Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:29
Specimens with Sequences:68
Specimens with Barcodes:29
Species:9
Species With Barcodes:9
Public Records:21
Public Species:9
Public BINs:3
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Squirrel monkey

The squirrel monkeys are the New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. They are the only genus in the subfamily Saimirinae. The name of the genus Saimiri is of Tupi origin (sai-mirim or gai-mbirin < sai 'monkey' and mirim 'small'),[2][3] and was also used as an English name by early researchers.[4][5]

Squirrel monkeys live in the tropical forests of Central and South America in the canopy layer. Most species have parapatric or allopatric ranges in the Amazon, while S. oerstedii is found disjunctly in Costa Rica and Panama.

The common squirrel monkey is captured for the pet trade and for medical research[6] but it is not threatened. Two squirrel monkey species are threatened: the Central American squirrel monkey and the black squirrel monkey are listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.[7][8]

Evolutionary history[edit]

Miss Baker, an 'astronaut' squirrel monkey, rode into space as part of the United States space program, and returned safely.

Taxonomy[edit]

Until 1984, all South American squirrel monkeys were generally considered part of a single widespread species, and many zoologists considered the Central American squirrel monkey to be a member of that single species as well.[1][9] The two main groups currently recognized can be separated by the white above the eyes; it is shaped as a Gothic ("pointed") Arch in the S. sciureus group, while it is shaped as a Roman ("rounded") Arch in the S. boliviensis group.[10]

Evolution[edit]

The crown lineage of the extant squirrel monkeys appears to have diverged around 1.5 million years ago.[11] S. boliviensis appears to be the first diverging species in the group. S. oerstedii and S. s. sciureus, are sister species. S. s. macrodon is the sister species to the S. oerstedii / S. s. sciureus clade.

Physical description[edit]

Squirrel monkey fur is short and close, colored black at the shoulders and yellowish orange on its back and extremities. Their throat and the ears are white and their mouths are black. The upper part of their head is hairy. This black-and-white face gives them the name "death's head monkey" in several Germanic languages (e.g., German Totenkopfaffen, Swedish dödskalleapor, Dutch doodshoofdaapjes) and Slovenian (smrtoglavka).

Squirrel monkeys grow from 25 to 35 cm long, plus a 35 to 42 cm tail. Male squirrel monkeys weigh 750 to 1100 g. Females weigh 500 to 750 g. They are equipped with a long and hairy tail, flat nail, curved small hallux and, pointed claws.[12]

Female squirrel monkeys have a pseudo-penis that they use to display dominance over smaller monkeys, in much the same way the male squirrel monkeys display their dominance.[citation needed]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Like most of their New World monkey relatives, squirrel monkeys are diurnal and arboreal. Unlike the other New World monkeys, their tail is not used for climbing, but as a kind of "balancing pole" and also as a tool. Their movements in the branches can be very rapid.

They live together in multi-male/multi-female groups with up to 500 members. These large groups can, however occasionally break into smaller troops. They have a number of vocal calls, including warning sounds to protect themselves from large falcons, which are a natural threat to them. Their small body size also makes them susceptible to predators such as snakes and felids. For marking territory, squirrel monkeys rub their tail and their skin with their own urine.

Squirrel monkeys are omnivores, eating primarily fruits and insects. Occasionally they also eat seeds, leaves, flowers, buds, nuts, and eggs. The mating of the squirrel monkeys is subject to seasonal influences. Females give birth to young during the rainy season, after a 150- to 170-day gestation. The mothers exclusively care for the young. Saimiri oerstedti are weaned by 4 months of age, while S. boliviensis are not fully weaned until 18 months old. Female squirrel monkeys reach sexual maturity at age 2–2.5 years, while males take until age 3.5–4 years old. They live to about 15 years old in the wild, and over 20 years in captivity. Menopause in females probably occurs in the mid-teens.[13]

Color vision[edit]

Color vision in squirrel monkeys has been extensively studied as a stand-in for human ailments.[14] In humans, two genes for color vision are found on the X chromosome. Typically, one gene (OPN1LW) produces a pigment that is most sensitive to the 564 nm wavelength, while the other gene (OPN1MW) produces pigment most sensitive to 534 nm. In squirrel monkeys, there is only one gene on the X chromosome but it exists in three varieties: one is most sensitive to 538 nm, one to 551 nm, and one to 561 nm. Since males have only one X chromosome, they are dichromatic, although with different sensitivities. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, so some of them can have copies of two different alleles. The three alleles seem to be equally common, leading to one-third of females being dichromatic while two-thirds are trichromatic.[15] Recently, gene therapy has given the human OPN1LW gene to adult male squirrel monkeys, producing behavior consistent with trichromatic color vision.[14]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 138–139. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Simpson, George Gaylord. 1941. "Vernacular Names of South American Mammals." In Journal of Mammalogy 22(1): 1-17.
  3. ^ Squirrel monkeys
  4. ^ Palmer, T. S. 1897. "Notes on the Nomenclature of Four Genera of Tropical American Mammals." Proceeedings of the Biological Society of Washington 11: 173–174.
  5. ^ Leclerc, Georges-Louis, Comte de Buffon. "The Saimiri." In: Barr's Buffon. Buffon's Natural History',' pp. 251-252. London: J. S. Barr.
  6. ^ Rhines, C. (2000). "Saimiri sciureus", Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 26, 2007
  7. ^ Boubli, J.-P. & Rylands, A. B. (2008). "Saimiri vanzolinii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  8. ^ Wong, G., Cuarón, A.D., Rodriguez-Luna, E. & de Grammont, P.C. (2008). "Saimiri oerstedii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  9. ^ Michael Kavanagh (1983). A Complete Guide to Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. p. 84. ISBN 0-224-02168-0. 
  10. ^ Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonia Press, Charlestown, Rhode Island. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7. 
  11. ^ Chiou KL, Pozzi L, Lynch Alfaro JW, Di Fiore A. (2011) Pleistocene diversification of living squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) inferred from complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol.
  12. ^ "77". Organic Evolution. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1921. 
  13. ^ Walker ML, Anderson DC, Herndon JG, Walker LC (2009). "Ovarian aging in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)". Reproduction 138 (4): 793–799. doi:10.1530/REP-08-0449. PMID 19656956. 
  14. ^ a b http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v461/n7265/full/nature08401.html
  15. ^ Jacobs GH, Neitz J (April 1987). "Inheritance of color vision in a New World monkey (Saimiri sciureus)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (8): 2545–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.8.2545. PMC 304691. PMID 3470811. 
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