Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Rose Family (Rosaceae). Native shrubs or small trees growing to 7 meters high, variable in growth form, forming thickets, mats, or clumps, the underground portions including a massive root crown, horizontal and vertical rhizomes, and an extensive root system; bark: thin, light brown and tinged with red, smooth or shallowly fissured. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, ovate to nearly round, 2.5-3 cm long, with lateral, parallel veins in 8-13 pairs, the margins coarsely serrate or dentate to below middle or sometimes entire or with only a few small teeth at the top. Flowers are in short, dense, 5-15-flowered, upright racemes, the petals white, 1-2 cm long and strap-like, sepals more or less long-hairy on the inside, reflexing in age, stamens about 20, styles 5, ovary persistently tomentose at the top. Fruit are 6-11 mm long, smooth, purple-black, slightly gray-blue waxy, the pulp fleshy and sweet; seeds 4-10. The common name refers to the city in Saskatchewan, Canada, in the heart of the species’ range.

Variation within the species: Considerable variation is recognized. Var. alnifolia occurs over the whole range of the species, except for California, where only var. semiintegrifolia is found. Other varieties include the following: var. cusickii (Fern.) C.L. Hitchc. and var. humptulipensis (G.N. Jones) C.L. Hitchc.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Saskatoon serviceberry is distributed from east-central California north
to southern Alaska; east to Ontario and southwestern Quebec; and south
to southern Colorado and Utah [31,44,52,53,66,88].

Varieties of Saskatoon serviceberry overlap in distribution. Their
geographical ranges are as follows:

The typical variety of Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia
var. alnifolia) occurs from southern Alaska south to southern Oregon,
mostly east of the Cascade Range, and east to the Dakotas, Nebraska, and
Colorado. Amelanchier alnifolia var. humptulipensis occurs on the
western slope of the Cascade Range in British Columbia and Washington
[52].

Cusick's serviceberry is distributed on the east slope of the Cascade
Range from British Columbia to Oregon and east in the Rocky Mountains to
Wyoming [52].

Dwarf serviceberry is distributed from southeastern Washington south to
northeastern California and east to Montana and Colorado [51,52].

Pacific serviceberry is distributed west of the Cascade and Sierra
Nevada ranges from central California to Alaska and east to northern
Idaho and western Montana [21,51,52].
  • 21. Brown, David E. 1982. Great Basin montane scrubland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 83-84. [8890]
  • 44. Halverson, Nancy M., compiler. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on National Forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233]
  • 51. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 52. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 53. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 66. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1976. Atlas of United States trees. Volume 3. Minor western hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1314. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 13 p. 290 maps. [10430]
  • 88. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 31. Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. 1982. Field guide to North American edible wild plants. [Place of publication unknown]: Outdoor Life Books. 286 p. [21103]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Occurrence in North America

AK CA CO ID IA MN MT NE NV ND
OR SD UT WA WI WY AB BC MB NT
ON PQ SK YT

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Adaptation

Saskatoon is common in lower-elevation coniferous forests but grows sporadically up to timberline. It also occurs in montane chaparral, mountain shrub, and the upper limits of pinyon-juniper communities. In grasslands, it mostly occurs in wooded draws, woodland interfaces, and riparian zones. It occurs in open to lightly shaded disturbed sites such as thickets, fencerows, clearings, and edges of woods, and it is conspicuous after disturbances such as fire, logging, or insect outbreak. Found at elevations of 50-3000 meters; flowering April-June; and fruiting (June-)July-August.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Saskatoon is distributed along the Pacific coast from Alaska to California, eastward to Utah, Colorado, Iowa, and Minnesota, and Ontario and Quebec, north through the plains and prairies into the Northwest Territories (Keewatin and Mackenzie) of Canada. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: root crown, shrub

Saskatoon serviceberry is a native, deciduous shrub or small tree
reaching 3 to 26 feet (1-8 m) at maturity. Grown alone, the crown is
rounded with spreading to erect branches [51]. Growth form is highly
variable, however; Saskatoon serviceberry often forms thickets, mats, or
grows in clumps [48]. The flowers and fruits are borne in terminal
clusters; the fruits are berrylike pomes. Each fruit contains 4 to 10
small seeds, some of which are usually infertile. The seedcoat is
leathery in texture [20].

Underground portions of Saskatoon serviceberry include a massive
root crown, horizontal and vertical rhizomes, and an extensive root
system [19,101]. Bradley [19] reported that the root crown a 9-year-old
individual excavated in Pattee Canyon, Montana, measured 4 inches (10.5
cm) in diameter and 8 inches (20.7 cm) in length. Rhizomes extending
from the root crown were long and massive; horizontal rhizomes reached at
least 7.8 inches (20 cm) and vertical rhizomes extended at least 30.4
inches (78 cm). Roots of a 12-inch-tall (30 cm) Saskatoon serviceberry
excavated in Idaho extended 32 inches (80 cm) below ground [105].

Saskatoon serviceberry is relatively short lived. Lonner (cited in [48])
reported that in western Montana, 61 percent of 470 plants were between
6 and 20 years old (mean = 17.9). The oldest individual was 85.
  • 19. Bradley, Anne Foster. 1984. Rhizome morphology, soil distribution, and the potential fire survival of eight woody understory species in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 183 p. Thesis. [502]
  • 20. Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med. serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 212-215. [7516]
  • 48. Hemmer, Dennis M. 1975. Serviceberry: ecology, distribution, and relationships to big game. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 76 p. Thesis. [1125]
  • 51. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 101. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 105. Woolley, Samuel B., compiler. 1936. Root systems of important range plants of the Boise River watershed: A catalogue of species excavated by Liter E. Spence, collaborator. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 59 p. [78]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Type collection for Amelanchier leptodendron Lunell
Catalog Number: US 1725289
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Lunell
Year Collected: 1918
Locality: Turtle Mountains., Rolette, North Dakota, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Lunell, J. 1918. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 5: 237.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the term: mesic

Saskatoon serviceberry grows on mountain slopes, hillsides, prairies,
and riparian zones [31]. Pfister and others [81] reported Saskatoon
serviceberry in every habitat type in Montana except timberline and
moist subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) types. Atzet and McCrimmon [12]
noted that in the Cascade Range of Oregon, white fir-lodgepole pine (A.
concolor-Pinus contorta)/Saskatoon serviceberry associations tend to
occur in frost pockets.

Saskatoon serviceberry grows on relatively infertile soils but also
occurs on nutrient-rich substrates [91]. Soils are well-drained and
typically mesic, although moisture regime varies from moist to
seasonally dry [48,57,91]. Saskatoon serviceberry apparently does not
tolerate prolonged drought. In Montana it does not occur on sites with
less than 14 inches (355 mm) of annual precipitation [48].

Saskatoon serviceberry occurs from near sea level to timberline [48].
Elevational range by state is:

California 160 to 8,530 feet (50-2,600 m) [51]
Colorado 5,000 to 10,000 feet (1,500-3,000 m) [46]
Utah 4,000 to 9,500 feet (1,220-2,900 m) [103]
  • 103. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 12. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. [12977]
  • 46. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 48. Hemmer, Dennis M. 1975. Serviceberry: ecology, distribution, and relationships to big game. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 76 p. Thesis. [1125]
  • 51. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 57. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 81. Pfister, Robert D.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Arno, Stephen F.; Presby, Richard C. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p. [1878]
  • 91. Stanton, Frank. 1974. Wildlife guidelines for range fire rehabilitation. Tech. Note 6712. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 90 p. [2221]
  • 31. Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. 1982. Field guide to North American edible wild plants. [Place of publication unknown]: Outdoor Life Books. 286 p. [21103]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: bog

Saskatoon serviceberry is common in lower-elevation coniferous forests
[91]. It also occurs in montane chaparral [14,21], mountain shrub
[91,103], and the upper limits of pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.)
communities [91]. In plains grasslands it mostly occurs in wooded
draws, grassland-woodland interfaces, and riparian zones [39].

Associated species: Riparian - Saskatoon serviceberry is common in
riparian areas throughout its distribution. Riparian associates in the
Northern Rocky Mountains include white alder (Alnus rhombifolia) [75],
hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), bitter
cherry (P. emarginata), Greene mountain-ash, and elderberry (Sambucus
spp.) [1].

Montana chaparral - Associates in montane chaparral of California
include creeping snowberry (Symphoricarpos mollis), Sierra currant
(Ribes nevadensis), Sierra gooseberry (R. roezlii), California rose
(Rosa californica), Sierra plum (P. subcordata), Sierra mountain-misery
(Chamaebatia foliolosa), and conifer saplings, especially ponderosa pine
(Pinus ponderosa) [14].

Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) - Mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus spp.),
chokecherry, and snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp.) are common associates
throughout the Gambel oak type [21]. Associates in Gambel oak/Saskatoon
serviceberry habitat types of Colorado include Oregon-grape (Mahonia
repens), chokecherry, mountain snowberry (S. oreophilis), and elk sedge
(Carex geyeri) [4].

Pinyon-juniper - Common associates include singleleaf pinyon (Pinus
monophylla), Utah juniper (J. osteosperma), bitterbrush (Purshia
tridentata), Stansbury cliffrose (P. mexicana var. stansburiana), and
curlleaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) [107]. Associates
in singleleaf pinyon/Saskatoon serviceberry communities in southeastern
Nevada include greenleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos patula), big
sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), black sagebrush (A. nova), rubber
rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), Gambel oak, and Stansbury phlox
(Phlox stansburyi) [15].

Bur oak (Q. macrocarpa) - In Bur oak/chokecherry woodland of North
Dakota, associates of Saskatoon serviceberry include green ash (Fraxinus
pennsylvanica), western snowberry (S. occidentalis), and northern
bedstraw (Galium boreale) [39,40].

Colorado - Associates in bigtooth aspen (Populus angustifolia)/Saskatoon
serviceberry habitat types include Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum),
water birch (Betula occidentalis), and mountain snowberry. Associates
in blue spruce (Picea pungens)/Saskatoon serviceberry types include
red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), elk
sedge, Thurber fescue (Festuca thurberi), and Lapland cornel (Cornus
suecica) [4].

Alaska - Saskatoon serviceberry is uncommon in Alaska [53]. Associates
in white spruce-black spruce-quaking aspen (Picea glauca-P.
mariana-Populus tremuloides) on the Kenai Peninsula include paper birch
(B. papyrifera), Bebb willow (Salix bebbiana), Scouler willow (S.
scouleriana), bog birch (B. glandulosa), and Greene mountain-ash [89].

Publications describing plant habitat or community types in which
Saskatoon serviceberry is dominant follow.

