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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests, also Cultivated, Semi-Parasite"
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Miscellaneous Details

"Wood used for carving, distillation of  oil. Usually semi parasitic on the roots of  other trees."
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

Range Description

Regeneration is mostly vegetative by wood suckers or coppicing and is very successful in places. Viable seeds are produced after five years and dispersed by birds.
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"Maharashtra: Ahemdnagar, Nasik, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Thane Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Dharwar, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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"
Global Distribution

Peninsular India and Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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Found in deciduous scrub forests from foothills to 1000m. Very common. Peninsular India.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Santalum album L.:
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
India (Asia)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary and terminal paniculate cymes, 3-chotomous; brownish-purple. Flowering from December-April.

Fruit

A globose drupe, annulate above, beaked with basal part of the style, dark black when ripe. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Bark dark grey, rough. Leaves glaucous beneath.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate/opposite

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Elliptic-ovate to lanceolate

Leaf Apex

Acute

Leaf Base

Rounded-acute

Leaf Margin

Entire

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Evergreen trees, to 10 m high, bark surface dark grey to nearly black, rough with short vertical cracks. Leaves simple, opposite, estipulate; petiole 12-18 mm long, slender, glabrous, grooved above; lamina 3.7-12 x 2-4 cm, elliptic, elliptic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, base acute or round, apex acute, margin entire, glabrous, shiny above and glaucous beneath, coriaceous; lateral nerves 8-13 pairs, pinnate, faint, intercostae reticulate, obscure. Flowers bisexual, 5-6 mm across, reddish-purple, in axillary and terminal paniculate cymes, much shorter than leaves; tepals 5, basally connate into a campanulate tube of 2 mm long, shortly connate to the basal part of the ovary; lobes 2.5 x 1.5 mm, ovate, thin, fleshy, glaucescent without, minutely ciliate; disc concave, adhering to the bottom of perianth, its lobes alternates with tepals; stamens 5, alternates with disc; filaments 1 mm; anthers 0.7 mm, ovoid, 2-celled; ovary superior later half inferior at the time of flowering, globose, 1 mm, 1-celled, ovules 2-3, pendulous from below the long, acuminate, central column; style 1.5 mm, stigma 3 lobed. Fruit a drupe, 8-12 mm across, globose, blackish-purple, annulate above, beaked with the basal part of the style; seed one."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A small evergreen tree, upto 8m."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Sandalwood is a hemi-parasitic plant which is widely scattered in dry deciduous forests.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

"Abundant on the lower slopes, plain and foothills to 1400mm. Peninsular India"
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General Habitat

"Dry deciduous forests, also grown in homesteads"
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: November-December
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Santalum album

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Santalum album

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A1d

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996)

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Not Threatened
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Vulnerable
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Threats

Major Threats
Fire, grazing and most importantly exploitation of the wood for fine furniture and carving and also oil are threatening the species. Smuggling has assumed alarming proportions.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Export of the timber is banned from India.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"Tender shoots kept as an offering to gods. Cattle graze on the leaves. Fruits are eaten by birds.

Sapwood white, scentless, heart wood yellowish-brown, strongly scented, great demand for carvings and distillation of oil.

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Folklore

Wood used in religious rituals.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Santalum album

Santalum album or Indian sandalwood is a small tropical tree, and is the most commonly known source of sandalwood. This species has historically been cultivated, processed and traded since ancient times.[clarification needed] Certain cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. The high value of the species has caused its past exploitation, to the point where the wild population is vulnerable to extinction. Indian sandalwood still commands high prices for its essential oil, but due to lack of sizable trees it is no longer used for fine woodworking as before. The plant is widely cultivated and long lived, although harvest is viable after 40 years. the word Derived Tamil Language Santanam > Santalum > Sandal.

Description[edit]

Flowers in Hyderabad, India.

The height of the evergreen tree is between 4 and 9 metres. They may live to one hundred years of age. The tree is variable in habit, usually upright to sprawling, and may intertwine with other species. The plant parasitises the roots of other tree species, with a haustorium adaptation on its own roots, but without major detriment to its hosts. An individual will form a non-obligate relationship with a number of other plants. Up to 300 species (including its own) can host the tree's development - supplying macronutrients phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, and shade - especially during early phases of development. It may propagate itself through wood suckering during its early development, establishing small stands. The reddish or brown bark can be almost black and is smooth in young trees, becoming cracked with a red reveal. The heartwood is pale green to white as the common name indicates. The leaves are thin, opposite and ovate to lanceolate in shape. Glabrous surface is shiny and bright green, with a glaucous pale reverse. Fruit is produced after three years, viable seeds after five. These seeds are distributed by birds.

A ripen fruit of Santalum album from Panchkhal Valley, Nepal.

Nomenclature[edit]

The nomenclature for other "sandalwoods" and the taxonomy of the genus are derived from this species historical and widespread use. Santalum album is included in the family Santalaceae, and is commonly known as white or East Indian sandalwood.[2] The name, Santalum ovatum, used by Robert Brown in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (1810) was described as a synonym of this species by Alex George in 1984.[3] The epithet album refers to the 'white' of the heartwood.

The species was the first to be known as sandalwood. Other species in the genus Santalum, such as the Australian S. spicatum, are also referred to as true sandalwoods, to distinguish them from trees with similar-smelling wood or oil.

