Overview

Distribution

Occurrence in North America

     AZ  CA  MEXICO

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Yellow paloverde is distributed through central and southwestern Arizona
[16,31,43,88].  A few populations occur in southeastern California near
the Colorado River in the Whipple Mountains [3,10,26].  The range of
yellow paloverde extends southward through Sonora and Baja California,
Mexico [37,38,65,78,80,100].
  • 10.  Burk, Jack H. 1977. Sonoran Desert. In: Barbour, M. G.; Major, J., eds.        Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons:        869-899.  [3731]
  • 3.  Benson, Lyman; Darrow, Robert A. 1981. The trees and shrubs of the        Southwestern deserts. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.        [18066]
  • 16.  Elias, Thomas S. 1980. The complete trees of North America: field guide        and natural history. New York: Times Mirror Magazines, Inc. 948 p.        [21987]
  • 26.  Hastings, James R.; Turner, Raymond M.; Warren, Douglas K. 1972. An        atlas of some plant distributions in the Sonoran Desert. Technical        Reports on the Meteorology and Climatology of Arid Regions No. 21.        Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona, Institute of Atmospheric Physics. 255        p.  [10534]
  • 31.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 37.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native        species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p.        [20330]
  • 38.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1976. Atlas of United States trees. Volume 3.        Minor western hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1314. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 13 p. 290 maps.  [10430]
  • 43.  MacMahon, James A. 1988. Warm deserts. In: Barbour, Michael G.;        Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation.        Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 231-264.  [19547]
  • 65.  Rea, Amadeo M. 1983. Sonoran desert oases: plants, birds and native        people. Environment Southwest. 503: 5-9.  [2967]
  • 78.  Shreve, Forrest. 1942. The desert vegetation of North America. Botanical        Review. 8(4): 195-246.  [5051]
  • 80.  Shreve, F.; Wiggins, I. L. 1964. Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran        Desert. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2 vols.  [21016]
  • 88.  Tidestrom, I.; Kittell, T. 1941. A flora of Arizona and New Mexico.        Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press. 897 p.        [18145]
  • 100.  Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford        University Press. 1025 p.  [21993]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    7  Lower Basin and Range

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parkinsonia microphylla Torr.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & I.M. Johnst.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: monoecious, shrub, tree

Yellow paloverde is a native, monoecious, spiny shrub or small tree that
may grow to 26 feet (8 m) tall [3,37,52,88].  The trunk may be 1 foot
(0.3 m) in diameter; it branches about 8 inches (20 cm) from the ground
into four to six major stems [57].  The crown spreads 12 to 18 feet
(3.7-5.5 m) [32].  The bark is thin and photosynthetic [91].  Yellow
paloverde has numerous flowers in 1 inch (2.5 cm) long clusters [16,37].
It has pinnately compound leaves about 1 inch (2.5 cm) long with minute
leaflets and is drought-deciduous [37,100].  Fruits are 2 to 3 inches
(4-8 cm) long and have one to five seeds with constrictions between the
seeds [16,37,80].

Yellow paloverde lives longer than 72 years [22].

Yellow paloverde is susceptible to freezing [90].
  • 52.  Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1086 p.  [4924]
  • 3.  Benson, Lyman; Darrow, Robert A. 1981. The trees and shrubs of the        Southwestern deserts. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.        [18066]
  • 16.  Elias, Thomas S. 1980. The complete trees of North America: field guide        and natural history. New York: Times Mirror Magazines, Inc. 948 p.        [21987]
  • 22.  Goldberg, Deborah E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1986. Vegetation change and        plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology.        67(3): 695-712.  [4410]
  • 37.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native        species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p.        [20330]
  • 57.  Olsen, Ronald W. 1973. Shelter-site selection in the white-throated        woodrat, Neotoma albigula. Journal of Mammalogy. 54: 594-610.  [9886]
  • 80.  Shreve, F.; Wiggins, I. L. 1964. Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran        Desert. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2 vols.  [21016]
  • 88.  Tidestrom, I.; Kittell, T. 1941. A flora of Arizona and New Mexico.        Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press. 897 p.        [18145]
  • 90.  Turnage, William V.; Hinckley, Arthur L. 1938. Freezing weather in        relation to plant distribution in the Sonoran Desert. Ecological        Monographs. 8(2): 530-550.  [3789]
  • 91.  Turner, Raymond M. 1963. Growth in four species of Sonoran Desert trees.        Ecology. 44: 760-765.  [9883]
  • 100.  Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford        University Press. 1025 p.  [21993]
  • 32.  Kennedy, Charles E. 1983. A palo verde snag in the Sonora Desert. In:        Davis, Jerry W.; Goodwin, Gregory A.; Ockenfeis, Richard A., technical        coordinators. Snag Habitat management: proceedings of the symposium;        1983 June 7-9; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-99. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station: 165-166.  [17832]

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Physical Description

Perennial, Trees, Shrubs, Woody throughout, Taproot present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Trunk or stems armed with thorns, spines or prickles, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves clustered on spurs or fasicles, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves bipinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Flowers solitary in axils, or appearing solitary, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence or flowers lax, declined or pendulous, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Petals clawed, Petals white, Petals ochroleucous, cream colored, Petals orange or yellow, Banner petal suborbicular , broadly rounded, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Stamens completely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Filaments hairy, villous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit tardily or weakly dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruits winged, carinate, or samaroid, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 2-seeded, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Sonoran Desert Habitat

This taxon is found in the Sonoran Desert, which comprises much of the state of Sonora, Mexico, most of the southern half of the USA states of Arizona, southeastern California, most of the Baja California peninsula, and the numerous islands of the Gulf of California. Its southern third straddles 30° north latitude and is a horse latitude desert; the rest is rainshadow desert. It is lush in comparison to most other deserts. There is a moderate diversity of faunal organisms present, with 550 distinct vertebrate species having been recorded here.

The visually dominant elements of the landscape are two lifeforms that distinguish the Sonoran Desert from the other North American deserts: legume trees and large columnar cacti. This desert also supports many other organisms, encompassing a rich spectrum of some 2000 species of plants, 550 species of vertebrates, and untolled thousands of invertebrate species.

The Sonoran Desert prominently differs from the other three deserts of North America in having mild winters. Most of the area rarely experiences frost, and the biota are partly tropical in origin. Many of the perennial plants and animals are derived from ancestors in the tropical thorn-scrub to the south, their life cycles attuned to the brief summer rainy season. The winter rains, when ample, support great populations of annuals (which make up nearly half of the plant species). Some of the plants and animals are opportunistic, growing or reproducing after significant rainfall in any season.

