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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Robust twining perennial herb with stems up to 10 m long. Stems and petioles, hairless covered in small spine-like reddish-brown tubercles; older stems becoming woody. Leaves up to 13 cm in diameter, deeply palmately or pedately 7-9-lobed, lobes often pinnately lobed again, hairless. Flowers solitary or in few-flowered axillary clusters on a long peduncle, up to 8 cm. Corolla funnel-shaped, 6-8 cm in diameter, whitish to pale yellow with a dark purple centre.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

kentrocaulos: with spiny stems; pinnatifida: pinnately lobed, referring to secondary lobes on each primary lobe.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Description

Herbs, twining and often prostrate (in ours). Leaves variable in shape and size, entire or lobed. Flowers axillary, solitary or in axillary usually cymose inflorescences. Sepals 5, usually subequal. Corolla nearly always yellow or white with or without a red or purple centre. Anthers at anthesis helically twisted; pollen tricolpate. Ovary 2-4-locular. Style 1, simple, filiformstigmas 2, spherical. Capsule 4-valved or irregularly dehiscent. Seeds 4.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Merremia Dennst. ex Endl.:
Argentina (South America)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Colombia (South America)
Guyana (South America)
French Guiana (South America)
Ecuador (South America)
Chile (South America)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Venezuela (South America)
Suriname (South America)
Peru (South America)
Paraguay (South America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Spiranthera A. St.-Hil.:
Brazil (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Worldwide distribution

Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Limpopo and Mpumalanga, South Africa. Also in India.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Merremia

Twining vines, with milky or watery latex, sometimes with glandular hairs. Leaves alternate, petiolate; blades simple, palmately lobed or compound; stipules absent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, 5-merous, solitary or in compound dichasial cymes, axillary; peduncles usually elongate. Calyx usually accrescent, the sepals equal or unequal; corolla campanulate or infundibuliform, the limb entire or slightly 5-lobed; stamens inserted, the filaments subequal, the anthers lanceolate, twisted after opening; ovary superior, 2-locular, the style solitary, with two subglobose stigmas. Fruits capsular, ovoid to globose, 4-valvate or irregularly dehiscent; seeds 4 per fruit, triangular, glabrous or velvety. A pantropical genus of about 80 species.

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Seed case protects from seawater: Mary's bean
 

The seed cases of Mary's Bean provide protection and keep seeds afloat as they drift on ocean currents.

 
  "Protection from air and water: Seed cases are champions of air- and water-tight storage. Among the record-holders: a lotus that germinated after 1288 years, a Polynesian box fruit that germinated after two years at sea, and the Mary’s Bean, a liana seed which stayed afloat from the Marshall Islands to the beaches of Norway, more than 15,000 miles!" (Biomimicry Guild unpublished report)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
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© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:39Public Records:15
Specimens with Sequences:31Public Species:7
Specimens with Barcodes:31Public BINs:0
Species:12         
Species With Barcodes:11         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Merremia

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Merremia

Merremia is a genus of flowering plants in the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as woodroses.[3]

Selected species[edit]

This list comes from various sources: species names[1][4][5] are in italics, followed by their respective binomial authorities (the botanists who named them), with common names,[3] if any, in grey; red asterisks (*) refer to corresponding notes at the bottom of the list.

* Author is H.S.Kiu per IPNI, corrected from H.X.Qiu at TPL
** Author is T.N.Nguyen per IPNI, corrected from N.T.Nhan at TPL
*** Author is Mart.Gord. per IPNI, corrected from Martínez-Gordillo at TPL
**** The author (in parenthesis) of the basionym of M. palmeri (Ipomoea palmeri) may be either S.Watson (according to ars-grin.gov), or Hallier (according to tropicos.org and theplantlist.org)

Formerly placed here[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The genus Merremia was originally described and published in Genera Plantarum 18: 1403. 1841. "Name - !Merremia Dennst. ex Endl.". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden (MOBOT). Retrieved January 7, 2013. "Type Specimens: T: Merremia hederacea (Burm.f.) Hallier f." 
  2. ^ a b GRIN (October 5, 2007). "Merremia information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved January 7, 2013. "Comment: conserved (nom. cons.) against the heterotypic synonyms (Vienna ICBN Art. 14.4 & App. III) Operculina Silva Manso, nom. rej. & the heterotypic synonym Camonea Raf., nom. rej." 
  3. ^ a b "Merremia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-04-12. 
  4. ^ "TPL, treatment of Merremia". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and MOBOT. 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Merremia". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved January 7, 2013. 
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