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Polyrhachis (Myrma) militaris subspecies cupreopubescens Forel HNS

A fine series of workers and females taken at Avakubi from "a nest built in an upright rotten stump, about four feet from the ground" and a single female from Medje (Lang and Chapin).

  • Wheeler, W. M. (1922): The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, 39-269: 260-260, URL:http://plazi.org:8080/dspace/handle/10199/17097
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Polyrhachis (Myrma) militaris (Fabricius) HNS

Stanleyville, [[worker]]; Panga, [[worker]]; Lukolela, [[worker]]; Avakubi, [[worker]]; Leopoldville, [[worker]]; Medje, [[worker]]; Lubila, [[worker]]; Ngayu, [[worker]]; Boyulu, [[worker]]; Lie, [[worker]] (Lang and Chapin). Numerous specimens. Those from Ngayu, Boyulu, and Lie, four in number, were taken from the stomachs of toads (Bufo funereus and regularis HNS ). The only specimen from Lubila is "from a nest in a mushroom-shaped termitarium." Many of the specimens from the other localities were captured on fire-wood. Some of the workers have the pubescence on the gaster rather golden and therefore approach the subspecies cupreopubescens HNS Forel.

The large Ethiopian species Myrma HNS , comprising militaris HNS , schistacea HNS , gagates HNS , schlüteri HNS , and nigriseta HNS , are so variable and exhibit so many annectant subspecies and varieties that one is tempted to regard the whole complex as a single, extraordinarily unstable species. Santschi, however, believes that there are several species with a pronounced tendency to hybridize. The materials in collections at the present time are quite insufficient to substantiate either of these views, and the matter must be left to some future myrmecologist, resident in equatorial Africa, who can study these ants intensively both in the field and in the laboratory.

  • Wheeler, W. M. (1922): The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, 39-269: 260-260, URL:http://plazi.org:8080/dspace/handle/10199/17097
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48. Polyrhachis militaris HNS . Pl. III. fig. 5, & Pl. IV. fig. 36. B.M.

Formica militaris, Fabr. HNS Spec. Ins. i. 493. 30 [[queen]]; Mant. Ins. i. 310. 37; Ent. Syst. iL 362. 50; Syst. Piez. 414. 73.

Oliv. Encycl. Meth. vi. 499. 46.

Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 124. pl. iv. f. 22 [[queen]].

Hab. Africa (Guinea; Sierra Leone).

The type-specimen of this species is in the Banksian Collection; the insect is covered with a fine cinereous pile, the head and thorax are finely longitudinally rugulose, the spines on the prothorax are short, stout, and acute; the metathorax quadrate above, with the posterior and lateral margins carinated, the abdomen sprinkled with erect, pale hairs.

The male has the head and thorax coarsely rugose, the thorax more elongate than in the female, with two short acute spines in front and two longer ones on the metathorax; the petiole has only two spines, which are curved backwards over the base of the abdomen; the latter is elongate-ovate, and covered with fine, silky, cinereous pile.

The male is in the Collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq.

  • Smith, F. (1858): Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London, British Museum: 72-72, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/8127/8127.pdf
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Taxonomic History

Formica militaris Fabricius, 1782: 493 (q.) "TROPICAL AFRICA". AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Smith, 1858a PDF: 72 (m.); Mayr, 1866b PDF: 886 (w.).
Combination in Myrma: Billberg, 1820: 104; in Polyrhachis: Smith, 1858a PDF: 72; in Polyrhachis (Myrma): Santschi, 1914b: 140.
Senior synonym of Polyrhachis bruta, Polyrhachis calabarica, Polyrhachis cupreopubescens, Polyrhachis ssibangensis, Polyrhachis striativentris: Bolton, 1973b PDF: 313; of Polyrhachis epinotalis, Polyrhachis nkomoensis: Dorow, 1995 PDF: 36, 37.
respectively.
Material of the unavailable names Polyrhachis argentatus, Polyrhachis dido, Polyrhachis pleurata, Polyrhachis sankisiana, Polyrhachis transversaria referred here by Bolton, 1973b PDF: 313.
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Distribution

