Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Pupilla muscorum is a widespread species that occurs in almost all countries of the European Union. Its exact distribution is unknown, because parts of the literature records refer to P. pratenis rather than to P. muscorum. In Ireland, P. muscorum is in decline in most parts of its Irish range. It is now local and rare on northern coasts where it was formerly common. It has almost vanished from the southern part of the central limestone plain probably due to the 'improvement' of pastures for agriculture (Byrne et al. 2009).

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species inhabits nearly the entire range of the genus and is known throughout the northern hemisphere in Europe, northernmost Africa, northern Asia, and North America. Although Pilsbry (1948) and Hubricht (1985) report this as a native North American species, native populations exist in subalpine forests in the Rockies and tundra habitats as far south as Churchill, Manitoba and the northern shore of the St. Lawrence in Quebec, and are commonly present as full-glacial fossils; however, these populations differ in shell features from the disturbance tolerant form common to anthropogenic habitats from the mid-Atlantic states to Iowa and Minnesota (Nekola, 2008). The latter populations likely represent a recently escaped European population.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pupilla muscorum is restricted to dry, warm calcareous habitats and it favours minimally enriched calcareous pasture inland, or coastal dune pastures in Ireland (Byrne et al. 2009). In general it is known from dry meadows and grazed land on calcareous substrata.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat Type: Terrestrial

Comments: It occurs in cold, calcareous turf and gravel banks (Nekola, 2009). East-central North American populations (Maine and Tennessee west to eastern Iowa) generally occur in disturbed anthropogenic habitats such as road verges, vacant lots, abandoned quarries, old fields, and concrete culverts (Hubricht, 1985) although they may also occasionally inhabit less disturbed carbonate cliff, glade, and grassland sites. To the north (Newfoundland, the north shore of the St. Lawrence to northwestern Minnesota and the southern shore of Hudsons Bay) populations occur on bare soil, under stones, on turf, and in thin leaf litter accumulations on sandy or rocky shorelines and in tundra (Nekola and Coles, 2010).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pupilla muscorum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 8 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTTTGTATATAATTTTTGGGGTTTGATGTGGTATAGTTGGGACTGGTCTC---TCACTACTTATTCGCCTTGAACTAGGTACCTCTGGA---GTTTTGATAGAT---GATCATTTTTACAATGTCATTGTTACAGCTCATGCTTTTGTAATAATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGAGGATTCGGAAATTGAATAGTCCCTCTTCTC---ATTGGTGCCCCAGATATAAGTTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGGCTTCTTCCTCCTTCTTTTATTTTACTTATTAGTTCAAGAATGGTAGAAGGAGGGGCAGGAACAGGTTGAACTGTATACCCCCCATTAAGAAGGATAGTAGGACATAGAGGGGCATCAGTAGATTTA---GCAATTTTTTCATTACATTTAGCTGGGATGTCCTCAATTTTGGGAGCTATTAACTTTATTACAACAATTTTTAATATACGAGCTTCAGGGGTTACTCTAGAACGTTTAAGGTTATTTGTATGATCTATTTTAGTTACAGTTTTTTTACTTCTTTTATCATTACCTGTCTTAGCAGGG---GCTATTACTATGTTATTAACAGATCGAAATTTTAACACAAGTTTTTTTGATCCAGCTGGGGGAGGGGACCCAATTTTATATCAACATTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pupilla muscorum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Neubert, E.

Reviewer/s
Cuttelod, A. & Bilz, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is relatively widespread and there is no threat known to this species. It is therefore considered to be Least Concern (LC).
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This species inhabits nearly the entire range of the genus and is known throughout the northern hemisphere in Europe, northernmost Africa, northern Asia, and North America. Although Pilsbry (1948) and Hubricht (1985) report this as a native North American species, native populations exist in subalpine forests in the Rockies and tundra habitats as far south as Churchill, Manitoba and the northern shore of the St. Lawrence in Quebec, and are commonly present as full-glacial fossils; however, these populations differ in shell features from the disturbance tolerant form common to anthropogenic habitats from the mid-Atlantic states to Iowa and Minnesota (Nekola, 2008). The latter populations likely represent a recently escaped European population.