Classification of the forest vegetation of Colorado by habitat type and
community type [4]
Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain
Province [12]
Vegetation and soils of the Pine and Mathews Canyon watersheds [15] (NV)
Sagebrush-steppe habitat types in northern Colorado: a first
approximation [36]
Grassland, shrubland, and forestland habitat types of the White
River-Arapaho National Forest [50]
Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National
Forests: a preliminary habitat type classification [58]
Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region [76]
The Quercus garryana forests of the Willamette Valley, Oregon [96]
  • 103. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 1. Agee, James K. 1996. Fire in restoration of Oregon white oak woodlands. In: Hardy, Colin C.; Arno, Stephen F., eds. The use of fire in forest restoration: A general session of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1995 September 14-16; Seattle, WA. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-341. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 72-73. [26819]
  • 4. Alexander, Robert R. 1987. Classification of the forest vegetation of Colorado by habitat type and community type. Res. Note RM-478. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 14 p. [9092]
  • 12. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. [12977]
  • 14. Biswell, Harold H. 1974. Effects of fire on chaparral. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 321-364. [14547]
  • 15. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Tueller, Paul T.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr. 1969. Vegetation and soils of the Pine and Mathews Canyon watersheds. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 109 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [7437]
  • 21. Brown, David E. 1982. Great Basin montane scrubland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 83-84. [8890]
  • 36. Francis, Richard E. 1983. Sagebrush-steppe habitat types in northern Colorado: a first approximation. In: Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM. Abluquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region: 67-71. [955]
  • 39. Girard, Michele M.; Goetz, Harold; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1984. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota. In: Noble, Daniel L; Winokur, Robert P.,eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Publication No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Biology Department: 10-14. [1024]
  • 40. Girard, Michele M.; Goetz, Harold; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1989. Native woodland habitat types of southwestern North Dakota. Res. Pap. RM-281. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p. [6319]
  • 50. Hess, Karl; Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Grassland, shrubland, and forestland habitat types of the White River-Arapaho National Forest. Final Report. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 335 p. [1142]
  • 53. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 58. Komarkova, Vera; Alexander, Robert R.; Johnston, Barry C. 1988. Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National Forests: a preliminary habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-163. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 65 p. [5798]
  • 75. Miller, Thomas B.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1986. Sampling and data analyses of narrow, variable-width gallery forests over environmental gradients. Tropical Ecology. 27: 132-142. [12310]
  • 76. Mueggler, Walter F. 1988. Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-250. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 135 p. [5902]
  • 89. Spencer, David L; Hakala, John B. 1964. Moose and fire on the Kenai. In: Proceedings, 3rd annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1964 April 9-10; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 10-33. [5970]
  • 91. Stanton, Frank. 1974. Wildlife guidelines for range fire rehabilitation. Tech. Note 6712. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 90 p. [2221]
  • 96. Thilenius, John F. 1968. The Quercus garryana forests of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Ecology. 49(6): 1124-1133. [8765]
  • 107. Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Tueller, P. T. 1976. Great Basin plant communities--pristine and grazed. In: Elston, Robert, ed. Holocene environmental change in the Great Basin. Res. Pap. No. 6. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Nevada Archeological Society: 187-216. [2676]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: association, forb

101 Bluebunch wheatgrass
102 Idaho fescue
103 Green fescue
104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
203 Riparian woodland
208 Ceanothus mixed chaparral
209 Montane shrubland
210 Bitterbrush
301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama
302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass
303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass
304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
305 Idaho fescue-Richardson needlegrass
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue
317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
319 Bitterbrush-rough fescue
320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue
322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
409 Tall forb
411 Aspen woodland
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
413 Gambel oak
415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany
416 True mountain-mahogany
417 Littleleaf mountain-mahogany
419 Bittercherry
420 Snowbrush
421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose
422 Riparian
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association
601 Bluestem prairie
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass
608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass
609 Wheatgrass-grama
611 Blue grama-buffalograss
612 Sagebrush-grass
805 Riparian

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: shrub

K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest
K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest
K003 Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest
K004 Fir-hemlock forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K006 Redwood forest
K007 Red fir forest
K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest
K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest
K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K026 Oregon oakwoods
K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K033 Chaparral
K034 Montane chaparral
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K063 Foothills prairie
K074 Bluestem prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100
K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K098 Northern floodplain forest

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES11 Spruce-fir
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES19 Aspen-birch
FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES23 Fir-spruce
FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce
FRES25 Larch
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

1 Jack pine
12 Black spruce
16 Aspen
42 Bur oak
63 Cottonwood
107 White spruce
204 Black spruce
206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir
207 Red fir
210 Interior Douglas-fir
211 White fir
212 Western larch
213 Grand fir
215 Western white pine
216 Blue spruce
217 Aspen
218 Lodgepole pine
219 Limber pine
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
222 Black cottonwood-willow
224 Western hemlock
225 Western hemlock-Sitka spruce
226 Coastal true fir-hemlock
227 Western redcedar-western hemlock
228 Western redcedar
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock
232 Redwood
233 Oregon white oak
234 Douglas-fir-tanoak-Pacific madrone
236 Bur oak
237 Interior ponderosa pine
239 Pinyon-juniper
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir
245 Pacific ponderosa pine
247 Jeffrey pine
248 Knobcone pine
256 California mixed subalpine

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Establishment

Saskatoon reproduces from seed but more commonly by sprouting from the root crown and rhizomes and by layering. Seedlings can take up to 5 years before they start to produce fruit, but other starts may begin at 2-4 years old and with proper management can yield 8-10 tons of fruit per hectare. Flowers are produced almost every year, but good seed crops may be produced only every 3-5 years because of drought, spring frost, and/or juniper rust. Seeds require cold stratification to break dormancy and may remain viable for 10 or more years. Natural dispersal is by birds and mammals. One individual of saskatoon is known to have reached 85 years but the average age apparently may be closer to 20 years.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Fire Management Implications

More info for the terms: cover, fern, fire intensity, fire management, forbs, fuel, natural, prescribed fire, presence, reburn, shrub, shrubs, top-kill, wildfire

Evidently managers in western Montana have a large window of opportunity to
treat Saskatoon serviceberry with fire. All aboveground stems were killed by all
fire treatments, while rhizomes did not receive much heat treatment. This
indicates that even low-intensity fires are sufficient to top-kill Saskatoon
serviceberry, and that fires in natural fuels are unlikely to kill underground
buds and remove Saskatoon serviceberry from the site.

The weak relationship between sprouting response and phenological stage suggests
that the season in which Saskatoon serviceberry is burned is not critical to
postfire response of Saskatoon serviceberry in western Montana. Similar results
can be expected from spring, summer, or fall fire.

The size of the plant was positively related to sprouting response, while
proportion of dead stem in the plant was not a deterrent to sprouting. The
management implication is that even decadent plants may be successfully treated
with fire.

2nd
CASE STUDY:



FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION:


Fryer, Janet L., compiler. 1997.
Prescribed fire effects on Saskatoon serviceberry in a northern Idaho rangeland.
In: Amelanchier alnifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [

var months = new Array(12);
months[0] = "January";
months[1] = "February";
months[2] = "March";
months[3] = "April";
months[4] = "May";
months[5] = "June";
months[6] = "July";
months[7] = "August";
months[8] = "September";
months[9] = "October";
months[10] = "November";
months[11] = "December";
var date = new Date();
var year = date.getFullYear();
var month = date.getMonth();
var day = date.getDate();
document.write(year+", "+months[month]+" "+day);
].

REFERENCES :

Leege, Thomas A. 1978. Changes in browse intercept, production and seedlings after burning--Holly Creek.
Job Completion Report No. W-160-R. Elk ecology: Range rehabilitation by spring burning: July 1, 1965
to June 30, 1978. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Fish and Game. 11 p. [62].

Leege, Thomas A. 1978. Changes in browse production after burning vs. slashing and burning on the four
cardinal aspects--Polar Ridge. Job Completion Report No. W-160-R. Elk ecology: Range rehabilitation
by spring burning: July 1, 1967 to June 30, 1978. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Fish & Game. 20 p.
[63].

Leege, Thomas A. 1979. Effects of repeated prescribed burns on northern Idaho elk browse. Northwest Science.
53(2): 107-113. [64].

Leege, Thomas A.; Hickey, William O. 1966. Lochsa elk study. Big Game Surveys and Investigations: W 85-R-17,
Job No. 8. July 1, 1965 to June 30, 1966. Boise, ID: State of Idaho Fish and Game Department. 22 p.
[65].

SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION:

Holly Creek: spring/severity not given

Polar Ridge: spring and fall/severity not given

Fish Creek: repeat spring/severity not given

STUDY LOCATION:

Three areas on Lochsa River watersheds of the Clearwater National Forest,
northern Idaho, were selected for study. The study areas were Holly Creek, Polar
Ridge, and Fish Creek [62,63,64].

Holly Creek flows into the Lochsa River from the north, about halfway between
the Lowell and Powell Ranger Stations along U.S. Highway 12. Study plots were
located about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from the mouth of Holly Creek [62].

Polar Ridge is located between the Polar and Walde Creek drainages, which are
tributaries of Pete King Creek. Pete King Creek flows into the Lochsa River [63].

Fish Creek is a major tributary of the Lochsa River. The study site was on lower
slopes of the Fish Creek drainage [64].

PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY :

Due to wildfires, all three study sites were dominated by shrubs. The Holly
Creek site had some conifer regeneration on north slopes and along watercourses.
Habitat type of the Holly Creek site was not given. Scouler willow (Salix
scouleriana) and thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) were dominant. Other common
shrubs included Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), oceanspray
(Holodiscus discolor), common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), and ninebark
(Physocarpus malvaceus) [62].

The Polar Ridge site was on a grand fir-pachistima (Abies grandis/Pachistima
myrsinites) habitat type. Thimbleberry, common snowberry, oceanspray, redstem
ceanothus (Ceanothus sanguineus), and Saskatoon serviceberry were dominant
shrubs; Saskatoon serviceberry dominated slopes with southerly aspects. Other
common shrubs included Rocky mountain maple (Acer glabrum), Scouler willow,
bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata), and white spiraea (Spiraea betufolia).
Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) was common on the site [65].

The Fish Creek study area was on a grand fir-pachistima habitat type [64,65].
Redstem ceanothus and Scouler willow were dominant. Other common shrubs included
Saskatoon serviceberry, oceanspray, paper birch (Betula papyrifera), Rocky
Mountain maple, and bitter cherry. Common herbaceous species included false
lupine (Thermopsis montana), bracken fern, St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum),
western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)
[64].

TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE :

Not given

SITE DESCRIPTION:

The Holly Creek drainage was completely burned by wildfire in 1919 and again in
1929. Slope on the study site averaged 55 percent. Soil was derived from
granitic parent material and was coarse on steep terrain but more loamy on
gentler terrain [62].

Polar Ridge was completely burned by wildfire in 1934. Study plots were selected
on each cardinal aspect and ranged from 3,000 to 3,200 feet (900-960 m)
elevation. Average slope was 60 to 80 percent [63].

The Fish Creek site area was completely burned by wildfire in 1934 and in 1954.
Slope on the study site ranged from 35 to 50 percent. Soil was derived from
granitic parent material [64].

