Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
French Guiana (South America)
Guyana (South America)
Suriname (South America)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)
Colombia (South America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Forzza, R. C. & et al. 2010. 2010 Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100002289
- González Ramírez, J. 2010. Ebenaceae. En: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. 5. B.E. Hammel, M.H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora (eds.). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 119: 215–219. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100003913
- Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595
- USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100004579
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||963||Public Records:||577|
|Specimens with Sequences:||889||Public Species:||175|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||881||Public BINs:||0|
|Species With Barcodes:||233|
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diospyros sp8 aff melocarpa
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diospyros sp5 aff polystemon
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Locations of barcode samples
Persimmons are the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae. The most widely cultivated species is the Asian persimmon, Diospyros kaki. In color the ripe fruit of the cultivated strains range from light yellow-orange to dark red-orange depending on the species and variety. They similarly vary in size from 1.5 to 9 cm (0.5 to 4 in) in diameter, and in shape the varieties may be spherical, acorn-, or pumpkin-shaped. The calyx generally remains attached to the fruit after harvesting, but becomes easy to remove once the fruit is ripe. The ripe fruit has a high glucose content. The protein content is low, but it has a balanced protein profile. Persimmon fruits have been put to various medicinal and chemical uses.
- 1 Names and etymology
- 2 Select species
- 3 Fruit
- 4 Nutrient and phytochemical content
- 5 Wood
- 6 Trees
- 7 Apocryphal and traditional significance
- 8 Gallery
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Names and etymology
The word Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "Dios" (διός) and "pyros" (πυρος). In context, this means more or less "divine fruit", though its literal meaning is closer to "Wheat of Zeus". It is, however, sufficiently confusing to have given rise to some curious interpretations, such as "God's pear" and "Jove's fire". The Modern Greek name for the fruit is λωτός (lotos) which leads modern Greeks to the assumption that this is the lotos referred to in Homer's Odyssey.
While there are many species of Diospyros that bear fruit inedible to humans, the following are those that bear edible fruit:
Diospyros kaki (Asian persimmon, Japanese persimmon)
Diospyros kaki is native to China. It is deciduous, with broad, stiff leaves and is known as the shizi (柿子 in Chinese), and also as the Japanese Persimmon or kaki (柿) in Japanese. It is the most widely cultivated species. Its fruits are sweet, and slightly tangy with a soft to occasionally fibrous texture. Cultivation of the fruit extended first to other parts of east Asia and Pakistan, and was later introduced to California and southern Europe in the 1800s, to Brazil in the 1890s, and numerous cultivars have been selected. It is edible in its crisp firm state, but has its best flavor when allowed to rest and soften slightly after harvest. The Japanese cultivar 'Hachiya' is widely grown. The fruit has a high tannin content which makes the immature fruit astringent and bitter. The tannin levels are reduced as the fruit matures. Persimmons like 'Hachiya' must be completely ripened before consumption. When ripe, this fruit comprises thick pulpy jelly encased in a waxy thin skinned shell.
"Sharon fruit" (named after the Sharon plain in Israel) is the marketing name for the Israeli-bred cultivar 'Triumph'. As with all pollination-variant-astringent persimmons, the fruit are ripened off the tree by exposing them to carbon dioxide. The "sharon fruit" has no core, is seedless, particularly sweet, and can be eaten whole.
Diospyros lotus (date-plum)
Date-plum (Diospyros lotus) is native to southwest Asia and southeast Europe. It was known to the ancient Greeks as "the fruit of the gods", or often referred to as "nature's candy" i.e. Dios pyros (lit. "the wheat of Zeus"), hence the scientific name of the genus. Its English name probably derives from Persian Khormaloo خرمالو literally "date-plum", referring to the taste of this fruit which is reminiscent of both plums and dates. This species is one candidate for the lotus mentioned in the Odyssey: it was so delicious that those who ate it forgot about returning home and wanted to stay and eat lotus with the lotus-eaters.
Diospyros virginiana (American persimmon)
American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) is native to the eastern United States and is higher in nutrients like vitamin C, calcium, iron and potassium than the Japanese Persimmon. Its fruit is traditionally eaten in a special steamed pudding in the Midwest and sometimes its timber is used as a substitute for ebony (e.g. in instruments). The American persimmon fruit is proven to be valuable food source for white tail deer, because the fruit ripens late into the year and will hang on the tree much throughout the winter months.