Reference for Kenya if not type: Bolton 1973b
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Taxonomic Treatment

Forel, A., 1886:
 — [[ worker ]] Zanzibar, recoltee par M. Hilde brandt et Chinchoxo (Congo) recoltee par le Dr Falkenstein (Musee de Berlin).
  [[ queen ]]. Une petite [[ queen ]], longue de 10 mill., a le mesonotum aussi developpa que la P. cafrorum , de sorte que ce caractere (Forel, Et. mynn. 1879) n'a pas de valeur constante. Cette [[ queen ]] se rapproche a d'autres egards aussi un peu de la P. cafrorum .
 Bords du lac Nyassa, recolte par M. Heyne (Musee de Berlin).
 

Mayr, G., 1866:
 Operaria: Long. 12 mm. Nigra, opaca, copiose pilosa, microscopice haud copiose cinereo-pubeseens; rugoso-striata, partim striato-rugosa, abdomine densissime subtiliter punctato; thorax supra longitrorsum convexus, marginibus lateralibus biincisis ad metanoti basim elevatis, pronoto trapezoideo distincte latiori quam longiori, spinis duabus acutis divergentibus antrorsum directis et deorsum curvatis, metanoti parte basali subquadrata (paulo longiori quam latiori), marginibus lateralibus parallelis, postice utrimque dente recurvo erecto, parte declivi brevi latiori quam longiori, lateraliter haud marginata; petioli squama quadrispinosa, scilicet: supra spinis duabus longis suberectis, paulo postice versus curvatis, et lateraliter spinis duabus minutis, gracilibus et extra directis.
 Sierra Leona (Mus. Holm.).
  Diese Art ist der P. striata Mayr sehr aehnlich, von dieser aber vorzueglich durch die aufgebogenen Seitenraender des Thorax, die nach abwaerts gebogenen Pronotum-Dornenr durch das im Verhaltnisse zur Laenge breitere Pronotum, das quadratische Metanotum (welches aber etwas laenger als breit ist), durch die Seitendornen der Schuppe, so wie durch die Sculptur des Hinterleibes unterschieden.
 

Smith, F.:
  Formica militaris, Fabr. Spec. Ins. i. 493. 30 [[queen]]; Mant. Ins. i. 310. 37; Ent. Syst. iL 362. 50; Syst. Piez. 414. 73.
  Oliv. Encycl. Meth. vi. 499. 46.
  Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 124. pl. iv. f. 22 [[queen]].
  Hab. Africa (Guinea; Sierra Leone).
  The type-specimen of this species is in the Banksian Collection; the insect is covered with a fine cinereous pile, the head and thorax are finely longitudinally rugulose, the spines on the prothorax are short, stout, and acute; the metathorax quadrate above, with the posterior and lateral margins carinated, the abdomen sprinkled with erect, pale hairs.
  The male has the head and thorax coarsely rugose, the thorax more elongate than in the female, with two short acute spines in front and two longer ones on the metathorax; the petiole has only two spines, which are curved backwards over the base of the abdomen; the latter is elongate-ovate, and covered with fine, silky, cinereous pile.
  The male is in the Collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq.
 

Forel, A., 1909:
 — [[ worker ]]. — Sankura, Kassai, Congo belge (Luja).
 

Mayr, G., 1893:
 Ein Arbeiter aus Quilimane mit spaerlicher weisslicher Pubescenz und ein Weibchen aus Sansibar mit reichlicherer solcher Pubescenz.
 