FIRE DESCRIPTION:

Elk populations were declining on the Lochsa River watershed at the time of
these studies, possibly because most larger shrubs that had become dominant
after the wildland fires had grown above browseline. The burn objectives on all
three sites were to make more browse available to big game species by reducing
shrub heights, and to increase shrub productivity [62,63,64,65].

HOLLY CREEK: The study site was burned on May 2, 1966. Eight hundred and ten
acres were burned, mostly that afternoon. Ignition time was 13:00. Temperature
at that time was 84 degrees Fahrenheit (29 deg C); relative humidity was 18
percent. At 15:30, temperature and relative humidity were 85 degrees and 14
percent, respectively. Wind was negligible. Fuels were "dry and
abundant," except that fuels on northern exposures were moist enough to
retard lateral fire spread. Snowline was at 4,500 feet (1,350 m). Vegetation on
all plots was mostly consumed [65].

POLAR RIDGE: Four fires, one on each cardinal aspect, were set. It had rained 3
days prior to burning on the south aspect. Rain had not fallen for at least 4
days prior to burning on other aspects [63].

North aspect: North slope plots were fired on May 9, 1969. Maximumtemperature was 74 degrees Fahrenheit (23 deg C); minimum relativehumidity was 35 percent. The burn was not successful. This wasattributed to lack of enough flammable herbaceous material to carry afire and because microclimate on the north slope prevented
fuels from drying adequately. However, one area with a northeast exposure andadundant cover of dry bracken fern did burn despite the presence ofgreen forbs and grasses growing up among the bracken fern [a href="http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/amealn/all.html#63>63].

It was decided to slash the vegetation and reburn the area in fall 1972. All
woody vegetation was cut to ground level during the summer and fall of 1971. The
area was again fired on October 4, 1972. Maximum temperature was 60 degrees
Fahrenheit (16 deg C) and minimum relative humidity was 50 percent. In the
previous winter, snow had compressed the slashed fuels to ground level and there
was an abundance of green vegetation, mostly Scouler willow sprouts, covering
the slash. The reburn was unsuccessful [63].

East aspect: The site was fired on May 6, 1969. Based upon measurements taken at
the Kooskia Ranger Station, maximum temperature was estimated at 74 degrees
Fahrenheit (23 deg C); relative humidity was estimated at 38 percent. The burn
was not successful: only 2 of 25 plots burned. Failure was attributed to lack of
flash fuels in the understory and a cool, damp microclimate [63].

The area was slashed in the summer and fall of 1971 and reburned on October 6,
1972. Maximum temperature was 67 degrees Fahrenheit (19 deg C); minimum relative
humidity was 50 percent. The burn was marginally successful: 10 of 25 plots
burned [63].

West aspect: Vegetation was not uniform over the entire area. Slope with a
southwesterly aspect had more herbaceous vegetation, particularly bracken fern.
Slopes with a northwesterly aspect had a dense overstory of young conifers. The
site was burned on May 6, 1969. Maximum temperature and minimum relative
humidity at Kooskia Ranger Station were 84 degrees Fahrenheit (29 deg C) and 28
percent, respectively. Fourteen of 25 plots burned. Portions of the study area
with minimum conifer overstory and abundant bracken fern burned best [63].

South aspect: The site was burned on April 16, 1969. Onsite maximum temperature
was 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21 deg C) and minimum relative humidity was 35
percent. A continuous cover of surface fuels, primarily bracken fern, was
present. All 25 plots burned [63].

FISH CREEK: Three spring prescribed fires were set on the same site at 5-year
intervals. Each fire achieved 100 percent top-kill of shrubs on all plots. The
first prescribed fire was set on March 31, 1965. Maximum temperature at the
Kooskia Ranger Station was 77 degrees Fahrenheit (25 deg C); minimum relative
humidity was 35 percent. There was a westerly wind at 8 km/hr. Shrubs were
dormant [64].

The area was reburned on May 3, 1970. Maximum temperature was 80 degrees
Fahrenheit (27 deg C); minimum relative humidity was 16 percent. Wind was
negligible. Small leaves had emerged on some shrubs [64].

The third burn was conducted on May 14, 1975. Weather readings at the Kooskia
Ranger Station were: maximum temperature 88 degrees Fahrenheit (31 deg C) and
minimum relative humidity 27 percent. Wind was negligible. Leaves had expanded
on shrubs and herbaceous vegetation was greening up. Green vegetation appeared
to retard fire spread [64].

FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES :

Holly Creek: Saskatoon serviceberry was lower in average height after fire, but
productivity did not increase. Production of Saskatoon serviceberry stayed at
approximate prefire levels for the first 2 postfire years, but the third
postfire growing season was the beginning of a decline that stabilized at about
15 percent of prefire production at postfire years 9 through 12. Leege [62]
speculated that the decline was due to elk and mule deer use of Saskatoon
serviceberry during active summer growth. Saskatoon serviceberry production was
[62]: Twigs/ha Avg. twig weight (g) Kg/ha*
________ ____________________ _____
1966 (prefire) 672 0.26 16.6
1966 (postfire) 137 1.19 15.5
1967 215 0.72 14.7
1968 312 0.26 7.8
1969 229 0.10 2.1
1970 458 0.11 4.8
1971 387 0.20 7.4
1972 645 0.11 6.9
1973 387 0.15 5.4
1974 312 0.07 2.0
1975 270 0.07 1.9
1976 219 0.11 2.2
1977 195 0.13 2.5
_______________
*new growth

Polar Ridge: The fires on the west and south slopes lowered average height of
Saskatoon serviceberry but had little effect on productivity. On the south
slope, where a good prescription burn was obtained, average height was reduced
from prefire levels for at least 10 postfire years. Production did not change
greatly until 1977, when average twig length and kilograms of new growth
produced per hectare were reduced on south slopes. However, 1977 was a poor
growth year for all shrub species measured. Production of Saskatoon serviceberry
on west and south slopes follows [63].
(East slope data were not stated and the north slope did not burn.)
Twigs/ha Twig length (cm) Kg/ha
____________ ________________ ____________
west south west south west south
prefire (1967) 257 413 2.5 10.4 0.8 6.8
1969 42 73 50.8 32.5 10.9 4.2
1970 185 226 17.8 15.2 13.4 9.3
1971 255 177 7.6 11.7 7.0 5.6
1972 179 326 5.1 10.2 2.7 6.8
1977 171 248 7.6 6.4 4.2 2.1

Fish Creek: Saskatoon serviceberry was top-killed by and sprouted after each
prescribed fire, but average sprout height and maximum crown diameter were
significantly lower (p = 0.05) after each successive burn. Changes in Saskatoon
serviceberry follow [64].
Height (cm) Crown diameter (cm)
___________ ___________________
prefire 378 125
postfire yr 2
1966 fire 183 140
1970 fire 162 134
1975 fire 134 128

Sprouts/plant Sprout height (cm)
_____________ __________________
postfire yr 1
1965 fire > 50 94
1970 fire 149.4 67
1975 fire 112.2 55

FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:

HOLLY CREEK - Elk use of the area increased after burning. Overall, the burning
objectives were met: height of most palatable browse species was lowered and
remained below browseline until at least postfire year 11. Browse productivity
also increased for most shrub species. It increased greatly from prefire levels
at postfire year 1, returned to prefire levels at postfire year 2, then
gradually rose. At postfire year 11, browse productivity was about two times
prefire levels [62].

Average height of Saskatoon serviceberry was reduced by fire, and Saskatoon
serviceberry remained below browseline for at least 11 years after fire [62,65].
Productivity, however, declined after fire and had not reached prefire levels by
postfire year 11 [63].
Although common on the study site, Saskatoon serviceberry was not dominant.
Browsing pressure on Saskatoon serviceberry may have increased after fire to the
point that little new growth was achieved.

POLAR RIDGE - Where prescribed burning was successful, the effect of fire was to
increase availability of palatable browse species including Saskatoon
serviceberry. Productivity of Saskatoon serviceberry and other browse increased
until postfire year 4, then stabilized at approximate prefire levels. At
postfire year 4, Scouler willow, the dominant shrub, was greatly reduced by an
outbreak of a willow borer insect [63],
and browsing pressure on Saskatoon serviceberry probably increased. Had the
Scouler willow die-back not occurred, Saskatoon serviceberry productivity after
postfire year 4 might have been greater.

Based upon his experiences at Polar Ridge, Leege [63]
gave recommendations for prescribed burning northern Idaho brushfields on north,
east, and west aspects. Those recommendations follow.

North slopes: On north slopes with a high percentage of overstory, burning is
difficult in either spring or fall because of a lack of flash fuels to carry
fire. Fuel flammability can be improved by cutting woody vegetation to ground
level and then burning; however, burning should be done the first fall after
slashing, before snow compacts the fuels and new spring growth appears.
Recommended treatment is to slash during July and August and burn during warm
October days after the first killing frost [63].

East slopes: The east aspect was difficult to treat with fire due to sparse
understory fuels and unfavorable microclimate. Such sites would be difficult to
burn in spring even with good burning conditions. Slashing and fall burning
produced a marginal burn. Leege [63]
speculated that the burn would have been more successful if slash had been
burned the first fall after cutting, instead of the second year, and burning had
been done with a warmer temperature and especially a lower relative humidity.

West slopes: Prescribed burning was successful where bracken fern and other
herbaceous fuels were present. Dense conifer regeneration on northwest slopes
eliminated the understory and prevented the fire from carrying. Leege [63]
recommended cutting down at least 50 percent of the conifers in early summer to
create continuous surface fuels.

FISH CREEK - There were indications that Saskatoon serviceberry declined in
vigor with repeat prescribed burning at 5-year intervals. Sprout numbers and
height were less in 1975 than in 1970 despite twice the precipitation in 1975.
However, the data are inconclusive because sample size was small (n = 5) and
because Saskatoon serviceberry had put on more spring growth (and therefore may
have been more harmed) before the 1975 fire than before the 1970 fire. Leege [64]
speculated that on northern Idaho brushfields, prescribed fire at 5-year
intervals will favor Scouler willow and redstem ceanothus. Burning at 10- to
15-year intervals would better maintain prefire shrub species composition,
including Saskatoon serviceberry, while lowering shrub height and providing
browse for big game species.

3rd
CASE STUDY:



FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION:


Fryer, Janet L., compiler. 1997.
Prescribed fire effects on Saskatoon serviceberry in a British Columbia rangeland.
In: Amelanchier alnifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [

var months = new Array(12);
months[0] = "January";
months[1] = "February";
months[2] = "March";
months[3] = "April";
months[4] = "May";
months[5] = "June";
months[6] = "July";
months[7] = "August";
months[8] = "September";
months[9] = "October";
months[10] = "November";
months[11] = "December";
var date = new Date();
var year = date.getFullYear();
var month = date.getMonth();
var day = date.getDate();
document.write(year+", "+months[month]+" "+day);
].

REFERENCES :

Thomson, Sandra. 1988. The effects on vegetation of prescribed burning for wildlife habitat and range improvement in southeastern British Columbia. In: Feller, M. C.; Thomson, S. M.,
eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987
October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British
Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 120-133. [97].

SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION:

Operational burns: spring/severity not given

Experimental burns: fall/moderate severity

STUDY LOCATION:

The study areas were located in the Purcell Mountains near Cranbrook, British
Columbia, within four different range units. The range units were Pickering
Hills, Luckhurst, Power Plant, and Newgate.

PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY :

Study sites were located in a Douglas-fir/bitterbrush (Pseudotsuga
menziesii/Purshia tridentata) habitat type. The overstory was a sparse canopy of
ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa); there were a few Douglas-fir in the
understory. Shrub cover varied between 5 and 60 percent. Common shrub species
included Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), western snowberry
(Symphoricarpos albus), and snowbrush ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus). Bluebunch
wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) and Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha) were the
dominant herbs. Rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa
pratensis) were also present.

TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE :

Not stated

SITE DESCRIPTION:

All study sites but one were located on thick glacial moraine; one was on
fluvial glacial deposits. Soils were Orthic Eutric Brunisols, varying in coarse
fragment and sand content. Slopes were gentle to flat. The area is a key winter
range for elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer, and is used as summer range for
cattle.

FIRE DESCRIPTION:

Operational burns: Six sites were prescription burned to thin conifers and
increase availability of browse and grasses for elk, deer, and cattle. Each of
the six sites was burned once, in April. Burning years were 1976, 1978, 1983,
1985, and 1986 (2 sites were burned in 1986). Fuels and fire behavior data were
not collected for the operational burns [98].

Experimental burns: Two sites were prescription burned, one in October 1986 and
one in October 1987. Fire-related data for the site burned in 1987 were not
given. Weather conditions during the 1986 fire were less than ideal. Temperature
was low and relative humidity high, making fire intensity less than desired.
Relatively low rates of spread and flame heights were obtained. Weather
conditions and fire behavior data for the 1986 fire follow [98].
Date of burn Oct. 8, 1986
Relative humidity 70%
Temperature 12.6 deg C
Wind speed 7.5 m/s
Rate of fire spread 0.1-0.9 m/min
flame height 0.15-1.50 m

The live fuel component (shrubs and grasses) was highly variable, but reduction
was significant. The forest floor was not reduced at time of postfire
measurement, but this could have been due to partially burned vegetation
dropping to the ground and becoming part of the postfire forest floor. Fuels
data follow.
Fuel component Prefire biomass % consumption
______________ _______________ _____________
coarse fuels 0.39 kg/sq m 66
forest floor 0.06 kg/sq m 0
shrubs 0.61 kg/sq m 39
grasses 0.02 kg/sq m 90
____________ __
total 1.08 kg/sq m 52

FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES :

Operational spring fires: Saskatoon serviceberry was not greatly affected by
spring prescribed burning. Percent cover of Saskatoon serviceberry on burned and
unburned control plots follows. (Data from the 6 operational burns were pooled.)
Percent cover
_______________________________________
postfire year 1 postfire year 2
_______________ _______________
unburned 5.0 4.5
burned 6.5* 8.2
_______________________________________________________
*significantly different at P = 0.05

Experimental fall 1986 fire: Saskatoon serviceberry was not greatly affected by
fall prescribed burning either. In postfire year 1, the only year for which data
are available, percent cover increased slightly but not significantly on burned
plots compared to unburned plots, and current annual growth decreased slightly
but not significantly:
unburned burned
________ ______
percent cover 2.5 5.0
current annual growth (g/m) 3.8 2.5

FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:

Neither spring nor fall prescribed burning had much short-term effect on
Saskatoon serviceberry cover or production in this study. This is consistent
with other short-term studies in southeastern British Columbia. Davidson [25]
found a slight decrease in Saskatoon serviceberry 2 years after prescribed
burning. Demarchi and Lofts [27]
found production of current-annual twigs was greater, but leaf production less,
the first 2 years after prescribed burning.

This is not to say that the prescribed fires were unsuccessful. Shrubs were
reduced an average of 39 percent by spring prescribed burning, making Saskatoon
serviceberry and other browse more accessible to ungulates. Comparing percent
cover in short-term studies can be deceiving because unburned areas may contain
a few tall, inaccessible shrubs while burned areas contain a number of small
shoots. Data from the long term may show that the number of sprouts on burned
areas exceeds sprouts on unburned areas.

Thomson [97]
suggested that total grass biomass prior to burning is important in determining
success of burning on sparsely-treed Douglas-fir habitat types in the extreme
northern Rocky Mountains. Moisture content of grass and other herbaceous fuels
was not reported in this study, but is also an important factor in success of
burning.

  • 62. Leege, Thomas A. 1978. Changes in browse intercept, production and seedlings after burning--Holly Creek. Job Completion Report No. W-160-R. Elk ecology: Range rehabilitation by spring burning: July 1, 1965 to June 30, 1978. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Fish and Game. 11 p. [17170]
  • 65. Leege, Thomas A.; Hickey, William O. 1966. Lochsa elk study. Big Game Surveys and Investigations: W 85-R-17, Job No. 8. July 1, 1965 to June 30, 1966. Boise, ID: State of Idaho Fish and Game Department. 22 p. [16759]
  • 97. Thomson, Sandra. 1988. The effects on vegetation of prescribed burning for wildlife habitat and range improvement in southeastern British Columbia. In: Feller, M.C.; Thomson, S.M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 120-133. [3106]
  • 98. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104]
  • 27. Demarchi, Dennis A.; Lofts, Susan. 1985. The effects of spring burning on the productivity and nutrient concentration of several shrub species in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench. MOE Technical Report 19. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Wildlife Branch, Wildlife Habitat and Inventory Section. 89 p. [28269]
  • 63. Leege, Thomas A. 1978. Changes in browse production after burning vs. slashing and burning on the four cardinal aspects--Polar Ridge. Job Completion Report No. W-160-R. Elk ecology: Range rehabilitation by spring burning: July 1, 1967 to June 30, 1978. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Fish & Game. 20 p. [17171]
  • 64. Leege, Thomas A. 1979. Effects of repeated prescribed burns on northern Idaho elk browse. Northwest Science. 53(2): 107-113. [5116]
  • 25. Davidson, P. W. 1983. The effects of grazing, burning, and logging on bighorn sheep in the East Kootenay, British Columbia. Unpublished report on file with: British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Cranbrook, BC. [Total pages unknown]. [28270]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: density, fuel, prescribed fire, shrubs, wildfire

Saskatoon serviceberry is most vigorous in seral plant communities
[9,48,51], and prescribed fire can be used to maintain and/or promote
seral communities. On big game rangelands, prescribed fire can improve
condition of Saskatoon serviceberry and other shrubs by reducing shrub
height, promoting growth of new twigs, and increasing nutritional
content of browse [9,68,73]. Sites where prescribed burning may harm
Saskatoon serviceberry in the long term include harsh (especially very
dry) sites with low Saskatoon serviceberry density [48], and very cold
sites where postfire growth would be limited by temperature [45].

Fire stimulates production of Saskatoon serviceberry by killing
understory conifers, removing old Saskatoon serviceberry topgrowth, and
promoting sprouting [9,73]. On Douglas-fir/ninebark winter elk range on
the Lolo National Forest, Montana, Makela [71] found that after spring
prescribed fire, biomass production of new Saskatoon serviceberry twigs
was significantly greater (p < 0.1) on burned sites than on unburned
sites the first two growing seasons after fire.

Ponderosa pine: Saskatoon serviceberry usually occurs in the moister,
cooler ponderosa pine habitat types. Average loading of downed and dead
woody fuels is slightly higher than in drier ponderosa pine types. Fire
hazard is further increased by the tendency of this type to form
subcanopies and dog-hair thickets of conifer saplings. Wildfire hazard
is particularly high in this type during drought. Common management
objectives are to eliminate large areas of overstocking and create a
two-storied stand rather than a multilayered one. Periodic prescribed
surface fire in early spring or late fall is recommended. Fuels
management includes treatment of slash following logging and thinning,
and controlling stocking levels. Scattered thickets of Saskatoon
serviceberry and other shrubs can be left for wildlife [34].

Quaking aspen: Light fuels and grazing can inhibit fire spread in
quaking aspen. Brown and Simmerman [22] assigned probabilities of
successful prescribed burning in quaking aspen/Saskatoon serviceberry
habitat types as follows:

Fuel Type
_____________________________________________________

Grazing Woody Fuel Aspen/serviceberry Mixed aspen-conifer/serviceberry
_____________________________________________________________________________
ungrazed light high high
ungrazed heavy high high
grazed light moderate moderate
grazed heavy high high 
  • 22. Brown, James K.; Simmerman, Dennis G. 1986. Appraising fuels and flammability in western aspen: a prescribed fire guide. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-205. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 48 p. [544]
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1986. Characterizing succession within a forest habitat type--an approach designed for resource managers. Res. Note INT-357. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8 p. [347]
  • 34. Fischer, William C.; Clayton, Bruce D. 1983. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-141. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 83 p. [923]
  • 45. Hamilton, Evelyn H. 1988. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil-vegetation relationships in the sub-boreal spruce zone. In: Feller, M. C.; Thomson, S. M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 171-184. [3110]
  • 48. Hemmer, Dennis M. 1975. Serviceberry: ecology, distribution, and relationships to big game. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 76 p. Thesis. [1125]
  • 51. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 68. Lyon, L. Jack. 1966. Initial vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-29. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 17 p. [1494]
  • 71. Makela, Paul D. 1990. Effects of prescribed burning on the Burdette Creek winter range. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 112 p. Thesis. [20681]
  • 73. Miller, D.; Gwilliam, J.; Woods, G. 1988. Prescribed burning for wildlife in the west Kootenays. In: Feller, M. C.; Thomson, S. M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 57-60. [3099]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: fire use, prescribed fire, restoration

For further information on Saskatoon serviceberry response to fire, see Fire Case Studies. The following Research Project Summaries also provide
information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant community
species, including Saskatoon serviceberry, that was not available when
this species review was originally written:

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, density, frequency, low-severity fire, prescribed fire, root crown, shrub, shrubs, top-kill, wildfire

Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts after top-kill by fire [9,19,95].
Bradley [19] found that on burn sites in western Montana, Saskatoon
serviceberry sprouted mostly from upper portions of the root crown.
When the root crown was killed by fire, Saskatoon serviceberry sprouted
from rhizomes further beneath the soil surface. Seed production may
resume soon after fire: Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts produced fruits
the second summer after a July 1977 wildfire in Pattee Canyon near
Missoula, Montana [56].

Saskatoon serviceberry cover usually increases [9] or is unaffected
[9,97] by fire. Even when there is little change between pre- and
postfire cover, fire usually makes Saskatoon serviceberry more
accessible as wildlife browse by lowering shrub height [97]. Arno and
others [9] found that in western Montana, Saskatoon serviceberry cover
generally increased after wildland or prescribed fires in
Douglas-fir/ninebark habitat types. It sometimes took 10 or more years
before the increase occurred, however. The authors suggested that slow
recovery in some areas may be due to big game browsing pressure after
fire.