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Population

Population
It has suffered a 66% distributional decline in Ireland. The coastal populations are becoming increasingly rare and local (Byrne et al. 2009). For the other subpopulations, there is no coherent information available on the population size or trend of this species.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Under grazing (reduction of open grassland habitats) may be a major threat to the species (Byrne et al. 2009).
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Comments: Global warming and sea level rise are threats (Nekola, 2009).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Ireland, it is currently listed as Endangered (Byrne et al. 2009). Elsewhere, there is no conservation action in place for this species.
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Wikipedia

Pupilla muscorum

Pupilla muscorum is a species of minute air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Pupillidae.

Contents

Taxonomy

A variety Pupilla muscorum var. pratensis Clessin, 1871 considered as ecophenotype of Pupilla muscorum was elevated to its species level Pupilla pratensis in 2009.[2]

Description

The shell is usually light brown, varies from reddish brown to horny grey, weakly striated or almost smooth, 5-6.5 weakly convex whorls, suture not very deep, aperture usually with well-developed lip, cervical callus strongly developed, like a dam, parietal tooth usually present, palatal tooth sometimes too.[3]

Pupilla muscorum differs from Pupilla pratensis with which it lives sympatrically, in its thicker, smaller and more slender shell, lighter and more variable colour and stronger apertural lip.[3]

The animal of Pupilla muscorum is small, elliptical, dark with lighter sides and foot, upper tentacles not very long, lower tentacles very short.[3]

The height of the shell is 3.0-4.0 mm. The width of the shell is 1.65-1.75 mm (shell diameter does not vary much).[3]

Distribution

This species of land snail occurs in the Northern Hemisphere including almost all of Europe. It is recorded as present in countries and islands including:

Ecology

Pupilla muscorum lives in dry meadows, sand dunes, in open and sunny habitats.[3] Calciphile.[3] In Portugal it is found under stones, dead leaves and in mosses.[3] In Britain it is frequent in sheep-grazed calcareous grasslands.[3] In the Alps in up to 2400 m, in Bulgaria 1200 m.[3]

Ovoviviparous, the species is able to hibernate with its eggs, and can then release eggs with partly grown embryos during more favourable seasons.[3]

References

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[3]

  1. ^ Linnaeus C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. pp. [1-4], 1-824. Holmiae. (Salvius).
  2. ^ von Proschwitz T., Schander C. , Jueg U. & Thorkildsen S. (2009). "Morphology, ecology and DNA-barcoding distinguish Pupilla pratensis (Clessin, 1871) from Pupilla muscorum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pulmonata: Pupillidae)". Journal of Molluscan Studies 75(4): 315-322. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyp038.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Species summary for Pupilla muscorum". AnimalBase. Last modified 30-01-2010, accessed 30 July 2010.
  4. ^ Balashov I. & Gural-Sverlova N. 2012. An annotated checklist of the terrestrial molluscs of Ukraine. Journal of Conchology. 41 (1): 91-109.
  5. ^ Pokryszko B. M., Auffenberg K., Hlaváč J. Č. & Naggs F. (2009). "Pupilloidea of Pakistan (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): Truncatellininae, Vertigininae, Gastrocoptinae, Pupillinae (In Part)". Annales Zoologici 59(4): 423-458. doi:10.3161/000345409X484847.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Recent mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses (Nekola et al., 2009; Von Proschwitz et al., 2009) indicate that throughout its Holarctic range this name has been applied to a species complex. Most populations in east-central North America (referable to P. muscorum) represent apparent European introductions, with Iowa roadside verge material being closest, for instance, to Swedish haplotypes. However, northern Plains populations represent an undescribed species distantly allied to Pupilla hebes and Pupilla pratensis. Given the morphologic variability noted between northern Plains, southern Plains, and arctic populations, the presence of more than one native species also appears likely (Nekola and Coles, 2010). The southern Plains form, limited to arid pinon-juniper forests, has been referred to as Pupilla muscorum xerobia (Pilsbry, 1948). Metcalf and Smartt (1997) suggest that this taxon may be worthy of species status given its greatly thickened apertural lip, uniformly small size and height/width ratio, and divergent habitat and range. The native arctic populations differ from P. hebes only by the weak possession of a partial callus on the uppermost margin of the palatal wall, and appear quite similar to Pupilla pratensis. Additional sequence analysis will be required to make definitive taxonomic statements regarding this group not only in North America but also in Eurasia (Nekola and Coles, 2010).

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