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BiologyAdult craneflies emerge between June and September, although in Britain peak emergence occurs from mid-August to mid-September. Mating occurs shortly after emergence and females lay one batch of eggs amongst grass and other vegetation (5). Around 14 days later, the larvae hatch; they feed on the bases of plant stems and roots, and are often serious pests. They spend the winter in the soil in the third larval stage or 'instar'; they can continue to be active in temperatures as low as 5°C, but as temperatures warm up in spring they become increasingly active. Larvae reach 3-4 cm in length, and head for the surface to pupate in summer. This crane fly remains in the pupal stage for two weeks before emerging (5).