Current-year annual twig production is usually greater after fire in the
absence of heavy browsing pressure [9,24]. In a mountain brush
community in Wyoming, Saskatoon serviceberry mortality was 12 percent,
15 percent, and 15 percent, 1, 2, and 3 years after fall wildfire,
respectively. Mortality after spring prescribed burning a nearby site
was one, two, and two percent at postfire years 1, 2, and 3. Postfire
browsing pressure was not heavy, but wildfire- and prescription-burned
areas were browsed more than unburned areas. Despite this, current-year
twig production was significantly greater on burned sites than on
unburned sites in postfire years 1 to 3. Current-year annual twig
production was greater on the wildfire-burned site than on the spring
prescribed-burned site (37 vs. 15 g/plant) [24].

Fire season: In a western Montana study contrasting the ability of
spring vs. fall prescribed fire to improve wildlife habitat, severe fall
fire killed 15 percent of Saskatoon serviceberry plants on the site,
while a less severe spring treatment killed only 5 percent. Sprouting
response in the first 2 postfire years was greater on the spring burn
[79].

Fire in various habitat/plant community types: In a western redcedar
(Thuja plicata)/ninebark habitat type of central Idaho, Saskatoon
serviceberry sprouted from the root crown and grew rapidly after
prescribed burning. Height growth of sprouts follows [11]. (Prefire
height not available.)
Height (m)
__________________________
Avery Site Lochsa Site
postfire year 1 0.9 1.2
postfire year 2 1.5 1.3
postfire year 3 1.2 3.0
unburned control 2.3 3.2

In Douglas-fir/blue huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum) habitat types
of western Montana, prescribed fire had little effect on Saskatoon
serviceberry cover [11].

Near Ketchum, Idaho, a prescribed fire was conducted on August 1, 1963,
to reduce dwarf-mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) infestation in
Douglas-fir and to promote sprouting of browse, which was above
browseline. The fire was successful in both respects. Saskatoon
serviceberry recovered from the fire as follows [68,69]:

Plants*/1,000 sq ft Percent Canopy Cover
___________________ ____________________
prefire 0.2 0.25
postfire yr 1 0.1 0.03
postfire yr 2 0.1 0.05
postfire yr 3 0.2 0.06
postfire yr 4 0.1 0.06
postfire yr 5 0.1 0.09
postfire yr 6 0.3 0.12
postfire yr 7 0.2 0.12
___________________________________________________________________________
*only plants over 18 inches in height were included in density measurements

After prescribed fire in Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) woodlands
in western Washington, Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts were most common
on sites that were treated with low-severity fire and had no prefire
mechanical disturbance. Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts usually
co-occurred with Oregon white oak sprouts on such sites. Neither
Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts, Saskatoon serviceberry seedlings, nor
Oregon white oak sprouts occurred on microsites that were heavily
disturbed before fire. After prescribed fire, those microsites were
colonized by herbs, especially exotic herbs, and Oregon white oak
seedlings [1].

Saskatoon serviceberry appears to be slow to recover from prescribed
burning in the sub-boreal spruce-fir (Picea-Abies spp.) zone in British
Columbia [45].

Response to very frequent fire: Saskatoon serviceberry response to
repeated burning is unclear. In a quaking aspen-rough fescue (Festuca
scabrella) ecotone in Alberta, Saskatoon serviceberry was one of the few
woody shrubs that was not harmed by low-severity annual spring
prescribed fire. Frequency was 8 percent on unburned sites and 16
percent on annually burned sites. Canopy cover was not significantly
different between the two areas (4 and 1.4 percent, respectively) [5].

In the Willamette Valley of Oregon, Kalapuyan Indians apparently
controlled Saskatoon serviceberry with frequent fire in order to promote
acorn production by Oregon white oak. Open oak savannas were noted by
early travellers, but in the absence of aboriginal burning, Saskatoon
serviceberry has formed a closed subcanopy in Oregon white oak woodlands
[18].

On ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir communities in the Blue Mountains
of northeastern Oregon, Saskatoon serviceberry cover and frequency were higher
on unburned control sites than on prescribed burned, thinned, or
thinned-and-burned sites.  Saskatoon serviceberry was determined to be an indicator
species for unburned sites (P≤0.05).  For further information on the effects
of thinning and burning treatments on Saskatoon serviceberry and 48 other species,
see the Research Project Summary of Youngblood and others' [110] study.
  • 5. Anderson, Howard G.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1980. Effects of annual burning on grassland in the aspen parkland of east-central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 58: 985-996. [3499]
  • 1. Agee, James K. 1996. Fire in restoration of Oregon white oak woodlands. In: Hardy, Colin C.; Arno, Stephen F., eds. The use of fire in forest restoration: A general session of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1995 September 14-16; Seattle, WA. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-341. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 72-73. [26819]
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1986. Characterizing succession within a forest habitat type--an approach designed for resource managers. Res. Note INT-357. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8 p. [347]
  • 18. Boyd, Robert. 1986. Strategies of Indian burning in the Willamette Valley. Canadian Journal of Anthropology. 5(1): 65-86. [22724]
  • 19. Bradley, Anne Foster. 1984. Rhizome morphology, soil distribution, and the potential fire survival of eight woody understory species in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 183 p. Thesis. [502]
  • 24. Cook, John G.; Hershey, Terry J.; Irwin, Larry L. 1994. Vegetative response to burning on Wyoming mountain-shrub big game ranges. Journal of Range Management. 47(4): 296-302. [23449]
  • 45. Hamilton, Evelyn H. 1988. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil-vegetation relationships in the sub-boreal spruce zone. In: Feller, M. C.; Thomson, S. M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 171-184. [3110]
  • 56. Keller, Marilyn Crane. 1980. Post-fire recovery within ravine forest communities of Pattee Canyon, Missoula, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 136 p. Thesis. [6725]
  • 68. Lyon, L. Jack. 1966. Initial vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-29. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 17 p. [1494]
  • 69. Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [1495]
  • 79. Noste, Nonan V. 1982. Vegetation response to spring and fall burning for wildlife habitat improvement. In: Baumgartner, David M., compiler & editor. Site preparation and fuels management on steep terrain: Proceedings of a symposium; 1982 February 15-17; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 125-132. [1784]
  • 95. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT: 10 p. [21628]
  • 97. Thomson, Sandra. 1988. The effects on vegetation of prescribed burning for wildlife habitat and range improvement in southeastern British Columbia. In: Feller, M.C.; Thomson, S.M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 120-133. [3106]
  • 110. Youngblood, Andrew; Metlen, Kerry L.; Coe, Kent. 2006. Changes in stand structure and composition after restoration treatments in low elevation dry forests of northeastern Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management. 234(1-3): 143-163. [64992]
  • 11. Asherin, Duane A. 1975. Changes in elk use and available browse production on north Idaho winter ranges following prescribed burning. In: Hieb, S., ed. Proceedings, elk logging-roads symposium; [Date of conference unknown]; Moscow, ID. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]. 122-134. [17049]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

Saskatoon serviceberry is top-killed by moderate to severe fire. Larger
branches may survive light-severity fire [19,80,95].
  • 19. Bradley, Anne Foster. 1984. Rhizome morphology, soil distribution, and the potential fire survival of eight woody understory species in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 183 p. Thesis. [502]
  • 80. Noste, Nonan V.; Reinhardt, Elizabeth D.; Wilson, Ralph A., Jr. 1989. Fire effects on Amelanchier alnifolia during phenological development stages. In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall R., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and biotechnology; 1987 June 30-July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech.Rep. INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 158-163. [155]
  • 95. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT: 10 p. [21628]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: geophyte, root crown, shrub

Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: cover, fire exclusion, frequency, low-severity fire, moderate-severity fire, root crown, wildfire

Fire adaptations: Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts from the root crown
and/or rhizomes after fire [9,19,48,95]. Bradley [19] concluded that
because Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts from existing plants, fire is
not likely to alter its frequency unless plants were in poor condition
before fire. After light- to moderate-severity fire, it usually sprouts
from the root crown or from shallowly buried rhizomes [19]. However,
deeply buried rhizomes enable Saskatoon serviceberry to sprout after
even the most intense wildfire. For example, the Sundance Fire on the
Kaniksu National Forest of northern Idaho was an intense, running crown
fire that reached firestorm proportions in the Pack River Valley. (The
fire broke out on Aug. 23, 1967.) Saskatoon serviceberry sprouts were a
principle component of Pack River Valley vegetation at postfire year 1,
with 12 percent frequency and 4 percent cover [93].

Seedling establishment is apparently not an important postfire
regeneration strategy. After wildfire in quaking aspen-paper birch in
northern Saskatchewan, a single Saskatoon serviceberry seedling was
found at postfire year 2 on one of seven plots [108]. Leege [62] found
an occasional Saskatoon serviceberry seedling after prescribed burning on
the Clearwater National Forest of northern Idaho, but the seedlings
survived for only a few postfire years. Stickney [93] found that on 21
plots on the Sundance Burn, 100 percent of Saskatoon serviceberry
regeneration resulted from sprouting of burned plants.

Fire ecology: Forests - Saskatoon serviceberry in forests is
fire-dependent and declines with fire exclusion [8,43]. It may persist
in the understory for decades, but eventually dies out with canopy
closure. Through time-series photographs, Gruell [43] has documented
decline of Saskatoon serviceberry in ponderosa pine habitat types in the
Northern Rocky Mountains due to canopy closure with fire exclusion.

Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) - In sagebrush steppe in southeastern Idaho,
Saskatoon serviceberry was prominent on burn sites of all ages. Field
sampling was conducted on 2- to 36-year-old burns [54].