Diospyros digyna (black persimmon)
Diospyros peregrina (Indian persimmon)
Indian persimmon (Diospyros peregrina) is a slow growing tree, native to coastal West Bengal. The fruit is green and turns yellow when ripe. It is relatively small and has an unremarkable flavor and is better known for its medicinal than its culinary uses.
Diospyros texana (Texas persimmon)
Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana) is a species of persimmon that is native to central and west Texas and southwest Oklahoma in the United States, and eastern Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico. The fruit of D. texana are black on the outside (as opposed to just on the inside as with the Mexican persimmon)subglobose berries with a diameter of 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) ripen in August.The fleshy berries become edible when they turn dark purple or black. At which point they are sweet and can be eaten from the hand or made into pudding or custard.
Commercially and in general, there are two types of persimmon fruit: astringent and non-astringent.
The heart-shaped Hachiya is the most common variety of astringent persimmon. Astringent persimmons contain very high levels of soluble tannins and are unpalatably astringent (or "furry" tasting) if eaten before completely softened. However, the sweet, delicate flavor of fully ripened persimmons of varieties that are astringent when unripe, is particularly relished. The astringency of tannins is removed in various ways. Examples include ripening by exposure to light for several days, and wrapping the fruit in paper (probably because this increases the ethylene concentration of the surrounding air). Ethylene ripening can be increased in reliability and evenness, and the process can be greatly accelerated, by adding ethylene gas to the atmosphere in which the fruit are stored. For domestic purposes the most convenient and effective process is to store the ripening persimmons in a clean, dry container together with other varieties of fruit that give off particularly large quantities of ethylene while they are ripening; apples and related fruits such as pears are effective, and so are bananas and several others. Other chemicals are used commercially in artificially ripening persimmons or delaying their ripening. Examples include alcohol and carbon dioxide which change tannin into the insoluble form. Such bletting processes sometimes are jumpstarted by exposing the fruit to cold or frost. The resultant cell damage stimulates the release of ethylene, which promotes cellular wall breakdown.
One traditional misconception is that persimmons are to be ripened till rotten. This is a confusion of the processes of controlled ripening with the processes of decay, possibly arising from problems of translation from Asiatic languages onto English. Rotting is the action of microorganisms such as fungi, and rotting persimmons are no better than any other rotting fruit. Sound persimmons should be ripened till they are fully soft, except that the carpels still might be softly chewy. At that stage the skin might be splitting and the calyx can easily be plucked out of the fruit before serving, which often is a good sign that the soft fruit is ready to eat.
Astringent varieties of persimmons also can be prepared for commercial purposes by drying. Tanenashi fruit will occasionally contain a seed or two, which can be planted and will yield a larger more vertical tree than when merely grafted onto the D. virginiana rootstock most commonly used in the U.S. Such seedling trees may produce fruit that bears more seeds, usually 6 to 8 per fruit, and the fruit itself may vary slightly from the parent tree. Seedlings are said to be more susceptible to root nematodes.
The non-astringent persimmon is squat like a tomato and is most commonly sold as fuyu. Non-astringent persimmons are not actually free of tannins as the term suggests, but rather are far less astringent before ripening, and lose more of their tannic quality sooner. Non-astringent persimmons may be consumed when still very firm, and remain edible when very soft.
There is a third type, less commonly available, the pollination-variant non-astringent persimmons. When fully pollinated, the flesh of these fruit is brown inside—known as goma in Japan—and the fruit can be eaten firm. These varieties are highly sought after and can be found at specialty markets or farmers markets only. Tsurunoko, sold as "chocolate persimmon" for its dark brown flesh, Maru, sold as "cinnamon persimmon" for its spicy flavor, and Hyakume, sold as "brown sugar" are the three best known.
Before ripening, persimmons usually have a "chalky" taste or bitter taste.
The table below shows figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries according to FAO statistics.
Persimmons are eaten fresh, dried, raw, or cooked. When eaten fresh they are usually eaten whole like an apple or cut into quarters, though with some varieties it is best to peel the skin first. One way to consume very ripe persimmons, which can have the texture of pudding, is to remove the top leaf with a paring knife and scoop out the flesh with a spoon. Riper persimmons can also be eaten by removing the top leaf, breaking the fruit in half and eating from the inside out. The flesh ranges from firm to mushy, and the texture is unique. The flesh is very sweet and when firm due to being unripe, possesses an apple-like crunch. American persimmons and diospyros digyna are completely inedible until they are fully ripe.