Creosote Bush (Larrea divaricata) and White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) vegetation characterize the lower Colorado River Valley section of the Sonoran. The Arizona upland section to the north and east is more mesic, resulting in greater species diversity and richness. Lower elevation areas are dominated by dense communities of Creosote Bush and White Bursage, but on slopes and higher portions of bajadas, subtrees such as palo verde (Cercidium floridum, C. microphyllum) and Ironwood (Olneya tesota), saguaros (Carnegiea gigantia), and other tall cacti are abundant. Cresosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) and White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) form the scrub that dominates the northwest part of the Sonoran Desert. This association thrives on deep, sandy soils in the flatlands. Where the dunes allow for slight inclination of the slope, species of Mesquite (Prosopis), Cercidium, Ironwood (Olneya tesota), Candalia, Lycium, Prickly-pear (Opuntia), Fouquieria, Burrobush (Hymenoclea) and Acacia are favored. The coastal plains of Sonora are composed of an almost pure Larrea scrub. Away from the Gulf influence in the area surrounding the Pinacate, Encelia farinosa, Larrea tridentataOlneya, Cercidium, Prosopis, Fouquieria and various cacti species dominate the desert.

Many wildlife species, such as Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope (Antilocapra sonoriensis EN), Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) and the endemic Bailey's Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus baileyi) use ironwood, cacti species and other vegetation as both shelter from the harsh climate as well as a water supply. Other mammals include predators such as Puma (Felis concolor), Coyote (Canis latrans) and prey such as Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), and the Round-tailed Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus tereticaudus). Other mammals able to withstand the extreme desert climate of this ecoregion include California Leaf-nosed Bat (Macrotus californicus) and Ring-tailed Cat (Bassariscus astutus).

Three endemic lizards to the Sonoran Desert are: the Coachella Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma inornata EN); the Flat-tail Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii NT); and the Colorado Desert Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma notata NT); an endemic whiptail is the San Esteban Island Whiptail (Cnemidophorus estebanensis). Non-endemic special status reptiles in the ecoregion include the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii VU) and the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum NT).

There are twenty-four  anuran species occurring in the Sonoran Desert, one of which is endemic, the Sonoran Green Toad (Anaxyrus retiformis). Other anurans in the ecoregion are: California Treefrog (Pseudacris cadaverina); Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor); Lowland Burrowing Frog (Smilisca fodiens); Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia); Sabinal Frog (Leptodactylus melanonotus); Northwest Mexico Leopard Frog (Lithobates magnaocularis); Brown's Leopard Frog (Lithobates brownorum); Yavapai Leopard Frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); Mexican Cascade Frog (Lithobates pustulosus); Mexican Leaf Frog (Pachymedusa dacnicolor); Red Spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); Sinaloa Toad (Incilius mazatlanensis); Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius); Eastern Green Toad  (Anaxyrus debilis); New Mexico Spadefoot (Spea multiplicata); Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus); Couch's Spadefoot Toad (Scaphiopus couchii); Cane Toad (Rhinella marina); Elegant Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne elegans);  Little Mexican Toad (Anaxyrus kelloggi); Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea); and Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii).

The Sonoran Desert is recognized as an exceptional birding area. Forty-one percent (261 of 622) of all terrestrial bird species found in the USA can be seen here during some season of the year. The Sonoran Desert, together with its eastern neighbor the Chihuahuan Desert, is the richest area in in the USA for birds, particularly hummingbirds. Among the bird species found in the Sonoran Desert are the saguaro-inhabiting Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Black-tailed Gnatcatcher (Polioptila melanura), Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) and Gila Woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygualis). Perhaps the most well-known Sonoran bird is the Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), distinguished by its preference for running rather than flying, as it hunts scorpions, tarantulas, rattlesnakes, lizards, and other prey. The Sonoran Desert exhibits two endemic bird species, the highest level of bird endemism in the USA. The Rufous-winged Sparrow (Aimophila carpalis) is rather common in most parts of the Sonoran, but only along the central portion of the Arizona-Mexico border, seen in desert grasses admixed with brush. Rare in extreme southern Arizona along the Mexican border, the endemic Five-striped Sparrow (Aimophila quinquestriata) is predominantly found in canyons on hillsides and slopes among tall, dense scrub.

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Habitat characteristics

More info for the term: caliche

Yellow paloverde occurs in arid to semiarid climates with mild winters
and hot summers; precipitation is bimodal, occurring in summer and fall [15,54].

Yellow paloverde is found on lower mountain slopes and alluvial outwash
plains [54,97].  In the most arid parts of its range, yellow paloverde
occasionally occurs in small washes or arroyos [24,59,64,91,97].

Yellow paloverde occurs from 1,000 to 4,000 feet (305-1,219 m) in
elevation throughout its range [19,23,54,97,99].  It grows on very
gradual to steep slopes that may face south or north, but it has been
reported on all aspects [19,24,28,36,60,101].

The sites on which yellow paloverde occurs are well-drained [28].
Surface soils may be 1.6 to 2.8 inches (4-7 cm) thick and subsoils may
be 20 inches (50 cm) thick over caliche [91,101].  The soil temperature
regime is thermic (that is, average soil temperatures are between 59 and
72 degrees Fahrenheit [15-22 deg C]) [51].  Soil textures range from
sand to sandy loam to loam [24].  They may be underlain by clay loam and
clays [23,89].  Parent materials may be basaltic, rhyolitic, granitic,
mixed alluvium, and metamorphic [22,49,59,60,91].

