Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native perennial plant is unbranched and about 3-6' tall. The central stem is smooth and sometimes reddish. The alternate compound leaves are up to 2' long. They are often yellowish green, and become much smaller and sparser while ascending the central stem. Each compound leaf consists of 1-7 palmate leaflets that are aligned along each reddish leaf-stem in succession. Each leaflet is up to 6" long and across and has 2-5 cleft lobes. The margins are coarsely dentate. The inflorescence occurs on a long naked stalk, consisting of a panicle of pink buds and flowers about 5-8" across. Each flower is about 1/3" across, consisting of 5 pink petals and numerous long white stamens with pink anthers. The overall appearance of the inflorescence resembles wind-tossed fluff or foam, and is quite beautiful. The flowers bloom from the bottom up, and have little or no fragrance. The blooming period occurs from early to mid-summer, and lasts about 3 weeks. Afterwards, straight reddish fruits develop that are about ¼–½" across. The root system consists of a taproot and rhizomes. Queen-of-the-Prairie tends to form colonies under moist conditions.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments

This is a wonderful plant, if only it would bloom longer! In prairies, the pink flowers rise above the surrounding vegetation and can be seen from a considerable distance. It has a very distinctive appearance, and can't be confused with any other native plant. However, the introduced Filipendula ulmaria (Queen-of-the-Meadow) is somewhat similar. This latter species differs from Queen-of-the-Prairie by having white flowers and twisted fruits. Return
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Filipendula rubra (Hill) B.L. Rob.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Queen-of-the-Prairie in Illinois

Filipendula rubra (Queen-of-the-Prairie)
(bees collect pollen for their larvae, while other insects feed on the pollen; nectar is not produced by the flowers; all observations are from Aspinwall & Christian)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus sp. cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella sp. cp, Halictus ligatus cp, Lasioglossum sp. cp fq

Flies
Syrphidae: Unidentified spp. fp; Muscidae: Unidentified spp. fp

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus marginatus fp gnw

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Faunal Associations

The colorful flowers provide pollen as a reward for insect visitors, but not nectar. Various species of bees collect pollen from the flowers and probably are the most important pollinators. Beetles and flies feed on the pollen. Wasps and butterflies may land on the flowers looking for nectar, but their search will be futile. Little is known about the floral-fauna relationships for birds and mammals. The foliage doesn't seem to be bothered by deer and other herbivorous mammals. Photographic Location
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Comments: Filipendula rubra is at high risk to habitat loss and fragmentation. Forest management practices may also impact the species, as sedimentation and lack of disturbance leading to succession have been reported as threats. Collection could also be a minor factor. (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, and wet to moist conditions. The soil should be high in organic content, and can contain a little sand. The cooler climate of the Great Lakes region is preferred, rather than hot, dry summer heat. Occasionally, the leaves become spotted from foliar disease, otherwise it is not subject to any special problems. Range & Habitat
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Filipendula rubra

Filipendula rubra, also known as Queen-of-the-prairie, is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae native to shady and moist habitats throughout northeastern and central USA. The plant can grow in either sunlight of part shady regions. The plant can grow in the shade if the soil is not always kept moist, the shade helps keep the soil from drying out from direct sunlight which causes a quicker evaporation of the water present in the soil. Filipendula Rubra grows tall and firm, this plant produces blooms that are tiny and pink above its ferny, pointy leaves.[2]

Of the numerous garden cultivars, 'Venusta' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[3]

Occurrence[edit]

The species is native from Pennsylvania westward to Illinois, and north of Georgia.[4] However, F. rubra is fairly successful as an alien species in places such as Massachusetts, where it was first recorded in 1875 and is still found.[5] In many places where it is native, such as Indiana, and places where it is alien as well, F. rubra is a threatened species.[6] The typical habitat F. rubra is wetland plant communities, particularly calcareous fens, although it is occasionally found in spring seeps and wet prairies. Populations are generally small and widely separated from one another as a result of the rarity and smallness of calcareous fens.[7]

Etymology[edit]

Filipendula: filum is Latin for "thread" and pendulus is Latin for "hanging," Rubra is Latin for red.[8]

Characteristics[edit]

The plant is a spreading herbaceous perennial growing to 1.8–2.5 m (5 ft 11 in–8 ft 2 in) tall by 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) wide. With large lobed leaves and branching red stems, it produces corymbs of deep pink or peach, sweet fragrant flowers in the summer.[9] Inflorescences of F. rubra are panicles possessing 200-1,000 small pink-petaled flowers on 1-2m stems can have somewhere to 5,000 seeds.[7] The numerous stamens give the flower a fuzzy appearance.[10] Each flower has carpels that are free from one another, while also having five to 15 pistils. However, these seeds are small due to the large size of its clones yet when seeds are produced seedlings may fail to establish in large numbers.[11] The plant grows in an aggressive manner with its creeping roots. It is easy to properly care for the filipendula rubra. The foliage texture of the plant is coarse and the colorranges from a medium to dark green.[2]

