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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Eurasia"
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Satara Karnataka: Chikmagalur Kerala: Idukki Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Salem"
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Robbery Wood phytoplasma infects and damages live Pyrus communis sens. str.

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
black pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta pirina causes spots on fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / open feeder
epiphyllous, colonial Bryobia grazes on live leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
basidiome of Chondrostereum purpureum infects and damages trunk of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
long covered, but eventually erumpent through fissure pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead twig of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, subcuticular acervulus of Entomosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Diplocarpon mespili causes spots on live leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Dysaphis pyri sucks sap of live, curled, discoloured leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Remarks: season: early spring-7, autumn-

Foodplant / pathogen
Erwinia amylovora infects and damages dead, brown-black, wrinkled fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Gibberella baccata infects and damages fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Gloeodes anamorph of Gloeodes pomigena causes spots on live, sometimes dwarfed fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Glomerella cingulata infects and damages fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
epiphyllous pycnium of Gymnosporangium asiaticum parasitises live leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / gall
hypophyllous aecium of Gymnosporangium clavariiforme causes gall of live leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Remarks: season: 7-9+
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / within
ovum of Hoplocampa brevis may be found in ovary of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilinia fructigena infects and damages live, brown-rotten fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilinia laxa infects and damages live, wilted flower of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / saprobe
Mucor piriformis is saprobic on rotting fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, erumpent pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella pyri causes spots on leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / web feeder
hypophyllous, colonial Panonychus ulmi feeds from web on live leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Remarks: season: 4-

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Penicillium dematiaceous anamorph of Penicillium expansum infects and damages soft, brown, rotten, musty-smelling fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pentatoma rufipes sucks sap of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: major host/prey
minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
conidioma of Phlyctema coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula alba infects and damages fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
conidioma of Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula malicorticis infects and damages rotten fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
scattered or clustered, immersed, then semi-immersed, finally superficial pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis perniciosa infects and damages cankered fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora cactorum infects and damages fallen fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora syringae infects and damages fallen fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora abbreviata grazes on leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Pseudomonas syringae infects and damages flower of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Psylla pyricola sucks sap of fouled, sticky, mouldy leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Rhizopus stolonifer infects and damages fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Rosellinia necatrix infects and damages yellowing, prematurely falling leaf of Pyrus communis sens. str.
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
male of Taeniothrips inconsequens may be found on live Pyrus communis sens. str.
Remarks: season: 3-6,115

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyleborus dispar feeds within live cambium of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Zeuzera pyrina feeds within live bud of Pyrus communis sens. str.

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, numerous, gregarious pycnidium of Coleophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Coleophoma cylindrospora is saprobic on dead leaf of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Cydia pomonella feeds within pear of Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
thinly stromatic pycnidium of Dothiorella coelomycetous anamorph of Dothiorella pyrenophora var. mali is saprobic on dead twig of Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Remarks: season: 5,9

Foodplant / saprobe
more or less erumpent or superficial, very densely clustered, often stipitate, black stroma (pycnidial) of Fuckelia coelomycetous anamorph of Fuckelia conspicua is saprobic on bark of Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Remarks: season: autumn

Foodplant / gall
aecium of Gymnosporangium confusum causes gall of live fruit of Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Gymnosporangium sabinae parasitises live leaf (petiole) of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / sap sucker
Macrosiphum rosae sucks sap of live Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / web feeder
communal larva of Neurotoma saltuum feeds from web on leaf of Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Orsodacne cerasi feeds on anther of Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Oxyporus populinus parasitises live wood of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / pathogen
blistered then cracking shoot (1-2 year old) of Pear Blister Canker virus infects and damages Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / pathogen
Pear Ring Pattern Mosaic virus infects and damages pale green to yellow rings or line patterns leaf of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / pathogen
Pear Stony Pit virus infects and damages pitted or dimpled, woody if severely affected fruit of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / pathogen
Pear Vein Yellows virus infects and damages yellow banded veins with red flecking leaf (young) of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera leucotricha parasitises Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pogonocherus hispidulus feeds within dead twig of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pogonocherus hispidus feeds within dead twig of Pyrus communis sens. lat.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Rhopalosiphum insertum sucks sap of live leaf of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites caeruleus feeds within decaying shoot of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / gall
infection of Taphrina bullata causes gall of live, blistered leaf of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

Foodplant / hemiparasite
haustorium of Viscum album is hemiparasitic on branch of Pyrus communis sens. lat.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pyrus communis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pyrus communis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

European Pear

The European pear Pyrus communis, also known as common pear,[1] is a species of pear native to central and eastern Europe and southwest Asia. It is one of the most important fruits of temperate regions, being the species from which most orchard pear cultivars grown in Europe, North America, and Australia have been developed. Two other species of pears, the Nashi pear, Pyrus pyrifolia, and the Chinese white pear bai li, Pyrus × bretschneideri, are more widely grown in eastern Asia.

Origin[edit]

The cultivated European pear (P. communis subsp. communis) is thought to be descended from two subspecies of wild pears, categorized as P. communis subsp. pyraster (syn. P. pyraster) and P. communis subsp. caucasica (syn. P. caucasica), which are interfertile with domesticated pears. Archeological evidence shows these pears "were collected from the wild long before their introduction into cultivation", according to Zohary and Hopf.[2] Although they point to finds of pears in sites in Neolithic and Bronze Age European sites, "reliable information on pear cultivation first appears in the works of the Greek and the Roman writers."[3] Theophrastus, Cato the Elder, and Pliny the Elder all present information about the cultivation and grafting of pears.