The distribution of yellow paloverde is influenced by the continuum of
soil textures that occurs from upper to lower bajada [5].  It is found
primarily on the upper bajadas [6,7,93,97].  Coarse soil of the upper
bajada has one-half the wilting coefficient (which is an estimate of
plant stress) of the finer soil of the lower bajada [102].  Yellow
paloverde grows infrequently on the middle and lower bajada [97].
  • 5.  Bowers, Michael A. 1988. Plant associations on a Sonoran Desert bajada:        geographical correlates and evolutionary source pools. Vegetatio. 74:        107-112.  [4408]
  • 6.  Bowers, Michael A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1986. Plant-form gradients on        Sonoran Desert bajadas. Oikos. 46: 284-291.  [10864]
  • 7.  Brooks, William H. 1978. Jojoba--a North American desert shrub; its        ecology, possible commercialization, & potential as an introd. into        other arid regions. Journal of Arid Environments. 1: 227-236.  [5162]
  • 15.  Eddy, Thomas A. 1961. Foods and feeding patterns of the collared peccary        in southern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management. 25: 248-257.        [9888]
  • 19.  Fernandes, G. Wilson. 1992. A gradient analysis of plant forms from        northern Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science.        24-25: 21-30.  [18247]
  • 22.  Goldberg, Deborah E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1986. Vegetation change and        plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology.        67(3): 695-712.  [4410]
  • 23.  Goodwin, John G., Jr.; Hungerford, C. Roger. 1977. Habitat use by native        Gambel's and scaled quail and released masked bobwhite quail in southern        Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-197. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station. 8 p.  [14970]
  • 24.  Hanley, Thomas A.; Brady, Ward W. 1977. Seasonal fluctuations in        nutrient content of feral burro forages, lower Colorado River Valley,        Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 30(5): 370-375.  [4336]
  • 28.  Humphrey, R. R. 1950. Arizona range resources. II. Yavapai County. Bull.        229. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station.        55 p.  [5088]
  • 36.  Leitner, Lawrence A. 1987. Plant communities of a large arroyo at Punta        Cirio, Sonora. Southwestern Naturalist. 32(1): 21-28.  [1439]
  • 49.  McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1982. Effects of wildfire on a        Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology. 63(1): 246-248.  [1619]
  • 51.  Moir, W. H. 1983. A series vegetation classification for Region 3. In:        Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop        on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM.        Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southwestern Region: 91-95.  [1672]
  • 54.  Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa        Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28.        [12037]
  • 59.  Parker, Kathleen C. 1988. Environmental relationships and vegetation        associates of columnar cacti in the northern Sonoran Desert. Vegetatio.        78: 125-140.  [6953]
  • 60.  Parker, Kathleen C. 1991. Topography, substrate, and vegetation patterns        in the northern Sonoran Desert. Journal of Biogeography. 18: 151-163.        [14979]
  • 64.  Rea, Amadeo. 1979. Velvet mesquite. Environment Southwest. 486: 3-7.        [2977]
  • 89.  Tomoff, Carl S. 1974. Avian species diversity in desert scrub. Ecology.        55: 396-403.  [19307]
  • 91.  Turner, Raymond M. 1963. Growth in four species of Sonoran Desert trees.        Ecology. 44: 760-765.  [9883]
  • 93.  Turner, Raymond M.; Brown, David E. 1982. Sonoran desertscrub. In:        Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American        Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 181-221.        [2375]
  • 97.  Warren, Peter L.; Anderson, L. Susan. 1985. Gradient analysis of a        Sonoran Desert wash. In: Johnson, R. Roy; [and others]
  • 99.  Whittaker, R. H.; Niering, W. A. 1965. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina        Mountains, Arizona: a gradient analysis of the south slope. Ecology. 46:        429-452.  [9637]
  • 101.  Whysong, Gary L.; Heisler, Michael H. 1978. Nitrogen levels of soil and        vegetation in the upper Sonoran Desert as affected by fire. In: Hyder,        Donald N., ed. Proceedings, 1st international rangeland congress; 1978        August 14-18; Denver, CO. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management:        697-699.  [3990]
  • 102.  Yang, Tien Wei; Lowe, Charles H., Jr. 1955. Correlation of major        vegetation climaxes with soil characteristics in the Sonoran Desert.        Science. 123: 542.  [12226]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: association, climax, codominant, series, suffrutescent

Yellow paloverde is an indicator species of the Sonoran Desert floristic
region [50].  It is a dominant species in the Arizona upland subdivision
of the Sonoran Desert [9,41,43,93].  Codominant species include
creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), triangle bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea),
brittle brush (Encelia farinosa), ocotillo (Fouqueria splendens), and
Berlandier wolfberry (Lycium belandieri) [9].  This assemblage is also
called the paloverde, bursage (Ambrosia spp.) desert scrub community
type.  It grades into spinose suffrutescent desert scrub [54].

A major climax association found on bajadas and rocky slopes throughout
the Sonoran Desert is the paloverde/saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea)
association [5,9,42,89,102].  This association grades into adjacent
semidesert grasslands and interior chaparral [53,54].

Yellow paloverde is the principal species in the paloverde series
[51,61].  This is also called the paloverde-cacti-mixed scrub series and
paloverde woodland and succulents association [93,103].

Yellow paloverde is a facultative riparian species.  It may move into
riparian areas from surrounding desert and upland positions [1,74,83].
Where precipitation is less than 3 inches (7.6 cm) per year, yellow
paloverde is confined to washes and is an obligate riparian species [2].

Yellow paloverde is listed as a dominant or indicator species in the
following publications:

(1)  A series vegetation classification for Region 3 [51]
(2)  A vegetation classification system applied to southern California
       [61]
(3)  Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona: a gradient
       analysis of the south slope [99].

Species associated with yellow paloverde but not previously mentioned in
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE include white burrobrush (Hymenoclea
salsola), white ratany (Krameria grayi), organpipe cactus
(Lemaireocereus schottii), MacDougal ocotillo (Fouqueria macdougalii),
and heart leatherstem (Jatropha cordata) [25,78,97].
  • 9.  Burgess, Tony L.; Bowers, Janice E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1991. Exotic        plants at the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. Madrono. 38(2):        96-114.  [15362]
  • 1.  Asplund, Kenneth K.; Gooch, Michael T. 1988. Geomorphology and the        distributional ecology of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) in a        desert riparian canyon. Desert Plants. 9(1): 17-27.  [563]
  • 2.  Bennett, Peter S.; Kunzmann, Michael R.; Johnson, R. Roy. 1989. Relative        nature of wetlands: riparian and vegetational considerations. In: Abell,        Dana L., technical coordinator. Protection, management, and restoration        for the 1990's: Proceedings of the California riparian systems        conference; 1988 September 22-24; Davis, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-110.        Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific        Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 140-142.  [13516]
  • 5.  Bowers, Michael A. 1988. Plant associations on a Sonoran Desert bajada:        geographical correlates and evolutionary source pools. Vegetatio. 74:        107-112.  [4408]
  • 25.  Hanley, Thomas A.; Brady, Ward W. 1977. Feral burro impact on a Sonoran        Desert range. Journal of Range Management. 30(5): 374-377.  [4337]
  • 41.  Lowe, Charles H., Jr. 1961. Biotic communities in the sub-Mogollon        region of the inland Southwest. Arizona Academy of Science Journal. 2:        40-49.  [20379]
  • 42.  Lowe, Charles H.; Holm, Peter A. 1991. The amphibians and reptiles at        Saguaro National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report No. 37. Tucson, AZ:        University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources,        Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit. 20 p.  [18335]
  • 43.  MacMahon, James A. 1988. Warm deserts. In: Barbour, Michael G.;        Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation.        Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 231-264.  [19547]
  • 50.  Minckley, W. L.; Clark, Thomas O. 1981. Vegetation of the Gila River        Resource Area, eastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 3(3): 124-140.  [10863]
  • 51.  Moir, W. H. 1983. A series vegetation classification for Region 3. In:        Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop        on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM.        Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southwestern Region: 91-95.  [1672]
  • 53.  Nichol, A. A. [revisions by Phillips, W. S.]
  • 54.  Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa        Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28.        [12037]
  • 61.  Paysen, Timothy E.; Derby, Jeanine A.; Black, Hugh, Jr.; [and others]
  • 74.  Rucks, Michael G. 1984. Composition and trend of riparian vegetation on        five perennial streams in southeastern Arizona. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 97-107.  [5831]
  • 78.  Shreve, Forrest. 1942. The desert vegetation of North America. Botanical        Review. 8(4): 195-246.  [5051]
  • 83.  Stamp, Nancy E. 1978. Breeding birds of riparian woodland in        south-central Arizona. Condor. 80: 64-71.  [8079]
  • 89.  Tomoff, Carl S. 1974. Avian species diversity in desert scrub. Ecology.        55: 396-403.  [19307]
  • 93.  Turner, Raymond M.; Brown, David E. 1982. Sonoran desertscrub. In:        Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American        Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 181-221.        [2375]
  • 97.  Warren, Peter L.; Anderson, L. Susan. 1985. Gradient analysis of a        Sonoran Desert wash. In: Johnson, R. Roy; [and others]
  • 99.  Whittaker, R. H.; Niering, W. A. 1965. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina        Mountains, Arizona: a gradient analysis of the south slope. Ecology. 46:        429-452.  [9637]
  • 102.  Yang, Tien Wei; Lowe, Charles H., Jr. 1955. Correlation of major        vegetation climaxes with soil characteristics in the Sonoran Desert.        Science. 123: 542.  [12226]
  • 103.  Zimmermann, Robert C. 1969. Plant ecology of an arid basin: Tres        Alamos-Redington Area, southeastern Arizona. Geological Survey        Professional Paper 485-D. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the        Interior, Geological Survey. 51 p.  [4287]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: cactus