In China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam after harvesting, 'Hachiya' persimmons are prepared using traditional hand-drying techniques, outdoors for two to three weeks. The fruit is then further dried by exposure to heat over several days before being shipped to market. In Japan the dried fruit is called hoshigaki (干し柿), in China it is known as "shìbǐng" (柿饼), in Korea it is known as gotgam (hangul: 곶감), and in Vietnam it is called hồng khô. It is eaten as a snack or dessert and used for other culinary purposes.
In Korea, dried persimmon fruits are used to make the traditional Korean spicy punch, sujeonggwa, while the matured, fermented fruit is used to make a persimmon vinegar called gamsikcho (감식초). The hoshigaki tradition traveled to California with Japanese American immigrants.
In Taiwan, fruits of astringent varieties are sealed in jars filled with limewater to get rid of bitterness. Slightly hardened in the process, they are sold under the name "crisp persimmon" (cuishi 脆柿) or "water persimmon" (shuishizi 水柿子). Preparation time is dependent upon temperature (5 to 7 days at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F)). In some areas of Manchuria and Korea, the dried leaves of the fruit are used for making tea. The Korean name for this tea is ghamnip cha (감잎차).
In the Old Northwest of the United States, persimmons are harvested and used in a variety of dessert dishes most notably pies. It can be used in cookies, cakes, puddings, salads, curries and as a topping for breakfast cereal. Persimmon pudding is a dessert using fresh persimmons. An annual persimmon festival, featuring a persimmon pudding contest, is held every September in Mitchell, Indiana. Persimmon pudding is a baked pudding that has the consistency of pumpkin pie but resembles a brownie and is almost always topped with whipped cream. Persimmons may be stored at room temperature 20 °C (68 °F) where they will continue to ripen. In northern China, unripe persimmons are frozen outside during winter to speed up the ripening process.
Nutrient and phytochemical content
Compared to apples, persimmons have higher levels of dietary fiber, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and manganese, but lower levels of copper and zinc. They also contain vitamin C and provitamin A beta-carotene.
Persimmon fruits contain phytochemicals, such as catechin and gallocatechin, as well as compounds under preliminary research for potential anti-cancer activity, such as betulinic acid. In one study, a diet supplemented with dried, powdered triumph persimmons improved lipid metabolism in laboratory rats.
Unripened persimmons contain the soluble tannin shibuol, which, upon contact with a weak acid, polymerizes in the stomach and forms a gluey coagulum, a "foodball" or phytobezoar, that can affix with other stomach matter. These phytobezoars are often very hard and almost woody in consistency. More than 85% of phytobezoars are caused by ingestion of unripened persimmons. Persimmon bezoars (diospyrobezoars) often occur in epidemics in regions where the fruit is grown. Diospyrobezoars should not be of concern when consuming moderate quantities of persimmons. One case in medical literature from 2004 revealed a 51-year-old patient who had eaten a kilogram (2.2 pounds) of unpeeled persimmons each day for 40 years. Surgery is sometimes employed, but Coca-Cola has also been successfully used to chemically shrink or eliminate persimmon-related bezoars.
Horses may develop a taste for the fruit growing on a tree in their pasture and overindulge also, making them quite ill. It is often advised that persimmons should not be eaten on an empty stomach.
Though persimmon trees belong to the same genus as ebony trees, persimmon tree wood has a limited use in the manufacture of objects requiring hard wood. It is hard, but cracks easily and is somewhat difficult to process. Persimmon wood is used for paneling in traditional Korean and Japanese furniture.
In North America, the lightly colored, fine-grained wood of D. virginiana is used to manufacture billiard cues and textile shuttles. It is also used in the percussion field to produce the shaft of some mallets and drumsticks. Persimmon wood was also heavily used in making the highest-quality heads of the golf clubs known as "woods" until the golf industry moved primarily to metal woods in the last years of the 20th century. In fact, the first metal woods made by TaylorMade, an early pioneer of that club type, were branded as "Pittsburgh Persimmons". Persimmon woods are still made, but in far lower numbers than in past decades. Over the last few decades persimmon wood has become popular among bow craftsmen, especially in the making of traditional longbows. Persimmon wood is used in making a small number of wooden flutes and eating utensils such as wooden spoons and cornbread knives (wooden knives that may cut through the bread without scarring the dish).