Wheeler, W. M., 1922:
  Stanleyville, [[worker]]; Panga, [[worker]]; Lukolela, [[worker]]; Avakubi, [[worker]]; Leopoldville, [[worker]]; Medje, [[worker]]; Lubila, [[worker]]; Ngayu, [[worker]]; Boyulu, [[worker]]; Lie, [[worker]] (Lang and Chapin). Numerous specimens. Those from Ngayu, Boyulu, and Lie, four in number, were taken from the stomachs of toads (Bufo funereus and regularis ). The only specimen from Lubila is "from a nest in a mushroom-shaped termitarium." Many of the specimens from the other localities were captured on fire-wood. Some of the workers have the pubescence on the gaster rather golden and therefore approach the subspecies cupreopubescens Forel.
  The large Ethiopian species Myrma , comprising militaris , schistacea , gagates , schlüteri , and nigriseta , are so variable and exhibit so many annectant subspecies and varieties that one is tempted to regard the whole complex as a single, extraordinarily unstable species. Santschi, however, believes that there are several species with a pronounced tendency to hybridize. The materials in collections at the present time are quite insufficient to substantiate either of these views, and the matter must be left to some future myrmecologist, resident in equatorial Africa, who can study these ants intensively both in the field and in the laboratory.
 

Mayr, G., 1895:
 Von dieser Art liegen mir verschiedene Variationen vor:
 Arbeiter aus Old-Calabar (Dr. Brauns) und Chutes de Samlia, Riv. N'Gamie (Belg. Museum), von der Stammform durch eine reichliche messinggelbe Pubescenz abweichend.
 Ein Arbeiter aus dem aequatorialen Westafrika (Dr. Brauns) ist so wie die eben erwaehnte Form, doch hat der Hinterleib einen Anflug einer messinggelben Pubescenz.
  Eine Form, welche als cupreopubescens For. bekannt ist, von der Insel Eloby gegenueber von Gabun (Dr. Brauns), Chutes de Samlia (Belg. Museum), Usambara in Ostafrika (Berliner Museum) mit reichlicher messinggelber Pubescenz.
  Drei Arbeiter von der Sherbro-Insel bei Sierra Leone (Dr. Brauns) stehen der Form striativentris Em. nahe, doch ist die Oberseite des Thorax reichlich blass messinggelb pubescent, die Seiten desselben haben eine seidig weisse Pubescenz, doch das Charakteristische ist die Sculptur des ersten Hinterleibssegmentes, es ziehen naemlich bei zwei Arbeitern mittelfeine, dicht aneinander liegende, etwas runzelige Streifen von vorne aussen schief nach hinten innen zur Mitte des Hinterrandes des ersten Segmentes, wo sie sich theilweise bogig mitsammen verbinden. Beim dritten Arbeiter wird die Streifung gegen die Mitte des Segmentes undeutlich, bis sie in der Mitte ganz verschwindet und eine feine scharfe Runzelung an ihre Stelle tritt.
 Ferner liegen mir Arbeiter vor aus Port Natal (Dr. Brauns), welche zur Form Schlueteri For. gehoeren.
  Schliesslich Arbeiter und Weibchen von rugulosa Mayr aus Gabun, Borna am Congo und Loango in Westafrika, aus Dar-es Salaam, Delagoa und Port Natal in Ostafrika (Dr. Brauns), Sansibar (Berliner Museum).
 

Bernard, F., 1953:
 Insecte banal et tres variable, ou l'on a distingue 12 races ou varietes de couleur dont la valeur biologique est douteuse; neanmoins je les nommerai, car elles sont faciles a reconnaitre:
 Variete voisine du type militaris, mais entierement noire, a reflets gris (inedite): 3 [[queen]] et 4 ouvrieres de Nion, Yalanzou et Camp IV (1.000 m.);
 (thorax et gastre bronzes, tete noire ou bronzee): cette race est largement diffusee en Afrique, et c'est la plus commune ici (21 ouvrieres), mais elle ne de- passe pas Nion, N'Zo et Yalanzou;
 
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A single worker from Akenge, taken from the stomach of a toad (Bufo polycercus). As Forel states, the epinotal teeth of this variety are very long, erect, and strongly recurved. The middle pair of petiolar spines are more erect and less inclined backward than in the typical cupreopubescens , and the lateral spines are much longer, more slender, and farther from the median pair. The pubescence seems to be dimmer and less golden, but this may be due to the action of the toad's gastric juices.

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A fine series of workers and females taken at Avakubi from "a nest built in an upright rotten stump, about four feet from the ground" and a single female from Medje (Lang and Chapin).

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Wheeler, W. M.