   K041  Creosotebush
   K042  Creosotebush - bursage
   K043  Paloverde - cactus shrub

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES30  Desert shrub
   FRES40  Desert grasslands

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

   242  Mesquite

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General Ecology

Fire Management Implications

More info for the terms: cover, fuel, prescribed fire

Desert fire temperatures are variable due to interactions of
microhabitats and fuel.  This prescribed fire did not alter physical
site characteristics such as albedo, soil water repellency, and
long-term microsite temperatures.  Perennial plant cover was
significantly (P=0.001) reduced which may lead to soil erosion.  Yellow
paloverde is very susceptible to fire, but no mortality data were given.

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Site Description

More info for the term: prescribed fire

The study site was located in a desert canyon at 1,477 feet (450 m)
elevation.  Spring months are dry and warm in this semiarid climate.  No
appreciable precipitation was reported from the April prefire
assessments to the June prescribed fire.  No information was given on
specific topography, slope, or soils.

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Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: fire frequency, frequency, fuel, severity

Introduced annuals in desert habitats may create sufficient fuel to
increase fire frequency and severity [71].  Native annuals probably
provided less fuel [39,71].

In the soils on which yellow paloverde occurs, nutrients are quickly
translocated following fire.  Two years after fire, soil nitrogen levels
can drop below prefire levels [13,101].
  • 13.  Cave, George Harold, III. 1982. Ecological effects of fire in the upper        Sonoran Desert. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 124 p. Thesis.        [12295]
  • 39.  Loftin, Samuel Robert. 1987. Postfire dynamics of a Sonoran Desert        ecosystem. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 97 p. Thesis.  [12296]
  • 71.  Thomas, Renee L.; Anderson, Roger C. 1993. Influence of topography on        stand composition in a midwestern ravine forest. American Midland        Naturalist. 130(1): 1-12.  [1742]
  • 101.  Whysong, Gary L.; Heisler, Michael H. 1978. Nitrogen levels of soil and        vegetation in the upper Sonoran Desert as affected by fire. In: Hyder,        Donald N., ed. Proceedings, 1st international rangeland congress; 1978        August 14-18; Denver, CO. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management:        697-699.  [3990]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: codominant, density, fuel, severity, shrubs

During May 1981 in the Tonto National Forest, Arizona, the prefire mean
density of yellow paloverde was 30 plants per acre (75 plants/ha).
Following a controlled fire of moderate severity during June 1981,
yellow paloverde mean density was 24.8 plants per acre (62 plants/ha).
Heat-damaged plants subsequently died.  Nine months after the fire,
yellow paloverde mean density was 17.2 plants per acre (43 plants/ha)
[13].

Yellow paloverde was completely eliminated by fire at one site on the
Tonto National Forest, Arizona [13].

Yellow paloverde may require 20 years to return to prefire plant
densities and community species composition following fires in
paloverde-saguaro communities [13,39,72].

Wildfire during June 1979 in Arizona top-killed 83 percent of yellow
paloverde present.  Twenty-five percent of top-killed plants sprouted
about 2 years following the fire.  There was 63 percent mortality for
yellow paloverde after about 3 years [49].

Fire burned during June 1974 in two desert scrub communities of
south-central Arizona.  Before the fires, yellow paloverde had not
sprouted; no seedlings were present on one site (Dead Man Wash Site),
and five seedlings were present at the other site (Saguaro Site).
Prefire data concerning yellow paloverde were not given.  Fire killed 78
percent of the photosynthetic tissue on the Dead Man Wash Site and 92
percent on the Saguaro Site.  For both sites, approximately 10 percent
of the yellow paloverde present after fire were not top-killed;
approximately 14 percent were top-killed and sprouted.  Five seedlings
were found on the Saguaro Site in postfire year 1 [71,72].

Yellow paloverde occurred in two different communities that were
prescribed burned during different years, one in 1983 and the other in
1985.  Control and prefire communities were similar in composition.  No
information specific to yellow paloverde was given.  The fires consumed
70 percent of the perennial vegetation.  Plants were two-thirds less
dense immediately after than before the fire.  In 1986, plant densities
were still below prefire levels [39].

Yellow paloverde was codominant with triange bursage and buckhorn cholla
(Opuntia acanthocarpa) on rocky slopes on the Tonto National Forest.  A
prescribed fire during June 1985 burned 9.9 acres (4 ha).  The fire
burned vigorously in washes and on lower slopes.  But fire decreased on
the upper slopes due to a lack of fuel between the shrubs; vegetation
patches were ignited with flares.  The spotty burning reduced shrub
cover by 49 percent.  No specific effects on yellow paloverde response
to fire were given in the article [81].

