western Oregon. The American Midland Naturalist. 138(1): 97-108. [27600]
  • 5. Arno, Stephen F. 1976. The historical role of fire on the Bitterroot National Forest. Res. Pap. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 29 p. [15225]
  • 8. Arno, Stephen F.; Fischer, William C. 1995. Larix occidentalis--fire ecology and fire management. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. Ecology and management of Larix forests: a look ahead: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1992 October 5-9; Whitefish, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. GTR-INT-319. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 130-135. [25293]
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
  • 10. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. [25928]
  • 19. Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech Rep. RMRS-GRT-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 257 p. [36581]
  • 34. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. [3862]
  • 63. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 67. Ripple, William J. 1994. Historic spatial patterns of old forests in western Oregon. Journal of Forestry. 92(11): 45-49. [33881]
  • 76. Tande, Gerald F. 1979. Fire history and vegetation pattern of coniferous forests in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 1912-1931. [18676]
  • 13. Barrett, Stephen W.; Arno, Stephen F.; Key, Carl H. 1991. FIRE REGIMES of western larch - lodgepole pine forests in Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1711-1720. [17290]
  • 12. Barrett, Stephen W. 1993. FIRE REGIMES on the Clearwater and Nez Perce National Forests north-central Idaho. Final Report: Order No. 43-0276-3-0112. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. 21 p. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [41883]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: eruption, presence, succession

Broadleaf lupine was a common colonizing species on many of the primary successional habitats after the eruption of Mount St. Helens [18,21,28,40,77]. On debris avalanche sites at Mount St. Helens, broadleaf lupine altered local soil moisture conditions by shading, and altered soil nutrient status by nitrogen fixation [24].

There was an abundance of broadleaf lupine on a pioneer community dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra) and Sitka willow (Salix sitchensis) on Bald Mountain, Vancouver Island, British Columbia [23]. In Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, broadleaf lupine is associated with young and developing communities but is most characteristic of the "best developed" and "most mature" meadow communities [44]. Broadleaf lupine is a dominant species in both early seral and old-growth stands of Olympic National Forest [43].

The rapid development of an extensive lateral root system should allow broadleaf lupine to exploit resources effectively and thus succeed in competing for water, light, and space later in succession. The presence of broadleaf lupine plants in canopy gaps of old-growth forests of coast Douglas-fir, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) confirms its ability to succeed in a strongly competitive environment [3].

  • 3. Antos, Joseph A.; Halpern, Charles B. 1997. Root system differences among species: implications for early successional changes in forests of western Oregon. The American Midland Naturalist. 138(1): 97-108. [27600]
  • 18. Braatne, J. H.; Bliss, L. C. 1999. Comparative physiological ecology of lupines colonizing early successional habitats on Mount St. Helens. Ecology. 80(3): 891-907. [62865]
  • 21. Chapin, David M. 1995. Physiological and morphological attributes of two colonizing plant species on Mount St. Helens. The American Midland Naturalist. 133(1): 76-87. [62903]
  • 23. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1945. The ecological relationships of the food of the Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in the coast forest region of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 15(2): 110-139. [16006]
  • 24. Dale, Virginia H. 1989. Wind dispersed seeds and plant recovery on the Mount St. Helens debris avalanche. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67: 1434-1441. [12670]
  • 28. del Moral, Roger; Wood, David M. 1993. Early primary succession on the volcano Mount St. Helens. Journal of Vegetation Science. 4(2): 223-234. [62895]
  • 40. Halvorson, Jonathan J.; Franz, Eldon H.; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Black, R. Alan. 1992. Nitrogenase activity, nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen inputs by lupines at Mount St. Helens. Ecology. 73(1): 87-98. [62868]
  • 43. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. [23405]
  • 44. Henderson, Jan Alan. 1974. Composition, distribution, and succession of subalpine meadows in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 150 p. Dissertation. [63713]
  • 77. Titus, Jonathan H.; Moore, Scott; Arnot, Mildred; Titus, Priscilla J. 1998. Inventory of the vascular flora of the blast zone, Mount St. Helens, Washington. Madrono. 45(2): 146-161. [30322]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: caudex, diploid, eruption, tundra

Broadleaf lupine regenerates by seed and vegetative means. The deep, lateral root system can spread vegetatively from root sprouts [3]. Broadleaf lupine regenerated from root fragments that had been transported by the debris avalanche during the eruption of Mount St. Helens [24,25,77]. Vegetative growth also emanates from the perennating buds on the woody caudex [4].

Pollination: Broadleaf lupine is insect pollinated [29]. Bees pollinate broadleaf lupine on the Olympic National Forest, Washington [53].

Breeding system: There is considerable genetic variation within local populations of broadleaf lupine. Both diploid and tetraploid forms occur in some populations [29].

Seed production: Six to ten large seeds are produced per seed pod [39,45]. One terminal cluster can produce as many as 35 pods [80].

Seed dispersal: The pod splits at maturity, releasing several seeds [53]. The seeds are large and are not dispersed widely [81]. Dispersal is mainly by gravity and water. Seedlings generally establish within a few meters of the parent plant [24].

