Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Fanleaf hawthorn is a shrub or small tree that grows to thirty feet tall and seven inches in DBH, with thorns 1.2-1.6 inches along the branchlets. Leaves are broadest near the base to the mid-section, sometimes triangular shaped, lobed, hairy at first becoming smooth at maturity. Flowers are in clusters of three to fifteen. Fruits are globe shaped to broadest above the mid-section, usually bright red with juicy flesh.

Distribution: Fanleaf hawthorn grows from northeastern North America to South Carolina and Louisiana.

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Crataegus flabellata var. grayana (Eggl.) E.J. Palmer:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Crataegus flabellata (Bosc ex Spach) K. Koch:
China (Asia)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

Although fanleaf hawthorn will succeed in partial shade and different soil types, it grows best in full sunlight and well-drained loamy soils. It will tolerate wet soils before becoming drought tolerant once established. It is also wind tolerant making it a good tree species in shelterbelt planting. It is also tolerant of atmospheric pollution and performs well in urban settings.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for Crataegus grayana Eggl.
Catalog Number: US 492345
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. W. Eggleston
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Caughnawaga Reservation., Quebec, Canada, North America
  • Isotype: Eggleston, W. W. 1908. Rhodora. 10: 80.
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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation from Seed or Grafting: Fanleaf hawthorn can be propagated by either seeds or grafting. Successful propagation using seeds requires acid scarification followed by warm stratification and prechilling. Seeds, whose numbers per lb. varies with species, are planted early in the fall, in drill rows eight to twelve inches apart and covered with 1/4 inch of soil. Seedlings must not be kept in the nursery longer than a year.

Containerized trees should be planted when they are no more than eight feet tall, in the fall or spring. Balled and burlapped trees should be planted in early spring.

Grafting on seedling stock of Crataegus oxyacantha or Crataegus monogyna is best carried out in the winter to early spring.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Widespread in eastern North America; 30 localities mapped for Ontario alone by Phipps, according to Ontario CDC (Feb94).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Widespread throughout eastern North America; known to be common (S4S5) in Ontario. However, as treated here excludes the abundant species C. macrosperma.

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values.

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

Although insects and diseases seldom affect fanleaf hawthorn; however, it is susceptible to fireblight, cedar-hawthorn rust, cedar-quince rust, leaf blight, fruit rot, and leaf spot.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Consult you local nurseries to choose the right cultivar for your specific landscape. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Pruning should be done in the winter or early spring in order to maintain a clear shoot leader on young trees and/or remove the weakest branches to allow more light to pass through. Suckers or stems arising from the roots should be removed when they become noticeable.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Erosion Control: Because it tolerates a wide variety of sites, it can be planted to stabilize banks, for shelterbelts, and for erosion control.

Timber: Although the wood is hard and strong, it has no commercial value except for tool handles and other small items.

Wildlife: It provides excellent food and cover for wildlife.

Beautification: Excellent for environmental plantings including small specimen tree and shrub border.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: As treated currently (1994) by Kartesz, excludes the widespread Crataegus macrosperma, which by some has been lumped into this otherwise rather rare species.

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