The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Douglas, M., J. Douglas. 2005. Butterflies of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA: University of Michigan Press.
  • Glassberg, J. 1999. Butterflies Through Binoculars: the East. New York City, New York, USA: Oxford University Press, Inc..
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Layberry, ., P. Hall, J. Lafontaine. 2002. The Butterflies of Canada. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. Accessed April 01, 2009 at
  • Nielsen, M. 1999. Michigan Butterflies and Skippers. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: MSU Extension. Accessed April 01, 2009 at
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Robinson, G., P. Ackery, I. Kitching, G. Beccaloni, L. Hernández. 2002. Hostplants of the moth and butterfly caterpillars of America north of Mexico. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 69: 1-824.
  • Scott, J. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press.
  • Wagner, D. 2005. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press.


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