Cultivation[edit]

Pear tree in flower

European pear trees are not quite as hardy as apples, but nearly so. They do, however, require some winter chilling to produce fruit. For a list of Lepidoptera whose caterpillars feed on pear tree leaves, see List of Lepidoptera that feed on pear trees.

For best and most consistent quality, European pears are picked when the fruit matures, but before they are ripe. Fruit allowed to ripen on the tree often drops before it can be picked, and in any event will be hard to pick without bruising. Pears store (and ship) well in their mature but unripe state if kept cold, and can be ripened later, a process called bletting. Some varieties, such as Beurre d'Anjou, ripen only with exposure to cold.

Fermented pear juice is called perry. In Britain, the place name "Perry" can indicate the historical presence of pear trees.

Relatively few cultivars of European or Asian pears are widely grown worldwide. Only about 20-25 European and 10-20 Asian cultivars represent virtually all the pears of commerce. Almost all European cultivars were chance seedlings or selections originating in western Europe, mostly France. The Asian cultivars all originated in Japan and China. 'Bartlett' (Williams) is the most common pear cultivar in the world, representing about 75% of US pear production.[citation needed]

Major cultivars[edit]

In the United States, 95% of reported pear production in 2004 came from four cultivars:[4]

Eight varieties of pears, from left to right, Williams' Bon Chrétien (sold in the US as Bartlett), two Red Bartlett varieties, d'Anjou, Bosc, Comice, Concorde, and Seckel


Selected European pear cultivars[edit]

Those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

  • 'Abate Fetel' (syn. Abbé Fetel; a major cultivar in Italy)
  • 'Ayers' (USA - an interspecific P. communis × P. pyrifolia hybrid from the University of Tennessee)
  • 'Bambinella' (Malta)
  • 'Beth' agm[5]
  • 'Blake's Pride' (USA)
  • 'Blanquilla' (or 'pera de agua' and 'blanquilla de Aranjuez', Spain)
  • 'Butirra Precoce Morettini'
  • 'Carmen'[6]
  • 'Clara Frijs' (major cultivar in Denmark)
  • 'Concorde' (England - a seedling of 'Conference' × 'Doyenné du Comice) agm[7]
  • 'Conference' (England, 1894; the most popular commercial variety in the UK) agm[8]
  • 'Corella' (Australia)
  • 'Coscia' (very early maturing cultivar from Italy)
  • 'Don Guindo' (Spain - strong yellow, flavoured taste)
  • 'Doyenné du Comice' (France)
  • 'Dr. Jules Guyot'
  • 'Forelle'
  • 'Glou Morceau' (Belgium, 1750)
  • 'Gorham' (USA)
  • 'Harrow Delight' (Canada)
  • 'Harrow Sweet' (Canada)
  • 'Joséphine de Malines' (Belgium - obtained by Esperen, pomologist and major of Malines in the 19th century; one of the best late season pears) agm[9]
  • 'Kieffer' (USA - a hybrid of the Chinese "sand pear", P. pyrifolia and probably 'Bartlett')
  • 'Laxton's Superb' (England; no longer used due to high susceptibility to fireblight)
  • 'Louise Bonne of Jersey' agm[10]
  • 'Luscious' (USA)
  • 'Merton Pride' (England, 1941)
  • 'Onward' (UK) agm[11]
  • 'Orient' (USA - an interspecific P. communis × P. pyrifolia hybrid)
  • 'Packham's Triumph' (Australia, 1896)
  • 'Pineapple' (USA - an interspecific P. communis × P. pyrifolia hybrid)
  • 'Red Bartlett' (USA - There are three major red-skinned mutant clones: 'Max Red Bartlett', 'Sensation Red Bartlett', 'Rosired Bartlett')
  • 'Rocha' (Portugal)
  • 'Rosemarie' (South Africa)
  • 'Seckel' (USA; late 17th century Philadelphia area; still produced, naturally resistant to fireblight)[12]
  • 'Starkrimson', also called Red Clapp's, is a red-skinned 1939 Michigan bud mutation of Clapp's Favourite. Its thick, smooth skin is a uniform, bright and intense red, and its creamy flesh is sweet and aromatic.[13]
  • 'Summer Beauty'
  • 'Sudduth'
  • 'Taylor's Gold' (New Zealand - a russeted mutant clone of 'Comice')
  • 'Williams Bonne Chrétienne' agm[14]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kew Royal Botanic Gardens: Pear
  2. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 176
  3. ^ Zohary and Hopf, Domestication, p. 177
  4. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture. (September 2004.) "Pyrus Crop Germplasm Committee: Report and genetic vulnerability statement, September 2004". (Website.) Germ Resources Information Network (GRIN), page 5. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyrus communis 'Beth'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Pero - in Italian". 
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyrus communis 'Comice'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyrus communis 'Conference'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyrus communis 'Joséphine de Malines'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyrus communis 'Louise Bonne of Jersey'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyrus communis 'Onward'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  12. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture. (September 2004.) "Pyrus Crop Germplasm Committee: Report and genetic vulnerability statement, September 2004". (Website.) Germ Resources Information Network (GRIN), pages 5-7, 10. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  13. ^ Dris, Ramdane, and S. Mohan Jain (editors.) (2004.) "Production Practices and Quality Assessment of Food Crops: Volume 3, Quality Handling and Evaluation". Springer, page 274, ISBN 978-1-4020-1700-1. Retrieved on 2007-10-10
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyrus communis 'Williams Bonne Chretienne'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
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