The Research Project Summary Ibarra-F and others 1996 provides
information on mortality of yellow paloverde after prescribed fires
in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) pastures in Sonora, Mexico.
  • 13.  Cave, George Harold, III. 1982. Ecological effects of fire in the upper        Sonoran Desert. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 124 p. Thesis.        [12295]
  • 39.  Loftin, Samuel Robert. 1987. Postfire dynamics of a Sonoran Desert        ecosystem. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 97 p. Thesis.  [12296]
  • 49.  McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1982. Effects of wildfire on a        Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology. 63(1): 246-248.  [1619]
  • 71.  Thomas, Renee L.; Anderson, Roger C. 1993. Influence of topography on        stand composition in a midwestern ravine forest. American Midland        Naturalist. 130(1): 1-12.  [1742]
  • 72.  Rogers, Garry F.; Steele, Jeff. 1980. Sonoran Desert fire ecology. In:        Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators.        Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 15-19.  [16036]
  • 81.  Simons, L. H. 1989. Vertebrates killed by desert fire. Southwestern        Naturalist. 34(1): 144.  [7850]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Although entire yellow paloverde trees are rarely consumed during a
fire, they are top-killed or killed.  Surviving yellow paloverde
rootstocks sprout following fire.  Sprouting plants are susceptible to
death from repeated fires [39].

A fire on a southern Arizona rangeland during the 1900's burned for 2
days and killed paloverde species.  Postfire recovery of the vegetation
was not mentioned in the article [29].
  • 29.  Humphrey, Robert R. 1958. The desert grassland: A history of        vegetational change and an analysis of causes. Bull. 299. Tucson, AZ:        University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 61 p.  [5270]
  • 39.  Loftin, Samuel Robert. 1987. Postfire dynamics of a Sonoran Desert        ecosystem. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 97 p. Thesis.  [12296]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: secondary colonizer, shrub, tree

   Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker
   Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
   Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: fire frequency, frequency, fuel, root crown, severity

The thin-barked photosynthetic stems of yellow paloverde are killed by
fire [13].  Yellow paloverde may sprout from the root crown following
top-kill [39].

The temperatures of desert fires are variable due to fluctuations in
kinds and quantities of available fuel [104].  Heavy grazing in some
upland sites has eliminated the grass understory beneath paloverde
species and saguaro.  Grass species were replaced with bursage,
burroweed (Haplopappus tenuisectus), and snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.).
This has lowered the fire frequency because there is insufficient fuel
to carry fires [70].  However, introduced annuals in other areas may
have increased both the frequency and the severity of fire [71,72].

Fires in the Sonoran Desert are generally infrequent and are low
severity due to low fuel loads [49].  However, fires can be relatively
common in the Sonoran Desert under appropriate conditions, especially
during the summer [39].  Two consecutive wet winters are probably needed
to develop fuel loads adequate to sustain fire.  Fire is frequent in
desert grasslands on the eastern edge of the Sonoran Desert [49].

The Sonoran savanna grasslands are subtropical, fire-climax grasslands.
Most of these communities were destroyed through grazing and other land
management practices by the 1940's.  Yellow paloverde grows in remnants
of these communities at their northern limits [8].
  • 8.  Brown, David E. 1982. Sonoran savanna grassland. In: Brown, David E.,        ed.  Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and        Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 137-141.  [8897]
  • 13.  Cave, George Harold, III. 1982. Ecological effects of fire in the upper        Sonoran Desert. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 124 p. Thesis.        [12295]
  • 39.  Loftin, Samuel Robert. 1987. Postfire dynamics of a Sonoran Desert        ecosystem. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 97 p. Thesis.  [12296]
  • 49.  McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1982. Effects of wildfire on a        Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology. 63(1): 246-248.  [1619]
  • 70.  Robinett, Dan. 1990. Tohono O'odham range history. Rangelands. 12(6):        296-300.  [14968]
  • 71.  Thomas, Renee L.; Anderson, Roger C. 1993. Influence of topography on        stand composition in a midwestern ravine forest. American Midland        Naturalist. 130(1): 1-12.  [1742]
  • 72.  Rogers, Garry F.; Steele, Jeff. 1980. Sonoran Desert fire ecology. In:        Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators.        Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 15-19.  [16036]
  • 104.  Patten, Duncan T.; Cave, George H. 1984. Fire temperatures and physical        characteristics of a controlled burn in the upper Sonoran Desert.        Journal of Range Management. 37(3): 277-280.  [181]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: climax

Facultative Seral Species

Yellow paloverde is a climax species in the Sonoran Desert flora [51,54,61].

Successional sequences have not been completely identified for the
desert scrub communities in which yellow paloverde occurs.  Dominants
such as yellow paloverde are the first to reappear and replace
themselves following disturbance [69].
  • 51.  Moir, W. H. 1983. A series vegetation classification for Region 3. In:        Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop        on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM.        Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southwestern Region: 91-95.  [1672]
  • 54.  Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa        Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28.        [12037]
  • 61.  Paysen, Timothy E.; Derby, Jeanine A.; Black, Hugh, Jr.; [and others]
  • 69.  Reynolds, Hudson G. 1962. Some characteristics and uses of Arizona's        major plant communities. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. 2:        62-71.  [1959]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: association

Yellow paloverde reproduces sexually and asexually.  Yellow paloverde
has fair to poor ability to produce sprouts after top removal [11].

Photoperiod initiates fruit and flower production of yellow paloverde.
Subsequent local weather conditions determine whether flowering or seed
set occurs [91].  A seed crop is produced when the spring is wet or very
cool [105].

Yellow paloverde is insect pollinated [44,82].

McAuliffe [47] stated that yellow paloverde pods rapidly abscise as a
mechanism to avoid seed predation by bruchid beetles.  The constricted
fruits of yellow paloverde do not open before dispersing [37].

Seeds germinate during a rainy season after 1 year in the soil.
Seedlings are very susceptible to drought during the first 2 to 3 months
following germination.  During a 9-year study in Arizona, 1.6 percent of
all seedlings that germinated survived [105].

Recruitment of yellow paloverde is very slow.  Additions as low as two
individuals over 30 years or longer have been recorded [22,79].

Herbivory limits yellow paloverde distribution [45].  Bruchid beetles
are seed predators of yellow paloverde [47].  Heteromyid rodents rapidly
cache yellow paloverde seeds.  The cached seeds occasionally germinate
[47,95].

Initial distributions of yellow paloverde seedlings are random.
However, after 1 year, a greater proportion of seedlings in open spaces
were consumed by rabbits and hares than seedlings beneath triangle
bursage.  Recruitment patterns of yellow paloverde show significantly
(P less than 0.001) positive associations with mature triangle bursage and white
bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) [45,46].  Because yellow paloverde outlives
triangle bursage, large mature yellow paloverde have no association with
triangle bursage [46].

