Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: It is a small tree that grows to twenty feet high; with wide-spreading, horizontal, thorny branches. Leaves are broadest below or above the middle, thin, dull yellow-green, shiny, pubescent underneath, some with shallow lobes near tip. Flowers are produced in several flowered clusters with anthers mostly pink. Fruits are attached on slender stalks, elongated, and bright red in color.

Distribution: Pear hawthorn grows from Ontario and Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri.

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Alternative names

blackthorn

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

Although Crataegus calpodendron will succeed in partial shade and different soil types, it grows best in full sunlight, in well-drained loamy soils. Pear hawthorn will tolerate wet soils becoming drought tolerant once established. It is also wind tolerant, making it a good tree species in shelterbelt planting. It is tolerant of atmospheric pollution and performs well in urban settings.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for Crataegus calpodendron var. gigantea Kruschke
Catalog Number: US 2865404
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Kruschke
Year Collected: 1943
Locality: SE corner of Greenfield Park., Milwauke, Wisconsin, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Kruschke, E. P. 1965. Milwaukee Public Mus. Publ. Bot. 3: 26.
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Isotype for Crataegus calpodendron var. gigantea Kruschke
Catalog Number: US 2865403
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Kruschke
Year Collected: 1943
Locality: SE corner of Greenfield Park., Milwauke, Wisconsin, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Kruschke, E. P. 1965. Milwaukee Public Mus. Publ. Bot. 3: 26.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type collection for Crataegus acanthacolonensis Laughlin
Catalog Number: US 2716616
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): K. Laughlin
Year Collected: 1954
Locality: Lisle, Morton Arboretum, Thornhill., Du Page, Illinois, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Laughlin, K. 1956. Man. Hawthorns Cook & Du Page Counties ser. III. 9.
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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation from Seed: Seeds can propagate Pear hawthorn. Successful propagation using seeds requires acid scarification followed by warm stratification and prechilling. Seeds, whose numbers per lb. varies with species, are acid scarified for thirty minutes, prechilled for three months, then planted early in the fall, in drill rows eight to twelve inches apart and covered with 1/4 inch of soil. Seedlings must not be kept in the nursery longer than a year.

Containerized trees should be planted when they are no more than eight feet tall, in the fall or spring. Balled and burlapped trees should be planted in early spring.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

Although pests and diseases seldom affect it, it is susceptible to fireblight, cedar-hawthorn rust, cedar-quince rust, leaf blight, fruit rot, and leaf spot.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Consult your local nurseries to choose the right cultivar for your specific landscape. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Pruning should be done in the winter or early spring in order to maintain a clear shoot leader on young trees and/or remove the weakest branches to allow more light to pass through. Suckers or stems arising from the roots should be removed when they become noticeable.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Erosion Control: Because it tolerates a wide variety of sites, it can be planted to stabilize banks, for shelterbelts, and from wind and water erosion.

Timber: Although the wood is hard and strong, it has no commercial value except for tool handles and other small items.

Wildlife: It provides excellent cover and nesting sites for many smaller birds. Birds, rodents and other smaller mammals eat the small fruits. White tailed deer browse the young twigs and leaves.

Beautification: Excellent for environmental plantings including small specimen tree and shrub border.

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Wikipedia

Crataegus calpodendron

Crataegus calpodendron is a species of hawthorn native to much of the eastern United States and to Ontario, Canada. The common name late hawthorn refers to the flowering time, which is later than most North American hawthorns.[2]

References and external links[edit]

  1. ^ Phipps, J.B.; Robertson, K.R.; Smith, P.G.; Rohrer, J.R. (1990). A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany. 68(10): 2209–2269.
  2. ^ *Phipps, J.B., O’Kennon, R.J., Lance, R.W. (2003). Hawthorns and medlars. Royal Horticultural Society, Cambridge, U.K.


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Crataegus fontanesiana

J.B. Phipps has shown[2] that Crataegus fontanesiana are "somewhat narrow-leaved forms of C. calpodendron". The name was mis-applied for much of the 19th and 20th centuries to some forms of C. crus-galli.

References and external links

  1. ^ Phipps, J.B.; Robertson, K.R.; Smith, P.G.; Rohrer, J.R. (1990). A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany. 68(10): 2209–2269.
  2. ^ Phipps, J.B. (1987) What is Crataegus fontanesiana (Spach) Steud.? (Rosaceae). Taxon 36: 641–644


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