Distribution[edit]

It is a hemiparasitic tree, native to semi-arid areas of the Indian subcontinent.[citation needed] It is now planted in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Northern Australia.

Habitat[edit]

S. album occurs from coastal dry forests up to 700 m elevation. It normally grows in sandy or stony red soils, but a wide range of soil types are inhabited. This habitat has a temperature range from 0 to 38°C and annual rainfall between 500 and 3000 mm.

SantalumAlbumLeaf.jpg

Conservation[edit]

The species is threatened by over-exploitation and degradation to habitat through altered land use; fire, agriculture and land-clearing are the factors of most concern. To preserve this vulnerable resource from over-exploitation, legislation protects the species, and cultivation is researched and developed.[4][5][6]

The Indian government has placed a ban on the export of the timber.[1]

Uses[edit]

Young sapling

S. album has been the primary source of sandalwood and the derived oil. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. The high value of the plant has led to attempts at cultivation, this has increased the distribution range of the plant. The ISO Standard for the accepted characteristics of this essential oil is ISO 3518:2002.[7] HPTLC and GC,[8] GC-MS based methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the volatile [9] essential oil constituents. The long maturation period and difficulty in cultivation have been restrictive to extensive planting within the range. Harvest of the tree involves several curing and processing stages, also adding to the commercial value. These wood and oil have high demand and are an important trade item in the regions of:

India
The use of S. album in India is noted in literature for over two thousand years. It has use as wood and oil in religious practices. It also features as a construction material in temples and elsewhere. The Indian government has banned the export of the species to reduce the threat by over-harvesting. In the southern Indian state of Karnataka, all trees of greater than a specified girth are the property of the state. Cutting of trees, even on private property, is regulated by the Forest Department.[10] The infamous forest bandit Veerappan was involved in the illegal felling of sandalwood trees from forests.
Sri Lanka
The harvesting of sandalwood is preferred to be of trees that are advanced in age. Saleable wood can, however, be of trees as young as seven years. The entire plant is removed rather than cut to the base, as in coppiced species. The extensive removal of S. album over the past century led to increased vulnerability to extinction.[1]
Australia
Utilisation of native Australian Santalum species in has been extensive; Santalum spicatum was extensively harvested and exported from Western Australia during colonisation, this was used as a less expensive alternative to this species. Commercial Indian sandalwood plantations are now in full operations in Kununurra, Western Australia.[11]

Ethnopharmacological Uses[edit]

Sandalwood oil has been widely used in folk medicine for treatment of common colds, bronchitis, skin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and other maladies.[12] Recently, the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials[13] of α-santalol and sandalwood oil were demonstrated in Swiss Albino mice. Additionally, different in vitro and in vivo parts of the plant have been shown to possess antimicrobial[14] and antioxidant[14] properties, possibly attributed to sesquiterpenoids,[15] shikimic acid,[16] etc.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Asian Regional Workshop (1998). Santalum album. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  2. ^ Santalum (IPNI)
  3. ^ "Santalum ovatum". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.  George, A.S. & Hewson, H.J. in George, A.S. (Ed) (1984), Flora of Australia 22: 61, 63, Fig. 18D, Map 71
  4. ^ http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/newslett/ncnl2-54.htm University of Queensland site's detail
  5. ^ Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden - Plants: Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum
  6. ^ http://www.fpc.wa.gov.au/pdfs/sandalwood_detail.pdf WA Gov site's detail
  7. ^ ISO 3518:2002
  8. ^ Misra, B. B., & Dey, S. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of esquiterpenoids from essential oil and in vitro somatic embryos of east Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) tree by HPTLC and GC. Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 4(1), 1-9.
  9. ^ Biswapriya B. Misra, Shibendu S. Das, Satyahari Dey, Volatile profiling from heartwood of East Indian sandalwood tree, Journal of Pharmacy Research, Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2013, Pages 299-303, ISSN 0974-6943, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jopr.2013.04.030.
  10. ^ Karnataka Forest Department Rules
  11. ^ Indian Sandalwood Plantations in Australia. Tropical Forest Services (TFS) Ltd.
  12. ^ Misra BB, Dey S. (2013) Biological Activities of East Indian Sandalwood Tree, Santalum album. PeerJ PrePrints 1:e96v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.96v1
  13. ^ Misra, Biswapriya B.; Dey, Satyahari (2013). "Evaluation of in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of α-santalol and sandalwood oil". Phytomedicine. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.12.017. PMID 23369343. 
  14. ^ a b Misra, B.B.; Dey, S. (2012). "Comparative phytochemical analysis and antibacterial efficacy of in vitro and in vivo extracts from East Indian sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.)". Letters in Applied Microbiology: n/a. doi:10.1111/lam.12005. PMID 23020220. 
  15. ^ Misra, Biswapriya B.; Dey, Satyahari (2012). "Differential Extraction and GC-MS based Quantification of Sesquiterpenoids from Immature Heartwood of East Indian Sandalwood Tree". Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2 (6): 29–33. 
  16. ^ Misra, Biswapriya B.; Dey, Satyahari (2013). "Shikimic Acid (Tamiflu Precursor) Production in Suspension Cultures of East Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) in Air-lift Bioreactor". Journal of Postdoctoral Research 1 (1): 1–9. 
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