Unpredictable water availability causes low, erratic seedling
establishment [12].  Mature yellow paloverde maintain deep root contact
with wet soil [73,105].  Yellow paloverde self prunes; large branches
die during drought [3,105].  Young plants usually survive drought once
they drop branches which occurs at variable ages [77,105].  Death of
mature yellow paloverde due to drought and subsequent desiccation is
uncommon [45,77,92].  Based on water requirement trials, the water-use
efficiency of yellow paloverde approaches that of perennial grasses
[48].
  • 3.  Benson, Lyman; Darrow, Robert A. 1981. The trees and shrubs of the        Southwestern deserts. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.        [18066]
  • 11.  Carr, Merle E.; Mason, Charles T., Jr.; Bagby, Marvin O. 1986. Renewable        resources from Arizona trees and shrubs. Forest Ecology and Management.        16: 155-167.  [3053]
  • 22.  Goldberg, Deborah E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1986. Vegetation change and        plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology.        67(3): 695-712.  [4410]
  • 37.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native        species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p.        [20330]
  • 44.  McArthur, E. Durant. 1989. Breeding systems in shrubs. In: McKell, Cyrus        M., ed. The biology and utilization of shrubs. San Diego, CA: Academic        Press, Inc.: 341-361.  [8039]
  • 45.  McAuliffe, Joseph R. 1986. Herbivore-limited establishment of a Sonoran        Desert tree, Cercidium microphyllum. Ecology. 67(1): 276-280.  [2756]
  • 47.  McAuliffe, Joseph R. 1990. Paloverdes, pocket mice, and bruchid beetles:        interrelationships of seeds, dispersers, and seed predators.        Southwestern Naturalist. 35(3): 329-337.  [14988]
  • 77.  Shreve, Forrest. 1911. Establishment behavior of the Palo Verde. Plant        World. 14: 289-296.  [11168]
  • 79.  Shreve, Forrest; Hinckley, Arthur L. 1937. Thirty years of change in        desert vegetation. Ecology. 18(4): 463-478.  [4574]
  • 82.  Simpson, B. B.; Neff, J. L.; Moldenke, A. R. 1977. Prosopis flowers as a        resource. In: Simpson, B. B., ed. Mesquite: Its biology in two desert        ecosystems. US/IBP Synthesis 4. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson &        Ross, Inc: 84-107.  [5192]
  • 91.  Turner, Raymond M. 1963. Growth in four species of Sonoran Desert trees.        Ecology. 44: 760-765.  [9883]
  • 95.  Vander Wall, Stephen B. 1993. Seed water content and the vulnerability        of buried seeds to foraging rodents. American Midland Naturalist.        129(2): 272-281.  [21306]
  • 105.  Shreve, Forrest. 1917. The establishment of desert perennials. Journal        of Ecology. 5: 210-216.  [22785]
  • 12.  Castellanos, A. E.; Molina, F. E. 1990. Differential survivorship and        establishment in Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba). Journal of Arid        Environments. 19: 65-76.  [14982]
  • 46.  McAuliffe, Joseph R. 1988. Markovian dynamics of simple and complex        desert plant communities. American Naturalist. 131(4): 459-490.  [6744]
  • 48.  McGinnies, W. G.; Arnold, Joseph F. 1939. Relative water requirement of        Arizona range plants. Technical Bulletin No. 80. Tucson, AZ: University        of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 167-246.  [4441]
  • 73.  Roundy, Bruce A.; Dobrenz, Albert K. 1989. Herbivory and plant water        status of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.]
  • 92.  Turner, Raymond M. 1990. Long-term vegetation change at a fully        protected Sonoran Desert site. Ecology. 7(2): 464-477.  [10866]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

  
   Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Shrub, tree

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Season/Severity Classification

summer fire/low-severity

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Yellow paloverde may not flower every year, depending on adequate
moisture availability.  It develops flowers from March to May
[24,31,80,91,100].  Leaf production is erratic [24].  Yellow paloverde
grows drought-deciduous leaves two or more times during the year
following summer and winter rains [77,91].
  • 24.  Hanley, Thomas A.; Brady, Ward W. 1977. Seasonal fluctuations in        nutrient content of feral burro forages, lower Colorado River Valley,        Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 30(5): 370-375.  [4336]
  • 31.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 77.  Shreve, Forrest. 1911. Establishment behavior of the Palo Verde. Plant        World. 14: 289-296.  [11168]
  • 80.  Shreve, F.; Wiggins, I. L. 1964. Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran        Desert. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2 vols.  [21016]
  • 91.  Turner, Raymond M. 1963. Growth in four species of Sonoran Desert trees.        Ecology. 44: 760-765.  [9883]
  • 100.  Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford        University Press. 1025 p.  [21993]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Parkinsonia microphylla

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Parkinsonia microphylla

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: cover, fresh

Dimensional analyses that relate fresh biomass to stem diameter and dry
matter content are available for yellow paloverde [18].

Yellow paloverde was evaluated as a potential energy-producing crop.
During 2 years of sampling, the stems, leaves, and fruits of yellow
paloverde yielded moderate amounts of oil and crude protein.  It was not
considered a promising species for exploitation [11].

Yellow paloverde spread from residential plantings into surrounding
wildlands in Death Valley National Monument, California.  Yellow
paloverde does not occur there naturally, and mechanical and herbicide
control methods have been proposed to eradicate it [40].

Yellow paloverde and other desert scrub species invade desert grasslands
following disturbances such as grazing [40,98].

Yellow paloverde up to 3 inches (7.6 cm) tall may be seriously injured
or killed by jackrabbit browsing.  Larger trees are browsed to the
extent that a jackrabbit can reach, about 3 feet (1 m) [96].

Yellow paloverde is an alternate host for seed-predating bruchid
beetles (Mimosestes spp.).  Yellow paloverde responses are probably
similar to those of the beetles' primary host, mesquite (Prosopis spp.),
with reduced yields of viable seeds [33].

Yellow paloverde and community associates typical of the Arizona upland
subdivision of the Sonoran Desert occur in very few places in
southeastern California.  This is a community type with one of the
highest priorities in California for rare plant inventories [27].