Seed banking: Some Lupinus species form a seed bank [37], but information is lacking for broadleaf lupine. Further research is needed in this area.

Germination: The optimal temperature for the germination of broadleaf lupine seeds in alpine tundra is 68 °F (20 °C) [14]. The greatest percentage (~40%) of germination of broadleaf lupine seeds in a greenhouse environment occurred about 168 hours after imbibition [39].

Seedling establishment/growth: Seedlings have pronounced taproots, but lateral root development is limited, and only small rosettes of leaves are initially formed [3].

Asexual regeneration: Broadleaf lupine reproduces from root sprouts, root fragments, and from the caudex [3,4,24,25,77].

After the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, studies were done on the plants that had tephra (coarse, airborne material) deposited on top of them. Broadleaf lupine's perennating buds remained on the woody caudex at the soil surface, but the stems easily penetrated up through the deposit. Subsequent seed production was substantial, and broadleaf lupine seedlings established in the tephra [4].

  • 3. Antos, Joseph A.; Halpern, Charles B. 1997. Root system differences among species: implications for early successional changes in forests of western Oregon. The American Midland Naturalist. 138(1): 97-108. [27600]
  • 4. Antos, Joseph A.; Zobel, Donald B. 1985. Plant form, developmental plasticity and survival following burial by volcanic tephra. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 2083-2090. [12553]
  • 14. Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2001. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 666 p. [60775]
  • 24. Dale, Virginia H. 1989. Wind dispersed seeds and plant recovery on the Mount St. Helens debris avalanche. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67: 1434-1441. [12670]
  • 25. Dale, Virginia H.; Campbell, Daniel R.; Adams, Wendy M.; Crisafulli, Charles M.; Dains, Virginia I.; Frenzen, Peter M.; Holland, Robert F. 2005. Plant succession on the Mount St. Helens debris-avalanche deposit. In: Dale, V. H.; Swanson, F. J.; Crisafulli, C. M., eds. Ecological responses to the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens. Springer: New York: 59-74. [61208]
  • 29. Doede, David L. 2005. Genetic variation in broadleaf lupine Lupinus latifolius on the Mt Hood National Forest and implications for seed collection and deployment. Native Plants. 6(1): 36-48. [62866]
  • 37. Halpern, Stacey L. 2005. Sources and consequences of seed size variation in Lupinus perennis (Fabaceae): adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses. American Journal of Botany. 92(2): 205-213. [52937]
  • 39. Halvorson, J. J.; Black, R. A.; Smith, J. L.; Franz, E. H. 1991. Nitrogenase activity, growth and carbon and nitrogen allocation in wintergreen and deciduous lupine seedlings. Functional Ecology. 5(4): 554-561. [62869]
  • 45. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 53. Lesher, Robin D.; Henderson, Jan A. 1989. Indicator species of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP003-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 79 p. [15376]
  • 77. Titus, Jonathan H.; Moore, Scott; Arnot, Mildred; Titus, Priscilla J. 1998. Inventory of the vascular flora of the blast zone, Mount St. Helens, Washington. Madrono. 45(2): 146-161. [30322]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 81. Wood, David M.; del Moral, Roger. 1987. Mechanisms of early primary succession in subalpine habitats on Mount St. Helens. Ecology. 68(4): 780-790. [62886]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: geophyte

RAUNKIAER [66] LIFE FORM:
Geophyte
  • 66. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

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Fire Management Considerations

The current body of research provides no clear direction for using fire as a management tool for broadleaf lupine populations. The research discussed above does, however, indicate that fire has a positive influence on broadleaf lupine. Further research is need on the fire ecology of broadleaf lupine.

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Plant Response to Fire

Research to date (2006) suggests that broadleaf lupine responds favorably to fire. It was reportedly common or abundant after fire in many locations.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phenology

The following table provides flowering dates for broadleaf lupine throughout its distribution.

State/Region Anthesis Period
California April to July [59,60]
Nevada June to August [50]
Olympic National Forest June to August [53]
Pacific Northwest June to August [46]

In some years, broadleaf lupine on high-elevation sites may not set seed. In subalpine meadows of Olympic National Park broadleaf lupine requires 27 to 33 days to reach full bloom, which it cannot always do. The onset of broadleaf lupine seed dispersal in subalpine meadows is influenced by the date of snow release. Plants that are not released until mid-summer often do not reach the stage of seed dispersal. Completion of phenology depends on the onset of the following winter [20].
  • 20. Canaday, B. B.; Fonda, R. W. 1974. The Influence of subalpine snowbanks on vegetation pattern, production, and phenology. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 101(6): 340-350. [62879]
  • 46. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167]
  • 53. Lesher, Robin D.; Henderson, Jan A. 1989. Indicator species of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP003-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 79 p. [15376]
  • 59. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 60. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 50. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lupinus latifolius

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lupinus latifolius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the terms: forb, forbs

Broadleaf lupine is a valuable tool for rehabilitation of disturbed sites because it grows well on droughty and low-fertility sites, colonizes disturbed areas, has a deep root system for stabilizing soil, and forms associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria [29]. It is commonly used for erosion control [29,38].