Fire frequency: Forests - Saskatoon serviceberry occurs in forests with
FIRE REGIMES varying from frequent, low-severity fire to infrequent,
severe fire. In low-elevation forests, where Saskatoon serviceberry is
most common, the historical regime was frequent, low-severity fire
[1,2,8]. Wright [106] compiled historical fire frequencies of ponderosa
pine communities in which Saskatoon serviceberry occurs:

State(s) Fire Frequency
_____________________________ ______________
Arizona and New Mexico 4.8 - 11.9 yrs
California and eastern Oregon 8 - 10 yrs
Colorado and Wyoming 12 - 25 yrs
western Montana 2 - 48 yrs
South Dakota (Black Hills) 15 - 20 yrs
eastern Washington 6 - 47 yrs

On the west slope of the Cascade Range of Washington, mean historical
fire return intervals in forests with Saskatoon serviceberry were [2]:

ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir* 52 years
lodgepole pine-Douglas-fir 76 years
Douglas-fir-grand fir** 93 years
_______________________________________
*Pseudotsuga menziesii
**Abies grandis
  • 1. Agee, James K. 1996. Fire in restoration of Oregon white oak woodlands. In: Hardy, Colin C.; Arno, Stephen F., eds. The use of fire in forest restoration: A general session of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1995 September 14-16; Seattle, WA. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-341. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 72-73. [26819]
  • 2. Agee, James K.; Finney, Mark; de Gouvenain, Roland. 1990. Forest fire history of Desolation Peak, Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 350-356. [11035]
  • 8. Arno, Stephen F.; Ottmar, Roger D. 1994. Reintroduction of fire into forests of eastern Oregon and Washington. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Restoration of stressed sites, and processes. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-330. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station:65-67. (Everett, Richard L., assessment team leader; Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment; volume IV.) [24180]
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1986. Characterizing succession within a forest habitat type--an approach designed for resource managers. Res. Note INT-357. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8 p. [347]
  • 19. Bradley, Anne Foster. 1984. Rhizome morphology, soil distribution, and the potential fire survival of eight woody understory species in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 183 p. Thesis. [502]
  • 43. Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire and vegetative trends in the northern Rockies: interpretations from 1871-1982 photographs. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-158. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 117 p. [5280]
  • 48. Hemmer, Dennis M. 1975. Serviceberry: ecology, distribution, and relationships to big game. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 76 p. Thesis. [1125]
  • 54. Humphrey, L. David. 1984. Patterns and mechanisms of plant succession after fire on Artemisia-grass sites in southeastern Idaho. Vegetatio. 57: 91-101. [1214]
  • 62. Leege, Thomas A. 1978. Changes in browse intercept, production and seedlings after burning--Holly Creek. Job Completion Report No. W-160-R. Elk ecology: Range rehabilitation by spring burning: July 1, 1965 to June 30, 1978. Boise, ID: Idaho Department of Fish and Game. 11 p. [17170]
  • 93. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255]
  • 95. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT: 10 p. [21628]
  • 106. Wright, Henry A. 1978. The effect of fire on vegetation in ponderosa pine forests: A state-of-the-art review. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University, Department of Range and Wildlife Management. 21 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [4425]
  • 108. Archibold, O. W. 1980. Seed imput into a postfire forest site in northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 10: 129-134. [4506]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: eruption, sere, shrub

Saskatoon serviceberry grows in open sun to moderate shade. It is
intolerant of deep shade, and declines with canopy closure [3,9,43]. It
rarely establishes from seed in early stages of primary succession
[26,37]. Eleven years after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in
Washington, mature Saskatoon serviceberry plants occurred only on
refugia plots on the volcano slope. Neither seedlings nor mature plants
occurred on sites of volcanic deposition [26].

Riparian succession: In riparian areas in southeastern British
Columbia, Saskatoon serviceberry occurred mostly in stabilized black
cottonwood (Populus deltoides) galleries on the upper floodplain. It
did not occur on low gravel bars subject to frequent flooding [37]. A
study on the Yellowstone River of Montana had similar findings. The
successional sere there is: plains black cottonwood (P. deltoides var.
monilifera) seedling; plains black cottonwood-Sandbar willow (Salix
interior) sapling; pole plains black cottonwood; mature plains black
cottonwood; shrub thicket; and grass. Saskatoon serviceberry was most
common in mature plains black cottonwood stands and in shrub thickets.
It was sparse on grassland and absent in seres with young plains black
cottonwood [17].

Secondary succession: Saskatoon serviceberry is common after
disturbances such as fire, logging, or insect outbreak [6,9,95].
Saskatoon serviceberry increased significantly (P < 0.1) after a
stand-destroying mountain pine beetle attack in lodgepole pine (Pinus
contorta) in Glacier National Park, Montana. Maximum foliage production
of Saskatoon serviceberry occurred 2 years after the overstory was
killed [6].
  • 3. Agee, James K.; Kertis, Jane. 1987. Forest types of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65: 1520-1530. [6327]
  • 6. Armour, Charles David. 1982. Fuel and vegetation succession in response to mountain pine beetle epidemics in northwestern Montana. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 47 p. Thesis. [16488]
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1986. Characterizing succession within a forest habitat type--an approach designed for resource managers. Res. Note INT-357. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8 p. [347]
  • 17. Boggs, Keith; Weaver, T. 1992. Response of riparian shrubs to declining water availability. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 48-51. [19094]
  • 26. del Moral, R.; Titus, J. H.; Cook, A. M. 1995. Early primary succession on Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science. 6: 107-120. [27129]
  • 37. Fyles, J. W.; Bell, M. A. M. 1986. Vegetation colonizing river gravel bars in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia. Northwest Science. 60(1): 8-14. [5981]
  • 43. Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire and vegetative trends in the northern Rockies: interpretations from 1871-1982 photographs. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-158. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 117 p. [5280]
  • 95. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT: 10 p. [21628]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: fresh, layering

Saskatoon serviceberry reproduces from seed, by sprouting from the
root crown and/or rhizomes, and by layering [19,20,35,95].

Vegetative reproduction by sprouting is most common. On four western
Montana sites, Hemmer [48] found that over 90 percent of new stems
sampled were sprouts from previously existing plants. On two burns, all
sprouts originated from root crowns. On two clearcuts, most sprouts
came from rhizomes.

Regeneration from seed is apparently rare, being limited by moisture,
low spring temperature, and/or disease [16,20]. In several locations in
western Montana, Hemmer [48] found that sprouting from top-killed plants
was common, but only one site, on the Yaak River, had Saskatoon
serviceberry seedlings. Flowers are produced almost every year, but
because of drought, spring frost, and/or juniper rust (Gymnosporangium
spp.), good seed crops may be produced only every 3 to 5 years [16,48].
Even under good conditions, most fruits contain some unviable seed [51].
Seed is dispersed by frugivorous birds and mammals [20,90]. It is
dormant and requires overwinter stratification. In the laboratory,
seventy percent germination was obtained from fresh seed stratified for
180 days and then given day/night temperatures of 86/68 degrees
Fahrenheit (30/19 deg C) for a month [20]. Good seed may remain viable
for years. Seed stored in an unheated warehouse in Utah showed 91, 80,
91, 85, and 84 percent germination after 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years of
storage, respectively [92].
  • 19. Bradley, Anne Foster. 1984. Rhizome morphology, soil distribution, and the potential fire survival of eight woody understory species in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 183 p. Thesis. [502]
  • 20. Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med. serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 212-215. [7516]
  • 35. Flessner, T. R.; Darris, D. C.; Lambert, S. M. 1992. Seed source evaluation of four native riparian shrubs for streambank rehabilitation in the Pacific Northwest. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 155-162. [19111]
  • 48. Hemmer, Dennis M. 1975. Serviceberry: ecology, distribution, and relationships to big game. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 76 p. Thesis. [1125]
  • 51. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 90. St. Pierre, Richard G.; Steeves, Taylor A. 1990. Observations on shoot morphology, anthesis, flower number, and seed production in the saskatoon, Amelanchier alnifolia (Rosaceae). Canadian Field-Naturalist. 104(3): 379-386. [14119]
  • 92. Stevens, Richard; Jorgensen, Kent R.; Davis, James N. 1981. Viability of seed from thirty-two shrub and forb species through fifteen years of warehouse storage. The Great Basin Naturalist. 41(3): 274-277. [2244]
  • 95. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT: 10 p. [21628]
  • 16. Blauer, A. Clyde; Plummer, A. Perry; McArthur, E. Durant; [and others]. 1975. Characteristics and hybridization of important Intermountain shrubs. I. Rose family. Res. Pap. INT-169. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p. [472]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, phanerophyte

Phanerophyte
Geophyte

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Tree, Shrub

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Site Description

Not stated

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Season/Severity Classification

spring, summer, and fall (simulated)/light to severe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: shrub

Saskatoon serviceberry flowers early in the growing season [20]. It is
usually the first shrub to bloom in spring. Anthesis is a mass event
lasting about 2 weeks [90]. Leaves emerge during or just after
flowering [20]. Fruits ripen 1 to 2 months later, from July to
September, depending upon location [101]. General fruiting and
flowering periods are given below.

flowers fruits
_________ ______
Alaska June July [102]
North Dakota May -- [23]
Ontario June July and August [88]
Saskatchewan May-July -- [109]

A more detailed calendar of phenological development of Saskatoon
serviceberry east of the Continental Divide of Montana and in
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is presented below [85].

Event Dates
___________________ _________________________
leaf buds open April 12- May 29
flowering starts April 15 - June 18
flowering stops May 15 - July 3
leaves fully expanded May 15 - July 13
fruits ripe July 10 - August 19
seed fall starts July 11 - September 15
leaves change color July 23 - September 25
leaf fall begins August 13 - October 1
leaves fallen September 5 - October 21
  • 20. Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med. serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 212-215. [7516]
  • 23. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450]
  • 85. Schmidt, Wyman C.; Lotan, James E. 1980. Phenology of common forest flora of the northern Rockies--1928 to 1937. Res. Pap. INT-259. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [2082]
  • 88. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 90. St. Pierre, Richard G.; Steeves, Taylor A. 1990. Observations on shoot morphology, anthesis, flower number, and seed production in the saskatoon, Amelanchier alnifolia (Rosaceae). Canadian Field-Naturalist. 104(3): 379-386. [14119]
  • 101. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 102. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]
  • 109. Budd, A. C.; Campbell, J. B. 1959. Flowering sequence of a local flora. Journal of Range Management. 12: 127-132. [552]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amelanchier alnifolia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amelanchier alnifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Management considerations

Control: It may be desirable to control Saskatoon serviceberry on
conifer plantations [74]. Glyphosate or triclopyr ester give good
control of serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.). Even with several
treatments, 2,4-D gives only poor to fair control [104].
  • 74. Miller, Daniel L. 1986. Conifer release in the Inland Northwest--chemical methods. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Boyd, Raymond J.; Breuer, David W.; Miller, Daniel L., compilers and eds. Weed control for forest productivity in the Interior West: Symposium proceedings; 1985 February 5-7; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 109-113. [1648]
  • 104. William, Ray D.; Ball, Dan; Miller, Terry L; [and others], compilers. 1997. Pacific Northwest weed control handbook. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Extension Services; Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension; Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, College of Agriculture. 373 p. [27982]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Saskatoon has been artificially crossed with other species of serviceberry, and similar hybridization and intergradation also occurs in the field, particularly between saskatoon and low serviceberry (Amelanchier humilis Wieg.). Cultivars sold as Amelanchier alnifolia may actually be hybrids between A. alnifolia and other species of Amelanchier. Amelasorbus jackii is a hybrid of saskatoon and Cascade Mountain-ash (Sorbus scopulina.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Saskatoon in forests is fire-dependent, occurring in forests with fire regimes varying from frequent, low-severity fire (low-elevation forests) to infrequent, severe fire. It may persist in the understory for decades but eventually dies out with fire exclusion and canopy closure. After top-kill by light- to moderate-severity fire, saskatoon sprouts usually arise from the root crown or from shallowly buried rhizomes; sprouts arise from deeply buried rhizomes after even the most intense fire. Sasktoon cover and biomass production in western Montana may generally increase after fires in Douglas-fir/ninebark habitats, but browsing pressure from big game may slow the recovery. Seed production may resume soon after fire.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the term: reclamation

Saskatoon serviceberry is used for reclamation [48] and for wildlife,
watershed, and shelterbelt plantings [33]. It can be started from seed
or vegetative cuttings. Seed collection, processing, and germination
techniques are reviewed by Brinkman [20]. Hermesh and Cole [48] review
procedures for starting Saskatoon serviceberry from cuttings.