Yellow paloverde provides canopy cover that reduces maximum soil surface
temperatures.  This is important for the establishment of other desert
species [20,78].  Yellow paloverde is the primary nurse plant for
saguaro [14,30,43,55,84].
  • 11.  Carr, Merle E.; Mason, Charles T., Jr.; Bagby, Marvin O. 1986. Renewable        resources from Arizona trees and shrubs. Forest Ecology and Management.        16: 155-167.  [3053]
  • 14.  Ciesla, Bill. 1993. Cactus condo. American Forests. 99(5&6): 25-28, 58.        [20995]
  • 18.  Felker, Peter; Cannell, G. H.; Clark, Peter R.; [and others]
  • 20.  Franco, A. C.; Nobel, P. S. 1989. Effect of nurse plants on the        microhabit and growth of cacti. Journal of Ecology. 77: 870-886.  [9766]
  • 27.  Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial        natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department        of Fish and Game. 156 p.  [12756]
  • 30.  Hutto, Richard L.; McAuliffe, Joseph R.; Hogan, Lynee. 1986.        Distributional associates of the saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea).        Southwestern Naturalist. 31(4): 469-476.  [1229]
  • 33.  Kingsolver, J. M.; Johnson, C. D.; Swier, S. R.; Teran, A. 1977.        Prosopis fruits as a resource for invertebrates. In: Simpson, B. B., ed.        Mesquite: Its biology in two desert ecosystems. US/IBP Synthesis 4.        Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc: 108-122.  [5193]
  • 40.  Loope, Lloyd L.; Sanchez, Peter G.; Tarr, Peter W.; [and others]
  • 43.  MacMahon, James A. 1988. Warm deserts. In: Barbour, Michael G.;        Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation.        Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 231-264.  [19547]
  • 55.  Niering, W. A.; Whittaker, R. H.; Lowe, C. H. 1963. The saguaro: a        population in relation to environment. Science. 142(3588): 15-23.        [5093]
  • 78.  Shreve, Forrest. 1942. The desert vegetation of North America. Botanical        Review. 8(4): 195-246.  [5051]
  • 84.  Steenbergh, Warren F.; Lowe, Charles H. 1969. Critical factors during        the first years of the saguaro (Cereus giganteus) at Saguaro National        Monument, Arizona. Ecology. 50(5): 825-834.  [19692]
  • 96.  Vorhies, Charles T.; Taylor, Walter P. 1933. The life histories and        ecology of jack rabbits, Lepus alleni and Lepus californicus ssp., in        relation to grazing in Arizona. Technical Bulletin No. 49. Tucson, AZ:        University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 117 p.  [9933]
  • 98.  Whitfield, Charles J.; Anderson, Hugh L. 1938. Secondary succession in        the desert plains grassland. Ecology. 19(2): 171-180.  [5252]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cover Value

More info for the term: snag

Yellow paloverde that are taller than 6.6 feet (2 m) are used for
nesting [89].  Verdin and black-tailed gnatcatchers nest in yellow
paloverde [58].  Gambel's quail use them for roosts [23].  Yellow
paloverde snags are important wildlife habitat because snags occur
infrequently in the Sonoran Desert.  In Arizona, nine bird species used
one yellow paloverde snag daily [32].

White-throated woodrats use yellow paloverde for shelter or nests [57].
  • 23.  Goodwin, John G., Jr.; Hungerford, C. Roger. 1977. Habitat use by native        Gambel's and scaled quail and released masked bobwhite quail in southern        Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-197. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station. 8 p.  [14970]
  • 57.  Olsen, Ronald W. 1973. Shelter-site selection in the white-throated        woodrat, Neotoma albigula. Journal of Mammalogy. 54: 594-610.  [9886]
  • 58.  Parker, Kathleen C. 1986. Partitioning of foraging space and nest sites        in a desert shrubland bird community. American Midland Naturalist.        115(2): 255-267.  [19258]
  • 89.  Tomoff, Carl S. 1974. Avian species diversity in desert scrub. Ecology.        55: 396-403.  [19307]
  • 32.  Kennedy, Charles E. 1983. A palo verde snag in the Sonora Desert. In:        Davis, Jerry W.; Goodwin, Gregory A.; Ockenfeis, Richard A., technical        coordinators. Snag Habitat management: proceedings of the symposium;        1983 June 7-9; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-99. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station: 165-166.  [17832]

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Other uses and values

Yellow paloverde seeds were ground and used for food by Pima and other
Native Americans [37,66].

Yellow paloverde is planted as an ornamental [37].
  • 37.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native        species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p.        [20330]
  • 66.  Rea, Amadeo M. 1991. Gila River Pima dietary reconstruction. Arid Lands        Newsletter. 31: 3-10.  [18255]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Yellow paloverde was used in the revegetation of an open pit copper mine
in Arizona.  Yellow paloverde survived significantly (P less than 0.05) better on
the east slope (27 plants/244 sq m) than on the north slope (1 plant/244
sq m) [56].
  • 56.  Norem, M. A.; Day, A. D.; Ludeke, K. L. 1982. An evaluation of shrub and        tree species used for revegetating copper mine wastes in the        south-western United States. Journal of Arid Environments. 5: 99-304.        [1776]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Yellow paloverde has limited value as browse for livestock [3,28,87].
Bighorn sheep, mule deer, and feral burros browse yellow paloverde
[25,34,63,75,76].  It is important browse for jackrabbits, heteromyid
rodents, and other small mammals [16,25,67,96].  Collared peccary
consume yellow paloverde fruits from July to September [15].  Yellow
paloverde was used significantly (P less than 0.01) more than other plant species
for foraging by birds [58].

