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Introduction

Introduction:

With 219 described species in 17 genera, Sparganothini are one of the smallest tribes in the subfamily Tortricinae; however, based on specimens in collections, many species and genera still await description. Several of the included genera have been the subject of recent monographic treatments: Sparganothina Powell (Landry & Powell 2001), Amorbia Clemens (Phillips-Rodriguez & Powell 2007), and Sparganothoides Lambert & Powell (Kruse & Powell 2009). The tribe occurs almost exclusively in the New World, with five species of Sparganothis Hübner and two species of Cenopis Zeller in the Palearctic, and Lambertiodes Diakonoff with two species in India, Nepal, and China.  The monophyly of Sparganothini is supported convincingly by several morphological characters including the long, porrect labial palpi, modified scaling on the frons in males, subbasally attached (i.e., with a posterior and anterior lobe), long-scaled socii, the reduction or loss of the gnathos, a mesially spined transtilla, and the aedeagus with a bundle of slender deciduous cornuti (the last shared with Archipini and Atteriini).   Most early authors treated sparganothines as members of Tortricidae. However, Walsingham (1913-1914) proposed the family Sparganothidae for Aesiocopa Coelostathma, Sparganothis, Amorbia, and Platynota (along with several other genera that are now considered unrelated to the tribe, e.g., Atteria Walker, Homona Walker, Epagoge Hübner) based primarily on the forked R4 + R5 of the forewing and the presence of a hindwing cubital pecten in some species. Busck (1940) treated the group as a subfamily, and this concept was adopted by Obraztsov (1949, 1954–1957) and followed by Lambert (1950) in his unpublished Ph.D. thesis and by Powell (1964a). In 1961, Diakonoff treated the group as a tribe, and in most treatments since then (e.g., MacKay, 1962; Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov, 1973, 1984; Razowski, 1975) have followed that view. Although Busck (1940) considered Niasoma to be a sparganothine, Lambert (1950) and Obraztsov (unpublished) did not; and on this basis Powell (1964a, 1983b) proposed the tribe Niasomini to accommodate this divergent, monotypic genus. Subsequently, Powell (1985) concluded that Niasoma and three other monotypic genera (i.e., Synalocha, Synnoma, and Syllonoma) all belong in Sparganothini. Females of Spraganothini lay flattened, elliptical eggs in imbricate clusters, usually of 25–120 eggs, although clusters may included fewer eggs. Eggs are green, gray, yellow, or orange, varying among genera, and usually are covered with a colorless or white colleterial secretion (black in Synnoma) that extends beyond the edge of the egg mass. The larvae of most Sparganothini are polyphagous leaf-rollers, feeding primarily on the foliage, flowers, and fruit of many families of dicotyledenous plants in shelters made from one or more leaves of the host plant. However, a few species may be specialists, e.g., Platynota larreana on Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae) and Sparganothis tristriata on conifers.  Larvae are typically tortricine with a shared D2 pinaculum (“saddle”) on the dorsum of A9, D1 and SD1 on separate pinacula on A9, SV-group on A1, 2, 7, 8, 9 as 3:3:3:2:2, and an anal fork. They differ from the larvae of most Archipini in having the V setae situated farther apart on A9 than on A8, similar to that of Atteriini.  Adults of most species are nocturnal and are attracted to lights, but a very few species are diurnal, e.g., Synnoma lynosyrana and Synalocha gutierreziae, and females of the former do not fly (Powell, 1976). Seasonality, voltinism, and patterns of adult emergence are species specific; many species are multivoltine and active throughout the growing season, many Nearctic species have an obligate single generation. For some wide ranging species, flight period and adult activity vary throughout their range.

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