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North American Ecology (US and Canada)Euphydryas chalcedona is resident of the western United States and Canada, From Alaska to southern Calif., and east to Colorado (Scott 1986). Habitats are upper Sonoran to alpine zone desert hills, chaparral, open forest and alpine tundra. Host plants are herbs and shrubs with hosts including species from many families, including Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae, Orobanchaceae, Planaginaceae, Caprifoliaceae, and occasionally Boraginaceae, Labiatae, Rosaceae and Loganiaceae. Eggs are laid on the host plant in large clusters. Individuals overwinter as third and fourth instar larvae in litter or under rocks, and can hibernate for several years. There is one flight each year with the approximate flight time April 1- April 30 in the southern part of the range and late June ? July 15 in the far north. In western Arizona there are several flights from April 1-Oct. 31 (Scott 1986).