Small mammals such as desert shrews and mice use the habitats where
yellow paloverde occurs [86].
  • 3.  Benson, Lyman; Darrow, Robert A. 1981. The trees and shrubs of the        Southwestern deserts. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.        [18066]
  • 15.  Eddy, Thomas A. 1961. Foods and feeding patterns of the collared peccary        in southern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management. 25: 248-257.        [9888]
  • 16.  Elias, Thomas S. 1980. The complete trees of North America: field guide        and natural history. New York: Times Mirror Magazines, Inc. 948 p.        [21987]
  • 25.  Hanley, Thomas A.; Brady, Ward W. 1977. Feral burro impact on a Sonoran        Desert range. Journal of Range Management. 30(5): 374-377.  [4337]
  • 28.  Humphrey, R. R. 1950. Arizona range resources. II. Yavapai County. Bull.        229. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station.        55 p.  [5088]
  • 34.  Krausman, Paul R.; Ordway, Leonard L.; Whiting, Frank M.; Brown, William        H. 1990. Nutritional compostition of desert mule deer forage in the        Picacho Mountains, Arizona. Desert Plants. 10(1): 32-34.  [7259]
  • 58.  Parker, Kathleen C. 1986. Partitioning of foraging space and nest sites        in a desert shrubland bird community. American Midland Naturalist.        115(2): 255-267.  [19258]
  • 63.  Rautenstrauch, Kurt R.; Krausman, Paul R.; Whiting, Frank M.; Brown,        William H. 1988. Nutritional quality of desert mule deer forage in King        Valley, Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(4): 172-174.  [2768]
  • 67.  Reichman, O. J. 1975. Relation of desert rodent diets to available        resources. Journal of Mammalogy. 56(4): 731-751.  [4572]
  • 75.  Scarbrough, David L.; Krausman, Paul R. 1988. Sexual segregation by        desert mule deer. Southwestern Naturalist. 33(2): 157-165.  [5250]
  • 76.  Seegmiller, Rick F.; Krausman, Paul R.; Brown, William H.; Whiting,        Frank M. 1990. Nutritional composition of desert bighorn sheep forage in        the Harquahala Mountains, Arizona. Desert Plants. 10(2): 87-90.  [11943]
  • 87.  Thornber, J. J. 1910. The grazing ranges of Arizona. Bull. No. 65.        Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 360        p.  [4555]
  • 96.  Vorhies, Charles T.; Taylor, Walter P. 1933. The life histories and        ecology of jack rabbits, Lepus alleni and Lepus californicus ssp., in        relation to grazing in Arizona. Technical Bulletin No. 49. Tucson, AZ:        University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 117 p.  [9933]
  • 86.  Szaro, Robert C.; Belfit, Scott C. 1987. Small mammal use of a desert        riparian island and its adjacent scrub habitat. Res. Note RM-473. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 5 p.  [3843]

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Nutritional Value

Several studies have sampled yellow paloverde bimonthly for 1 year.  Its
leaves, flowers, and new growth had from 30 to 60 percent dry matter and
from 6 to 16 percent crude protein [34,63,76].  Yellow paloverde has
large seeds that weigh an average of 0.005 ounce (0.147 g) and contain
733.3 calories per seed [68].
  • 34.  Krausman, Paul R.; Ordway, Leonard L.; Whiting, Frank M.; Brown, William        H. 1990. Nutritional compostition of desert mule deer forage in the        Picacho Mountains, Arizona. Desert Plants. 10(1): 32-34.  [7259]
  • 63.  Rautenstrauch, Kurt R.; Krausman, Paul R.; Whiting, Frank M.; Brown,        William H. 1988. Nutritional quality of desert mule deer forage in King        Valley, Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(4): 172-174.  [2768]
  • 68.  Reichman, O. J. 1976. Relationships between dimensions, weights,        volumes, and calories of some Sonoran Desert seeds. Southwestern        Naturalist. 20(4): 573-574.  [12326]
  • 76.  Seegmiller, Rick F.; Krausman, Paul R.; Brown, William H.; Whiting,        Frank M. 1990. Nutritional composition of desert bighorn sheep forage in        the Harquahala Mountains, Arizona. Desert Plants. 10(2): 87-90.  [11943]

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Wood Products Value

The wood of yellow paloverde is hard and heavy [37].
  • 37.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native        species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p.        [20330]

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Wikipedia

Parkinsonia microphylla

Parkinsonia microphylla, the yellow paloverde or foothill paloverde; syn. Cercidium microphyllum), is a species of palo verde.

It is native to the Southwestern United States in southeastern California and southern Arizona; and to Northwest Mexico in Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California. The plant is mostly found on slopes, and is one of the most common trees of the Sonoran Desert.

Flowers

Description[edit]

Foothill Palo Verde pictured near the Superstition Mountains (Arizona)

Parkinsonia microphylla is a bristling, upright-branching tree. The species is slow-growing, sometimes living for several hundred years. It typically grows to heights of around 5 metres (16 ft), although rarely it can reach 6–7 metres (20–23 ft) tall.

The leaves are yellowish green, and during extensively dry and hot periods the tree will shed them. It has the characteristic of performing photosynthesis in its bark (hence the green color), and this is what allows it to survive leafless in hotter periods.

The flowers are found on the end of a branch, small, pale yellow and occur in late spring. The tree may not flower every year, depending on the amount rainfall. If there is enough rainfall, seeds will also appear in 4–8 cm long, soft pods which dip in between each seed. They ripen in July, and stick to the branches. Rodents will often carry and store the seeds underground, where some of them will germinate after a rainy season.

The seedlings are very sensitive to drought for the first two to three months of their lives, and only about 1.6% will survive after germinating.

Threats

Buffelgrass is an exotic species of grass native to Africa, first introduced into the Sonoran Desert for livestock grazing, which spreads very quickly and can often kill seedlings by using available water, which could be a threat in the future.

Uses[edit]

The Seri people, a Native American group of northwestern Mexico, call this tree ziipxöl [ ʃiːpχʷɬ ]. They used to grind up the seeds for flour, boil the green pods with meat, and eat the sweet green seeds as well as the flowers. They also strung the seeds for necklaces.

Cultivation[edit]

Parkinsonia microphylla is cultivated as an ornamental tree for use in drought tolerant, modernist, and native plant gardens. It is also used as a small tree in parking lot plantings of commercial developments.

References[edit]

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Source: Wikipedia

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

yellow paloverde
little-leaf paloverde
foothill paloverde

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The currently accepted scientific name of yellow paloverde is Parkinsonia
microphylla Torr. [26,52,80,88,107]. Yellow paloverde occasionally forms
hybrids throughout its range with blue paloverde (P. floridum) [52]. In
Mexico, yellow paloverde hybridizes with P. praecox to form Sonoran paloverde
(P. x sonorae) [43,93].
  • 52.  Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1086 p.  [4924]
  • 26.  Hastings, James R.; Turner, Raymond M.; Warren, Douglas K. 1972. An        atlas of some plant distributions in the Sonoran Desert. Technical        Reports on the Meteorology and Climatology of Arid Regions No. 21.        Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona, Institute of Atmospheric Physics. 255        p.  [10534]
  • 43.  MacMahon, James A. 1988. Warm deserts. In: Barbour, Michael G.;        Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation.        Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 231-264.  [19547]
  • 80.  Shreve, F.; Wiggins, I. L. 1964. Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran        Desert. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2 vols.  [21016]
  • 88.  Tidestrom, I.; Kittell, T. 1941. A flora of Arizona and New Mexico.        Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press. 897 p.        [18145]
  • 93.  Turner, Raymond M.; Brown, David E. 1982. Sonoran desertscrub. In:        Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American        Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 181-221.        [2375]
  • 107.  Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with        biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States,        Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham,        Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version        1.0), [CD-ROM]

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Synonyms

Cercidium microphyllum (Torr.) Rose & Johnston (Fabaceae) [31,100,106]
  • 31.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 100.  Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford        University Press. 1025 p.  [21993]
  • 106.  Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California.        Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.  [21992]

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