The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • BRITTEN, H.B. & BRUSSARD, P.F. 1991. The Pleistocene history of the alpine butterfly Boloria improba (Nymphalidae). Research & Exploration 7(3), 366-367.
  • BRITTEN, H.B. & BRUSSARD, P.F. 1992. Genetic divergence and the Pleistocene history of the alpine butterflies Boloria improba (Nymphalidae) and the endangered Boloria acrocnema (Nymphalidae) in western North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70, 539–548.
  • BRITTEN, H.B., BRUSSARD, P.F. and MURPHY, D.D. 1994. The pending extinction of the Uncompahgre Fritillary Butterfly. Conservation Biology 8(1), 86–94. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08010086.x
  • FERRIS, C.D. 1984. Overview of Clossiana improba (Butler) in North America with a description of a new subspecies from Wyoming (Nymphalidae: Argynnini). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 89, 1–7.
  • FERRIS, C.D. 1986. Field notes on Clossiana improba harryi Ferris (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 25, 71–72.
  • GALL, L.F. 1984. Population structure and recommendation for conservation of the narrowly endemic butterfly Boloria acrocnema (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Biological Conservation 28, 111–138.
  • GALL, L.F. and SPERLING, F.A.H. 1980. A new high altitude species of Boloria from southwestern Colorado (Nymphalidae), with a discussion of phenetics and hierarchical decisions [Boloria (Clossiana) acrocnema]. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 34(2), 230-252.
  • George Beccaloni, Malcolm Scoble, Ian Kitching, Thomas Simonsen, Gaden Robinson, Brian Pitkin, Adrian Hine & Chris Lyal (2013). LepIndex: LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (version 12.3,). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • HENDRIKSEN, H.J. and KREUTZER, I. 1982. The Butterflies of Scandinavia in Nature. Skandinavisk Bogvorlag, Odense, 215 pp.
  • PELHAM, J.P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada – with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 40, i–xiv, 1–658.
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • SCOTT, J.A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • SIMONSEN, T.J., WAHLBERG, N., WARREN, A.D. AND SPERLING, F.A.H. 2010. The evolutionary history of Boloria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): phylogeny, zoogeography and larval–foodplant relationships. Systematics and Biodiversity 8(4):513-529. DOI:10.1080/14772000.2010.532833
  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
  • TUZOV, V.K., ed. 2000. Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and adjacent territories Volume 2. PENSOFT, Sofia - Moscow.
  • VAN SWAAY, C., COLLINS, S., DUŠEJ, G., MAES, D., MUNGUIRA, M., RAKOSY, L., RYRHOLM, N., ŠAŠIĆ, M., SETTELE, J., THOMAS, J., VEROVNIK, R., VERSTRAEL, T., WARREN, M., WIEMERS, M., and WYNHOFF. I. 2012. Dos and Don’ts for butterflies of the Habitats Directive of the European Union. Nature Conservation 1, 73-153. DOI: 10.3897/natureconservation.1.2786
  • VÄLIMÄKI, P., MÄNNISTÖ, K., and KAITILA, J.-P. 2011. Katsaus Enontekiön uhanalaisiin tunturiperhoslajeihin ja tunturiperhosseurannan esiintymisaluehavaintoihin vuosina 2008–2011. [Threatened butterflies and moths in high fjelds of Le Enontekiö with special reference to observations during monitoring scheme of subarctic Lepidoptera 2008–2011]. Baptria 36, 70-90.


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