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North American Ecology (US and Canada)Resident across much of southern Canada and the southwestern United States (Scott 1986). Habitats are transition to Hudsonian zone coniferous forest. Host plants are restricted to trees, mostly in Pinaceae family, also Thuja plicata (Cupressaceae). Eggs are laid on the host plant singly, at the base of young needles. Larvae bore into young needles and male catkins. Individuals overwinter as pupae. There is one flight each year with the approximate flight time May1-June30 at low altitude, June1-July15 at high altitude, mostly May in the northern part of the range (Scott 1986).