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Stanleyville, [[worker]]; Panga, [[worker]]; Lukolela, [[worker]]; Avakubi, [[worker]]; Leopoldville, [[worker]]; Medje, [[worker]]; Lubila, [[worker]]; Ngayu, [[worker]]; Boyulu, [[worker]]; Lie, [[worker]] (Lang and Chapin). Numerous specimens. Those from Ngayu, Boyulu, and Lie, four in number, were taken from the stomachs of toads (Bufo funereus and regularis ). The only specimen from Lubila is "from a nest in a mushroom-shaped termitarium." Many of the specimens from the other localities were captured on fire-wood. Some of the workers have the pubescence on the gaster rather golden and therefore approach the subspecies cupreopubescens Forel.

 

The large Ethiopian species Myrma , comprising militaris , schistacea , gagates , schlüteri , and nigriseta , are so variable and exhibit so many annectant subspecies and varieties that one is tempted to regard the whole complex as a single, extraordinarily unstable species. Santschi, however, believes that there are several species with a pronounced tendency to hybridize. The materials in collections at the present time are quite insufficient to substantiate either of these views, and the matter must be left to some future myrmecologist, resident in equatorial Africa, who can study these ants intensively both in the field and in the laboratory.

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Wheeler, W. M.

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- [[ queen ]] (non decrite). Long. 12 mill. - La tete est plus etroite que le thorax. Tete, thorax et gastre stries en long; le scutellum en travers. Couverte d'une pubescence assez serree pour masquer en partie la sculpture.

 

Cote d'Ivoire (J. H. Lohier). 1 [[ queen ]].

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Santschi, F.

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— [[ worker ]] Zanzibar, recoltee par M. Hilde brandt et Chinchoxo (Congo) recoltee par le Dr Falkenstein (Musee de Berlin).

 

[[ queen ]]. Une petite [[ queen ]], longue de 10 mill., a le mesonotum aussi developpa que la P. cafrorum , de sorte que ce caractere (Forel, Et. mynn. 1879) n'a pas de valeur constante. Cette [[ queen ]] se rapproche a d'autres egards aussi un peu de la P. cafrorum .

 

Bords du lac Nyassa, recolte par M. Heyne (Musee de Berlin).

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Forel, A.

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— [[ worker ]]. — Sankura, Kassai, Congo belge (Luja).

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Forel, A.

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— [[ queen ]]. — Katanga (L em aire).

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Forel, A.

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Operaria: Long. 12 mm. Nigra, opaca, copiose pilosa, microscopice haud copiose cinereo-pubeseens; rugoso-striata, partim striato-rugosa, abdomine densissime subtiliter punctato; thorax supra longitrorsum convexus, marginibus lateralibus biincisis ad metanoti basim elevatis, pronoto trapezoideo distincte latiori quam longiori, spinis duabus acutis divergentibus antrorsum directis et deorsum curvatis, metanoti parte basali subquadrata (paulo longiori quam latiori), marginibus lateralibus parallelis, postice utrimque dente recurvo erecto, parte declivi brevi latiori quam longiori, lateraliter haud marginata; petioli squama quadrispinosa, scilicet: supra spinis duabus longis suberectis, paulo postice versus curvatis, et lateraliter spinis duabus minutis, gracilibus et extra directis.

 

Sierra Leona (Mus. Holm.).

 

Diese Art ist der P. striata Mayr sehr aehnlich, von dieser aber vorzueglich durch die aufgebogenen Seitenraender des Thorax, die nach abwaerts gebogenen Pronotum-Dornenr durch das im Verhaltnisse zur Laenge breitere Pronotum, das quadratische Metanotum (welches aber etwas laenger als breit ist), durch die Seitendornen der Schuppe, so wie durch die Sculptur des Hinterleibes unterschieden.

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Mayr, G.

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Ein Arbeiter aus Quilimane mit spaerlicher weisslicher Pubescenz und ein Weibchen aus Sansibar mit reichlicherer solcher Pubescenz.

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Mayr, G.