Broadleaf lupine seedlings grown in a greenhouse were used for rehabilitation of Paradise Meadow in Mount Rainier National Park. The survival rate for all forbs planted in the revegetation plots averaged 94%. Broadleaf lupine and other forb species spread faster than sedges (Carex spp.). Seeding with broadleaf lupine seeds was successful on these plots [68]. Survival of outplanted broadleaf lupine seedlings, also grown in the greenhouse, was successful after 2 years on a native plant garden (Biscuit scabland restoration) in the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon [82,83].

  • 29. Doede, David L. 2005. Genetic variation in broadleaf lupine Lupinus latifolius on the Mt Hood National Forest and implications for seed collection and deployment. Native Plants. 6(1): 36-48. [62866]
  • 38. Halverson, Nancy M., comp. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on national forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233]
  • 68. Rochefort, Regina M.; Gibbons, Stephen T. 1992. Mending the meadow. Restoration & Management Notes. 10(2): 120-126. [20158]
  • 82. Youtie, Berta A. 1992. Biscuit scabland restoration includes propagation studies. Restoration & Management Notes. 10(1): 79-80. [19425]
  • 83. Youtie, Berta. 1991. Native plants delight visitors at Columbia Gorge plot. Park Science. 11(4): 4-5. [18183]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Hall [36] states that broadleaf lupine seeds are poisonous to animals because of the alkaloids they contain. Further research is needed on this topic [55]. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine has been found in broadleaf lupine and can cause "crooked calf disease" if a pregnant cow consumes the flowers or seed pods between the 40th and 70th days of gestation [65].

The importance of broadleaf lupine to Columbian black-tailed deer is relatively low [23].

Palatability/nutritional value: Columbian black-tailed deer on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, eat broadleaf lupine leaves casually or when under stress [23]. Birds eat the seeds [51].

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

  • 23. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1945. The ecological relationships of the food of the Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in the coast forest region of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 15(2): 110-139. [16006]
  • 36. Hall, Frederick C. 1974. Key to some common forest-zone plants of northwestern Washington. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 34 p. [3235]
  • 51. Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Clausnitzer, Rodrick R. 2004. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian, and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington: series description. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-593. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 354 p. [53329]
  • 55. Meeker, James E.; Kilgore, Wendel W. 1987. Identification and quantification of the alkaloids of Lupinus latifolius. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 35(3): 431-433. [62872]
  • 65. Ralphs, Michael H. 2002. Ecological relationships between poisonous plants and rangeland condition: a review. Journal of Range Management. 55(3): 285-290. [49787]

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Wikipedia

Lupinus latifolius

Lupinus latifolius is a species of lupine known by the common name broadleaf lupine. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Baja California to New Mexico, where it is common and can be found in several types of habitat. There are several subtaxa, described as subspecies or varieties, some common and some rare. They vary in morphology. In general this plant is an erect perennial herb. It grows 30 centimeters to over two meters in height, in texture hairy to nearly hairless. Each palmate leaf is made up of several leaflets, those on larger plants up to 10 centimeters long. The inflorescence bears many flowers, sometimes in whorls. Each flower is one to two centimeters in length, purple to blue to white in color, the spot on its banner yellowish, pinkish, or white.

One rare subtaxon, Lupinus latifolius var. barbatus, is endemic to the Modoc Plateau of northeastern California and adjacent territory in Oregon and Nevada. The subtaxon dudleyi is known only from the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Considered to be comprised of six subspecies, one of which has two varieties (Kartesz 1999; cf. T. Sholars in Hickman 1993; also note Isely 1998).

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The scientific name of broadleaf lupine is Lupinus latifolius Agardh (Fabaceae) [11,45,46,47,50,80]. Accepted
varieties are:

Lupinus latifolius var. latifolius Agardh [45,47,60]

Lupinus latifolius var. barbatus (L. Henderson) Munz [45]

Lupinus latifolius var. columbianus (Heller) C.P. Smith [11,45,80]

Lupinus latifolius var. dudleyi C.P. Smith

Lupinus latifolius var. parishii C.P. Smith

Lupinus latifolius var. viridifolius (Heller) C.P. Smith [45]
  • 11. Barneby, Rupert C. 1989. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 3, Part B: Fabales. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden. 279 p. [18596]
  • 45. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 46. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167]
  • 47. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 60. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 50. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Common Names

broadleaf lupine

broad-leaved lupine

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Synonyms

Lupinus latifolius spp. dudleyi (Rydb.) Kenney & D. Dunn

Lupinus latifolius spp. latifolius

Lupinus latifolius spp. leucanthus (Rydb.) Kenney & D. Dunn [49]

Lupinus latifolius spp. longipes (Greene) Kenney & D. Dunn [49,50]

Lupinus latifolius spp. parishii (C.P. Sm.) Kenney & D. Dunn

Lupinus latifolius spp. viridifolius (Heller) Kenney & D. Dunn [49]
  • 49. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
  • 50. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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