Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (250-20,000 square km (about 100-8000 square miles)) High elevations, mostly above 4000 feet in North Carolina, Tennessee and Georgia, probably at least formerly southwestern Virginia (see Clark and Clark, 1951) and extreme southeastern Kentucky (Covell, 1999). It seems more likely that pre-1890 West Virginia specimens of this species (Allen, 1997) would be P. b. batesii but they have not been critically examined recently. As presently understood the historic range of that virtually extinct subspecies was never close to that of P. b. maconensis.

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Ecology

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Insufficient information to evaluate precisely. Habitat as given by Gatrelle (1998) is not like other subspecies which may explain ineffectiveness of previous searches. This subspecies has a limited global range and considering this and the unexpalined virtual extinction of the other eastern subspecies and threats from gypsy moth spraying this subspecies cannot be considered secure even though it is numerous at a few sites.

Other Considerations: This is the subspecies the former C2 status was supposed to be for.

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Global Short Term Trend: Unknown

Global Long Term Trend: Unknown

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Medium

Comments: Threatened by gypsy moth spraying and possibly habitat changes. Some habitats may be vulnerable to development but many are on National forest and National Parks lands. Excessive herbivory by deer is a potential threat especially where development encroaches nad where hunting is not allowed.

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Management

Biological Research Needs: The exact foodplant asters need to be documented as do habitat requirements for the adults.

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Global Protection: None. No occurrences appropriately protected and managed

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: See the original description for discussion of this taxon and its status. More recent suggestions that it is a separate species may have merit but no persuasive reason for a change of status is given so Opler and Warren (2002) is followed. This is a very distinctive taxon although re-examination of old southwestern Virginia specimens and the lone Kentucky specimen tentatively included with it in this discussion is needed. However, even these localities are hundreds of kilometers from any actually verified for P. batesii batesii.

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Disclaimer

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