Saskatoon serviceberry has been successfully planted on burned sites
[29,91]. In the Black Hills of South Dakota, Saskatoon serviceberry and
other browse species were transplanted on 30-year-old burn and
open-grown, mature ponderosa pine sites . Establishment and 10-year
survival of bareroot Saskatoon serviceberry nursery stock was rated
"fair" on both sites; growth was rated "poor" on both sites [29].
  • 20. Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med. serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 212-215. [7516]
  • 29. Dietz, Donald R.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Messner, Harold E.; McEwen, Lowell C. 1980. Establishment, survival, and growth of selected browse species in a ponderosa pine forest. Res. Pap. RM-219. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p. [3471]
  • 33. Ferguson, Robert B. 1983. Use of rosaceous shrubs for wildland plantings in the Intermountain West. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats; Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 136-149. [915]
  • 48. Hemmer, Dennis M. 1975. Serviceberry: ecology, distribution, and relationships to big game. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 76 p. Thesis. [1125]
  • 91. Stanton, Frank. 1974. Wildlife guidelines for range fire rehabilitation. Tech. Note 6712. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 90 p. [2221]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

The degree to which Saskatoon serviceberry provides cover for wildlife
has been rated as follows [30]:

CO MT ND UT WY
Pronghorn ---- ---- ---- poor poor
Elk fair poor ---- fair poor
Mule deer good fair good good fair
White-tailed deer poor good ---- ---- fair
Small mammals good fair ---- good good
Small nongame birds good fair good good good
Upland game birds good fair good good fair
Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- poor poor
  • 30. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nutritional Value

More info for the terms: fresh, prescribed burn

Browse: Nutritional content of fresh Saskatoon serviceberry twigs and
leaves (collected at time of flowering) averaged [77]:

twigs leaves
_____ ______
ash (%) 2.8 8.5
crude fiber (%) 34.8 14.8
ether extract (%) 3.4 6.2
N-free extract (%) 53.5 59.6
protein (digestible, N X 6.25)
cattle 2.6 7.2
domestic goats 1.7 6.7
horses 2.2 6.8
rabbits 2.9 7.1
domestic sheep 2.1 7.1
calcium --- 2.32
magnesium --- 0.47

Comparing winter nutrient and fiber content of Saskatoon serviceberry
over widely scattered geographical areas of western Colorado, Kufeld and
others [60] concluded that variation in protein, carbohydrate, and fiber
was small enough to assume constant values for those parameters when
calculating nutritional status of big game rangelands.

In the Black Hills of South Dakota, Saskatoon serviceberry was found to
provide adequate nutrition for white-tailed deer in all seasons.
Digestibility for white-tailed deer was 48 percent in spring and 54
percent in winter (in-vitro, oven-dry basis). Seasonal variation in
nutritional content of Saskatoon serviceberry is shown below [28].

___________________________________________________________________________
Nutritional | Spring | Summer | Fall | Winter|
Component |_______________|_______________|_______________|_______|
| leaves|stems | leaves|stems | leaves|stems | stems |
__________________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|
crude protein (%) | 18.5 | 13.6 | 12.3 | 6.7 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 7.0 |
carbohydrates (%) | | | | | | | |
ADF | 18.7 | 32.0 | 22.3 | 42.7 | 29.8 | 44.4 | 43.6 |
ADL | 7.4 | 6.9 | 9.8 | 15.7 | 15.2 | 19.7 | 20.1 |
Cellulose | 13.2 | 24.8 | 12.2 | 22.0 | 13.3 | 25.6 | 21.0 |
ash (%) | 6.6 | 5.8 | 6.0 | 4.2 | 5.3 | 3.5 | 3.6 |
Ca (%) | 1.1 | 1.3 | 1.2 | 1.6 | 1.5 | 1.6 | 1.5 |
P (%) | 0.6 | 0.3 | 0.4 | 0.1 | 0.4 | 0.1 | 0.2 |
energy (cal/g) | 4,862 | 4,746 | 4,916 | 4,770 | 4,999 | 4,922 | 4,793 |
__________________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|
ADF - acid-detergent fiber
ADL - acid-detergent lignin

Asherin [10,11] compared nutritional content of Saskatoon serviceberry
on two burned and two unburned control sites near Avery, Idaho. He
found Saskatoon serviceberry twigs on burned sites contained more crude
protein and less crude fiber than twigs on unburned sites. Twigs were
collected during winter dormancy. Two watersheds were used as study
sites: one with 1- and 2-year-old prescribed burns, and one with a
3-year-old prescribed burn. Mean percent nutritional content of twigs
was as follows [10,11]:

Site 1 Site 1 Site 1 Site 2 Site 2
control 1-yr-old burn 2-yr-old burn control 3-yr-old burn
_______ _____________ _____________ _______ _____________
moisture 55.09 51.90* 54.42 56.30 53.50*
crude protein 9.14 9.28 10.04* 9.44 9.48
crude fiber 27.95 26.74* 27.16 26.39 25.20*
ash 2.84 2.77 2.95 2.86 2.79
N-free extract 57.63 57.88 57.90 58.69 59.28
calcium 1.07 0.91* 1.17* 1.10 1.08
phosphorus 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.15*
C:P ratio 6.7:1 6.0:1* 7.2:1 6.5:1 7.1:1*
______________________________________________________________________________
*significantly different from the control (p = 0.01)

Fruits: Nutritional content of Saskatoon serviceberry fruits collected
in northern Ontario follows [100].

Percent
_______
moisture 75.20
dry matter 24.80
fat 0.28
protein 1.51
soluble carbohydrate 11.36
  • 10. Asherin, Duane A. 1973. Prescribed burning effects on nutrition, production and big game use of key northern Idaho browse species. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 96 p. Dissertation. [360]
  • 28. Dietz, Donald R. 1972. Nutritive value of shrubs. In: McKell, Cyrus M.; Blaisdell, James P.; Goodin, Joe R., tech. eds. Wildland shrubs--their biology and utilization: An international symposium; Proceedings; 1971 July; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-1. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 289-302. [801]
  • 60. Kufeld, Roland C.; Stevens, Marilyn L.; Bowden, David C. 1985. Site variation in forage qualities of mountain mahogany and serviceberry. Journal of Range Management. 38(5): 458-460; 1985. [1386]
  • 77. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731]
  • 100. Usui, Masayuki; Kakuda, Yukio; Kevan, Peter G. 1994. Composition and energy values of wild fruits from the boreal forest of northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 74(3): 581-587. [24583]
  • 11. Asherin, Duane A. 1975. Changes in elk use and available browse production on north Idaho winter ranges following prescribed burning. In: Hieb, S., ed. Proceedings, elk logging-roads symposium; [Date of conference unknown]; Moscow, ID. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]. 122-134. [17049]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Palatability

More info for the terms: fresh, presence, shrubs

Saskatoon serviceberry browse is palatable to all wild and domestic
ungulate species [30,84]. It is not among the most preferred browse
species, but ungulates consume a considerable amount of it when
plentiful. In a feeding trial with captive mule deer in Logan, Utah,
Saskatoon serviceberry was ranked 11th in preference out of 14 winter
browse species, with 1 being the most preferred species [87].

Palatability has been rated as follows [30,84]:

cattle fair to good
domestic goats good
domestic sheep fair to good
mule deer fair to good
horses poor to fair

Although Saskatoon serviceberry is often a primary component of winter
diets [65,84], ungulates normally consume a variety of other shrubs as
well. A diet consisting solely of Saskatoon serviceberry can be fatal
due to presence of cyanogenic glycosides [70,82]. The glycosides are
highly concentrated in young twigs and least concentrated in older
leaves. Captive mule deer fed only fresh, winter-collected Saskatoon
serviceberry twigs died within a week [82]. Quinton [82] speculated
that a winter diet of over 35 percent Saskatoon serviceberry would be
fatal to mule deer.
  • 30. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 65. Leege, Thomas A.; Hickey, William O. 1966. Lochsa elk study. Big Game Surveys and Investigations: W 85-R-17, Job No. 8. July 1, 1965 to June 30, 1966. Boise, ID: State of Idaho Fish and Game Department. 22 p. [16759]
  • 70. Majak, W.; Quinton, D. A.; Broersma, K. 1980. Cyanogenic glycoside levels in Saskatoon serviceberry. Journal of Range Management. 33(3): 197-199. [1510]
  • 82. Quinton, Dee A. 1985. Saskatoon serviceberry toxic to deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 49(2): 362-364. [1926]
  • 84. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. [3240]
  • 87. Smith, Arthur D.; Hubbard, Richard L. 1954. Preference ratings for winter deer forages from northern Utah ranges based on browsing time and forage consumed. Journal of Range Management. 7: 262-265. [2163]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Saskatoon serviceberry is a valuable wildlife plant. Wild ungulates
browse twigs and foliage; fur and game mammals such as black bear,
beaver, and hares consume twigs, foliage, fruits, and bark. Upland game
birds consume the fruits and buds, and many species of rodents and
songbirds eat the fruits [20,41,72,101].

Where available in quantity, Saskatoon serviceberry is often a primary
or important component of the winter diet of big game species. In
Montana, utilization of Saskatoon serviceberry browse was heaviest
during periods of deep snow. Second heaviest use was in spring. All
big game species, including mountain goat and bighorn sheep, utilized
Saskatoon serviceberry. Elk would often browse all available twigs
before moving to another area [48].

In Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, bison browsed
Saskatoon serviceberry and used the wooded draws in which it grows for
cover [78].
  • 20. Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med. serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 212-215. [7516]
  • 41. Gordon, Floyd A. 1976. Spring burning in an aspen-conifer stand for maintenance of moose habitat, West Boulder River, Montana. In: Proceedings, Montana Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire & land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research STation: 501-538. [13529]
  • 48. Hemmer, Dennis M. 1975. Serviceberry: ecology, distribution, and relationships to big game. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 76 p. Thesis. [1125]
  • 72. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 78. Norland, Jack E.; Marlow, Clayton B. 1984. Use of wooded draws by free-roaming bison. In: Noble, Daniel L.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Wooded draws: Characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Publication No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Biology Department: 40-44. [1777]
  • 101. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

Saskatoon serviceberry is planted as an ornamental and to produce
commercial fruit crops. The fruits are added to pastries and used for
making jelly or syrup [31]. Several cultivars of Saskatoon serviceberry
have been developed [35].