Pollination[edit]

Filipendula rubra is known for its air-borne pollen, however pollination is only effective (can create a seed) when pollen is transferred to a different plant, due to the fact that F. rubra is self-incompatible. The vast majority of pollen will be derived from inflorescences within the same clone and thus incompatible. Pollination is given help due to insects spreading pollen such as the "sweat bee".[7] Yet when given the choice,[clarification needed] the leaf beetle Galerucella calmariensis will not feed or lay eggs on F. rubra.[12]

Endangerment[edit]

Filipendula rubra is considered an endangered species by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina and it is considered threatened in Iowa and Michigan.[13]

Causes for Endangerment[edit]

Although Filipendula rubra is considered an endangered species by the USDA in several of the states that it is native to, it is not caused by animals who eat the plant, or any diseases that may infect a plant.[14] Rather, the F.rubra is considered endangered/threatened because of its trouble pollinating. The process the plant has to go through in order to pollinate is difficult than that of regular plants due to its inability to fertilize itself (explained further in the section above about pollination).[7] F. rubra is further endangered by habitat loss throughout much of its native distribution.

Uses[edit]

Native Americans have used the root of F. rubra in traditional medicine for treating heart problems and as an aphrodisiac.[15] The root has a high tannin content, making it useful as an astringent for treating diarrhea, dysentery, and bleeding.[16] The plant has no other known use except for the aesthetically pleasing and fragrant flowers that bloom from it, which makes it an attractive plant for growing in gardens.

Related Species[edit]

Filipendula Palmata

Siberian Meadowsweet (Filipendula palmata): Grows to be up to 4 feet tall with medium-green palmate leaves with furry white undersides. The flowers it blooms range from a pale to deep pink color and are in clusters on sturdy stems. It is native to Russia, China, and Japan.

Japanese Meadowsweet (Filipendula purpurea): Also grows up to a height of 4 feet tall with medium-green pointed, leaves and tall purple-red flower stems with deep pink almost red blooms. Native to Japan.

Queen of the Meadow, Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) grows the shortest of the 3 related species up to 2 to 3 feet tall with pointed, medium-green leaves, it grows a branched flower stem with dense clusters of creamy white blooms. Native to Europe, Western Asia.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  2. ^ a b c Explore Cornell - Home Gardening - Flower Growing Guides - Growing Guide." Explore Cornell - Home Gardening - Flower Growing Guides. N.p., 2006. Web. 23 Oct. 2013.
  3. ^ "Filipendula rubra 'Venusta' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  4. ^ Burrell, C. Colston (June–July 1995). "Queen of the Prairie". Horticulture 73: 88. 
  5. ^ Sorrie, Bruce A. Alien Vascular Plants In Massachusetts. 107 931 (n.d.). pp. 284–329. 
  6. ^ Ruch, D. G.; Torke, B. G., Hess, B. R., Badger, K. S., & Rothrock, P. E. (2009). "The vascular flora and plant communities of the bennett wetland complex in Henry County, Indiana". Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 118 (1): 39–54. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d Aspinwall, Nevin, and Terry Christian (1992). "Pollination biology, seed production, and population structure in Queen-of-the-Prairie, Filipendula rubra (Rosaceae) at Botkin Fen, Missouri". American Journal of Botany 79 (5): 488–494. 
  8. ^ "Plants of Wisconsin". Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium. 
  9. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  10. ^ http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FIRU2
  11. ^ Dickinson, T. A., E. Lo, and N. Talent. "Polyploidy, Reproductive Biology, and Rosaceae: Understanding Evolution and Making Classifications."Plant Systematics and Evolution 266.1-2 (2007): 59-78. Print.
  12. ^ Kaufman, L.N., et al. “Host Specificity Testing of Galerucella calmariensis L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Wild and Ornamental Plant Species.” Biological Control Volume 18, Issue 2, June 2000, Pages 157-164, ISSN 1049-9644, http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bcon.2000.0820. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104996440090820X.) Web. 16 Oct. 2013.
  13. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Filipendula rubra'
  14. ^ Filipendula Rubra - Plant Finder." Filipendula Rubra - Plant Finder. Missouri Botanical Garden, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=x930>
  15. ^ http://www.kew.org/plants-fungi/Filipendula-rubra.htm
  16. ^ http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Filipendula+rubra
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!