Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Naturalized . Native of Tropical America"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Description

A bushy perennial, up to 1 m.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

octandra: with 8 stamens
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Kerala: Idukki Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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"
Global Distribution

Native of Tropical America, widely spread in many Tropical countries

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki

"
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Ariz, Wis.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands.
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Worldwide distribution

Native to S America but now naturalized throughout the tropical regions of the world.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants to 2 m. Leaves: petiole 0.5-3 cm; blade lanceolate to elliptic, to 22 × 7.5 cm, base obtuse to attenuate, apex acute to acute-acuminate, sometimes mucronate. Inflorescences axil-lary or terminal spikes or spikelike, equaling or shorter than subtending leaves, to 14 cm; peduncle to 3 cm; pedicel absent or to 2 mm. Flowers: sepals 5, white to pinkish or reddish, oblong to ovate, subequal, 2-3 × 1.2-2 mm; stamens (7-)8-10, in 1 whorl; carpels 7-10, connate; ovary 7-10-loculed. Berries greenish, 4.5-6 mm diam. Seeds black, lenticular, 2 mm, shiny.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect fleshy herbs. Leaves alternate, 8 x 3 cm, obovate to spathulate, acute at apex, narrowed to the base, lineolate. Flowers 5-7 mm across, in long, axillary, 15 cm long racemes, shortly pedicelled; perianth lobes 5, ovate, spreading; stamens 5, free, filaments erect, anthers versatile; ovary depressed-globose, 6-7-lobed, 6-7-celled; ovules solitary in each cell, styles 6-7, short, curved out. Fruit a capsule, 8 mm across, depressed-globose, fleshy; seeds 6-8, biconvex, black, glabrous, polished."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Type Information

Isotype for Securidaca cristata A.C. Sm.
Catalog Number: US 1482489
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Lawrance
Year Collected: 1932
Locality: Mt. Chapon region, NW of Bogota., Boyacá, Colombia, South America
Elevation (m): 1067 to 1067
  • Isotype: Smith, A. C. 1933. Phytologia. 1: 20.
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Isotype for Phytolacca venezuelensis O.C. Schmidt
Catalog Number: US 602007
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. F. Pittier
Year Collected: 1913
Locality: Pico Denaiguata., Miranda, Venezuela, South America
Elevation (m): 2400 to 2765
  • Isotype: Schmidt, O. C. 1923. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem. 8: 312.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Degraded deciduous forests
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Disturbed areas; 200-1000m.
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Population Biology

Frequency

Frequent
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: June-August
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Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer-fall northward, probably year-round southward.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phytolacca octandra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Notes

Comments

Phytolacca octandra is a species with nearly worldwide distribution. It is closely similar to, and perhaps not specifically distinct from, P. icosandra (J. I. Davis 1985).
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