Native Americans used Saskatoon serviceberry wood to make arrow shafts,
spears, and digging sticks. They made a tea, used for treating colds,
by boiling the branches [44].
  • 35. Flessner, T. R.; Darris, D. C.; Lambert, S. M. 1992. Seed source evaluation of four native riparian shrubs for streambank rehabilitation in the Pacific Northwest. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 155-162. [19111]
  • 44. Halverson, Nancy M., compiler. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on National Forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233]
  • 31. Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. 1982. Field guide to North American edible wild plants. [Place of publication unknown]: Outdoor Life Books. 286 p. [21103]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Saskatoon is planted as an ornamental and to produce commercial fruit crops. Many cultivars are commercially available, selected for desirable plant and/or fruit characteristics. Much research and literature details the development of cultivars and cultivation techniques.

The fruits are used in pies, jams, and fruit rolls and for making jelly and syrup. Saskatoon wine is a regional specialty. Native Americans ate the berries fresh and dried, often mixed with other foods for sweetening and flavor. Dried and rehydrated berries were added to dried vegetables and cooked into soups and puddings.

Native Americans boiled branches to make a tea for treating colds. A drink was made from the bark for stomach problems. Bark and twigs provided a medicine for recovery after childbirth. In

combination with other plants, it was used to make a contraceptive. The strong and straight-grained wood was used to make arrows, digging sticks, spear shafts, tool handles, and seed beaters. Young branches were twisted into a type of rope.

Saskatoon is attractive as an ornamental shrub or may be trimmed as a hedge. It is an important species for reclamation, wildlife, watershed, and shelterbelt plantings. It can be started from seed or vegetative cuttings.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Amelanchier alnifolia

Amelanchier alnifolia, the saskatoon, Pacific serviceberry, western serviceberry, alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, chuckley pear, or western juneberry,[1] is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America from Alaska across most of western Canada and in the western and north central United States. Historically it was also called "pigeon berry".[2] It grows from sea level in the north of the range, up to 2,600 m (8,530 ft) elevation in California and 3,400 m (11,200 ft) in the Rocky Mountains,[1][3][4] and is a common shrub in the forest understory.[5]

Etymology[edit]

The name "saskatoon" derives from the Cree inanimate noun misâskwatômina (misâskwatômin NI sg saskatoonberry, misâskwatômina NI pl saskatoonberries).[6] The city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is named after the berry.

Description[edit]

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree that can grow to 1–8 m (3–26 ft) (rarely to 10 m or 33 ft) in height. Its growth form spans from suckering and forming colonies to clumped.

The leaves are oval to nearly circular, 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long and 1–4.5 cm (0.4–1.8 in) broad, on a 0.5–2 cm (0.2–0.8 in) leaf stem, margins toothed mostly above the middle.

As with all species in the genus Amelanchier, the flowers are white, with 5 quite separate petals. In A. alnifolia, they are about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) across, and appear on short racemes of 3–20 somewhat crowded together, in spring while the new leaves are still expanding.

The fruit is a small purple pome 5–15 mm (0.2–0.6 in) in diameter, ripening in early summer in the coastal areas and late summer further inland.[3][4]

Varieties[edit]

There are three varieties:[4][7]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Seedlings are planted with 13–20 feet (4.0–6.1 m) between rows and 1.5–3 feet (0.46–0.91 m) between plants. An individual bush may bear fruit 30 or more years.[13]

Saskatoons are adaptable to most soil types with exception of poorly drained or heavy clay soils lacking organic matter. Shallow soils should be avoided, especially if there is a high or erratic water table. Winter hardiness is exceptional but frost can damage blooms as late as May. Large amounts of sunshine are needed for fruit ripening.[13][14]

With a sweet nutty taste, the fruits have long been eaten by Canada's Aboriginal people, fresh or dried. They are well known as an ingredient in pemmican, a preparation of dried meat to which saskatoon berries are added as flavour and preservative. They are also often used in pies, jam, wines, cider, beers and sugar-infused berries similar to dried cranberries used for cereals, trail mix and snack foods.[15][16][17][18]

In 2004, the British Food Standards Agency suspended saskatoon berries from retail sales[19] pending safety testing, a ban that was eventually lifted after pressure from the European Union.

Canadian growers are currently moving to position saskatoon berries as a superfruit, following the vogue for such fruits as wild blueberries, cranberries, pomegranates, and açaí.[20]

Diseases and pests[edit]

Amelanchier alnifolia is susceptible to cedar-apple rust.[21]

Nutrients and potential health benefits[edit]

The 5–15 mm diameter pomes ripen in early summer.
Resembling blueberries, the fruit has a waxy bloom.
Nutrients in raw saskatoon berries[15]
NutrientValue per 100 grams % Daily Value
Energy85 kcal
Total dietary fiber5.9 g20%
Sugars, total11.4 g8%
Calcium, Ca42 mg4%
Magnesium, Mg24 mg6%
Iron, Fe1 mg12%
Manganese, Mn1.4 mg70%
Potassium, K162 mg3%
Sodium, Na0.5 mg0%
Vitamin C3.6 mg4%
Vitamin A, IU11 IU1%
Vitamin E1.1 mg7%
Folate4.6 µg1%
Riboflavin3.5 mg> 100%
Panthothenic acid0.3 mg6%
Pyridoxine0.03 mg2%
Biotin20 µg67%

Saskatoon berries contain significant Daily Value amounts of total dietary fibre, vitamins B2 (riboflavin) and biotin, and the essential minerals, iron and manganese, a nutrient profile similar to the content of blueberries.[15]

Notable for polyphenol antioxidants also similar in composition to blueberries,[15] saskatoons have total phenolics of 452 mg per 100 g (average of Smoky and Northline cultivars), flavonols (61 mg) and anthocyanins (178 mg),[15] although others have found the phenolic values to be either lower in the Smoky cultivar[22] or higher.[23] Quercetin, cyanidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin were polyphenols present in saskatoon berries.[15][24]

Particularly for saskatoon phenolics, inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase enzymes involved in mechanisms of inflammation and pain have been demonstrated in vitro.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Germplasm Resources Information Network: Amelanchier alnifolia
  2. ^ Schorger, A.W. 1955. The Passenger Pigeon; its natural history and extinction. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
  3. ^ a b Plants of British Columbia: Amelanchier alnifolia
  4. ^ a b c Jepson Flora: Amelanchier alnifolia
  5. ^ Dyrness, C. T. and Acker, S. A. (2010). "Ecology of Common Understory Plants in Northwestern Oregon and Southwestern Washington Forests". H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon State University. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. 
  6. ^ "saskatoon". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. 
  7. ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier list of taxa
  8. ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier alnifolia var. alnifolia
  9. ^ Jepson Flora: Amelanchier alnifolia var. pumila
  10. ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier alnifolia var. pumila
  11. ^ Jepson Flora: Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia
  12. ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia
  13. ^ a b Introduction to Saskatoons
  14. ^ St-Pierre, R. G. Growing Saskatoons - A Manual For Orchardists
  15. ^ a b c d e f Mazza, G. (2005). "Compositional and Functional Properties of Saskatoon Berry and Blueberry". International Journal of Fruit Science 5 (3): 101–120. doi:10.1300/J492v05n03_10. ISSN 1553-8362. 
  16. ^ Mazza G, Davidson CG. Saskatoon berry: A fruit crop for the prairies. p. 516-519. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York, 1993.
  17. ^ Government of Manitoba - Ministry of Agriculture: Saskatoon Berries
  18. ^ St-Pierre RG. Growing saskatoons - a manual for orchardists
  19. ^ Anon. Britain plucks saskatoon berries from store shelves. CBC News 2004-06-07.
  20. ^ Leeder, Jessica. Saskatchewan couple betting the farm on the Saskatoon berry's super powers. The Globe and Mail. 16 September 2011.
  21. ^ Ron Smith. "Juneberries". Retrieved 2010-06-21. "Q: I have a question about Juneberry shrub trees. When the Juneberries start to ripen, they get red in color and then something starts to grow on them, almost like a fungus. What could it be and what can be done? A: It is a fungus, most likely cedar-apple rust. Juneberry is in the same family as the apple (rose), so it is subject to some of the same diseases. The easiest way to control this is to find the offending juniper and remove it or pick off and destroy the orange, golf ball-sized fruit that is present before sporogenesis has a chance to begin." 
  22. ^ Ozga (2007). "Characterization of cyanidin- and quercetin-derived flavonoids and other phenolics in mature saskatoon fruits (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (25): 10414–24. doi:10.1021/jf072949b. PMID 17994693. 
  23. ^ Hosseinian (2007). "Saskatoon and wild blueberries have higher anthocyanin contents than other Manitoba berries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (26): 10832–8. doi:10.1021/jf072529m. PMID 18052240. 
  24. ^ Bakowska-barczak (2007). "Survey of bioactive components in Western Canadian berries". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 85 (11): 1139–52. doi:10.1139/y07-102. PMID 18066116. 
  25. ^ Adhikari (2005). "Quantification and characterisation of cyclo-oxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitory anthocyanins in fruits of Amelanchier". Phytochemical analysis 16 (3): 175–80. PMID 15997850. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The scientific name of Saskatoon serviceberry is Amelanchier alnifolia
(Nutt.) Nutt. (Rosaceae) [42,51,53,55,67,88,103]. Currently recognized
varieties include:

A. a. var. alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roemer Saskatoon serviceberry
A. a. var. cusickii (Fern.) C.L. Hitch. Cusick's serviceberry
A. a. var. humptulipensis (G.N. Jones) C.L. Hitch. [52,55]
Saskatoon serviceberry
A. a. var. pumila (Nutt.) Nelson [50,51] dwarf serviceberry
A. a. var. semiintegrifolia (Hook.) C.L. Hitch. [51,52,55]
Pacific serviceberry

Serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.) intergrade and hybridize readily,
making species identification difficult [47,52,103]. Saskatoon
serviceberry has been successfully crossed with many other species of
serviceberry in the laboratory. Intergradation of Saskatoon
serviceberry and other serviceberries across the West suggests that such
hybridization also occurs in the field [103]. Intergradation and
hybridization between Saskatoon serviceberry and low serviceberry (A.
humilis) is particularly strong [42,67].

Amelasorbus jackii Rehd. is a hybrid of Saskatoon serviceberry and
Greene mountain-ash (Sorbus scopulina) [67].
  • 42. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 103. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 50. Hess, Karl; Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Grassland, shrubland, and forestland habitat types of the White River-Arapaho National Forest. Final Report. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 335 p. [1142]
  • 51. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 52. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 53. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 88. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 47. Harris, R. E. 1976. Saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia) summary report. Proceedings Western Canadian Society Horticulture. 32: 50-59. [7647]
  • 55. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II--thesaurus. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 816 p. [23878]
  • 67. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

Saskatoon serviceberry
western serviceberry

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonyms

Amelanchier florida Lind. [53]
= A. alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia (Hook) C.L. Hitch. [51,52]
A. pallida Greene [55]
= A. alnifolia var. pallida (Greene) Jepson [51]
  • 51. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 52. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 53. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 55. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II--thesaurus. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 816 p. [23878]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!