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Phronima is a genus of small, deepsea hyperiid amphipods of the family Phronimidae. It is found throughout the world's oceans, except in polar regions.[1] Phronima species live in the pelagic zone of the deep ocean. Their bodies are semitransparent. Although commonly known as parasites, they are more technically correctly called parasitoids.[2] Instead of constantly feeding on a live host, females attack salps, using their mouths and claws to eat the animal and hollow out its gelatinous shell.[3] Phronima females then enter the barrel and lay their eggs inside, and then propels the barrel through the water as the larvae develop, providing them with fresh food and water.[3]


The genus Phronima contains these species:[4]


  1. ^ a b James K. Lowry (2003). "Phronimidae". Peracarida : Amphipoda, Cumacea, Mysidacea. Volume 2, Part 2 of Crustacea: Malacostraca in Zoological catalogue of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 339–344. ISBN 978-0-643-06902-2. 
  2. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ a b Damond Benningfield (June 8, 2008). "Phronima". Science and the Sea. University of Texas Marine Science Institute. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  4. ^ WoRMS (2010). J. Lowry, ed. "Phronima Latreille, 1802". World Amphipoda database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  5. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ "Animal Diversity Web". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 


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