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North American Ecology (US and Canada)Resident in patchy distribution of western North America (Scott 1986). Habitats are ALPINE ZONE, ESP GLACIAL CIRQUES; OPEN AREAS IN CANADIAN/TO ALPINE ZONES OF CA; TRANSITION TO HUDSONIAN ZONE SAGEBRUSH; AND MEADOWS ELSWHERE. Hosts plants are usually herbaceous with most known hosts largely restricted to one genus, Rumex (Polygonaceae). Eggs are laid on or near the host plant singly. Individuals overwinter as larvae. There is one flight each year with the approximate flight time LATE JUN-AUG15 (Scott 1986).