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Von dieser Art liegen mir verschiedene Variationen vor:

 

Arbeiter aus Old-Calabar (Dr. Brauns) und Chutes de Samlia, Riv. N'Gamie (Belg. Museum), von der Stammform durch eine reichliche messinggelbe Pubescenz abweichend.

 

Ein Arbeiter aus dem aequatorialen Westafrika (Dr. Brauns) ist so wie die eben erwaehnte Form, doch hat der Hinterleib einen Anflug einer messinggelben Pubescenz.

 

Eine Form, welche als cupreopubescens For. bekannt ist, von der Insel Eloby gegenueber von Gabun (Dr. Brauns), Chutes de Samlia (Belg. Museum), Usambara in Ostafrika (Berliner Museum) mit reichlicher messinggelber Pubescenz.

 

Drei Arbeiter von der Sherbro-Insel bei Sierra Leone (Dr. Brauns) stehen der Form striativentris Em. nahe, doch ist die Oberseite des Thorax reichlich blass messinggelb pubescent, die Seiten desselben haben eine seidig weisse Pubescenz, doch das Charakteristische ist die Sculptur des ersten Hinterleibssegmentes, es ziehen naemlich bei zwei Arbeitern mittelfeine, dicht aneinander liegende, etwas runzelige Streifen von vorne aussen schief nach hinten innen zur Mitte des Hinterrandes des ersten Segmentes, wo sie sich theilweise bogig mitsammen verbinden. Beim dritten Arbeiter wird die Streifung gegen die Mitte des Segmentes undeutlich, bis sie in der Mitte ganz verschwindet und eine feine scharfe Runzelung an ihre Stelle tritt.

 

Ferner liegen mir Arbeiter vor aus Port Natal (Dr. Brauns), welche zur Form Schlueteri For. gehoeren.

 

Schliesslich Arbeiter und Weibchen von rugulosa Mayr aus Gabun, Borna am Congo und Loango in Westafrika, aus Dar-es Salaam, Delagoa und Port Natal in Ostafrika (Dr. Brauns), Sansibar (Berliner Museum).

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Mayr, G.

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(thorax et gastre bronzes, tete noire ou bronzee): cette race est largement diffusee en Afrique, et c'est la plus commune ici (21 ouvrieres), mais elle ne de- passe pas Nion, N'Zo et Yalanzou;

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Bernard, F.

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Insecte banal et tres variable, ou l'on a distingue 12 races ou varietes de couleur dont la valeur biologique est douteuse; neanmoins je les nommerai, car elles sont faciles a reconnaitre:

 

Variete voisine du type militaris, mais entierement noire, a reflets gris (inedite): 3 [[queen]] et 4 ouvrieres de Nion, Yalanzou et Camp IV (1.000 m.);

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Bernard, F.

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Fabricius, Spec. Insect., I, p. 473 (1781), [[worker]] [ P. militaris ). - Forel, Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. nat., ser. 2, vol. 16, p. 120 (1879), [[queen]] ( st. cupreopubescens ).

 

Afrique orientale anglaise: Taveta (alt. 750 m., st. n° 65, mars 1912), 1 [[worker]].

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Santschi, F.

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Formica militaris, Fabr. Spec. Ins. i. 493. 30 [[queen]]; Mant. Ins. i. 310. 37; Ent. Syst. iL 362. 50; Syst. Piez. 414. 73.

 

Oliv. Encycl. Meth. vi. 499. 46.

 

Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 124. pl. iv. f. 22 [[queen]].

 

Hab. Africa (Guinea; Sierra Leone).

 

The type-specimen of this species is in the Banksian Collection; the insect is covered with a fine cinereous pile, the head and thorax are finely longitudinally rugulose, the spines on the prothorax are short, stout, and acute; the metathorax quadrate above, with the posterior and lateral margins carinated, the abdomen sprinkled with erect, pale hairs.

 

The male has the head and thorax coarsely rugose, the thorax more elongate than in the female, with two short acute spines in front and two longer ones on the metathorax; the petiole has only two spines, which are curved backwards over the base of the abdomen; the latter is elongate-ovate, and covered with fine, silky, cinereous pile.

 

The male is in the Collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq.

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Smith, F.

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