Like some other plants of the genus Diospyros, older persimmon heartwood is black or dark brown in color, in stark contrast to the sapwood and younger heartwood, which is pale in color.
The trees of all species have stiff, tumescent leaves, but the female of the D. virginiana can look less turgid than the male because the leaves droop when fruiting, perhaps because of the heavier nutrient requirements. They grow swiftly, and are resilient to the stresses of unpredictable climates. Persimmons can tolerate and adapt to a wide range of climates. Persimmons are also known for their resistance to diseases and pests. They are one of the last trees to leaf out in the spring, and do not flower until well after the leaves have formed, bypassing the threat of blossom loss to frosts. The fruit hangs on the branches long into the winter. Because they grow swiftly and colonize off their root systems, they are ideal for helping recover habitat. A persimmon tree will be mature enough to bear fruit within 7–8 years. They hold their own against flooding riverbanks quite well and are listed in Stormwater Journal's list of water-holding trees.
Apocryphal and traditional significance
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010)|
- In Ozark folklore, the severity of the upcoming winter is said to be predictable by slicing a persimmon [seed] and observing the cutlery-shaped formation within it.
- The folklore about the seed says that a spoon means snow while a fork is a milder winter and a knife is a cold biting winter.
- In Vietnam, the fruit is a part of Mid-Autumn Festival offering.
- In traditional Chinese medicine the fruit is thought to regulate ch'i.
- The raw fruit is used to treat constipation and hemorrhoids, and to stop bleeding. Over-consumption can induce diarrhea, but the cooked fruit is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery; the opposing effects of the raw and cooked fruit are due to its osmotic effect in the raw fruit sugar (causing diarrhea), and the high tannin content of the cooked fruit helping with diarrhea.
- In philosophy, the painting of persimmons by Mu Qi (13th Century) exemplifies the progression from youth to age as a symbol of the progression from bitterness to sweetness. The persimmon when young is bitter and inedible, but as it ages it becomes sweet and beneficial to humankind. Thus, as we age, we overcome rigidity and prejudice and attain compassion and sweetness. Mu Qi's painting of Six Persimmons is considered a masterpiece.
- In Korean folklore the dried persimmon (gotgam, Korean: 곶감) has a reputation of scaring away tigers.
Persimmon orchard northern Kansai region, Japan.
- Carley Petersen and Annabelle Martin. "General Crop Information: Persimmon". University of Hawaii, Extension Entomology & UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- Jaeger, Edmund Carroll (1959). A source-book of biological names and terms. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. ISBN 0-398-06179-3.
- Tice, John. H. "Essay on the Diospyros virginiana" Annual report / Missouri State Horticultural Society 1864.
- Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1984—Merriam-Webster Page 877
- Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 181. ISBN 1561643726.
- The persimmon was first introduced to the State of São Paulo, afterwards expanding across Brazil through Japanese immigration; State of São Paulo is still the greatest producer, with an area of 3,610 hectares dedicated to persimmon culture in 2003; cf. todafruta.com.br
- The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, By Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull, CABI, 2008, Page 327
- Homer. "The Odyssey". Project Gutenberg. p. 76. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- Prepper Gardens. "American Persimmon for Wildlife Attraction". Retrieved 2014-1-16.
- "ESS Website ESS : Statistics home". Fao.org. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- G. Llácer y M.ª L. Badenes. "Situación actual de la producción de caqui en el mundo.". INSTITUTO VALENCIANO DE INVESTIGACIONES AGRARIAS. p. 38. "Tabla 3: Estimación de la superficie cultivada y la producción de caqui en España en el año 2000: 33.000 tm"
- "El caqui español desbanca a la producción italiana". INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE COMERCIO EXTERIOR. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Gorinstein, S.; Zachwieja, Z.; Folta, M.; Barton, H.; Piotrowicz, J.; Zemser, M.; Weisz, M.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Màrtín-Belloso, O. (2001). "Comparative Contents of Dietary Fiber, Total Phenolics, and Minerals in Persimmons and Apples". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (2): 952–957. doi:10.1021/jf000947k. PMID 11262055.
- Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Enokita, Murakami, Yonemori, Sugiura, Utsunomiya and Subhadrabandhu (October 2005). "Chemical structures of the condensed tannins in the fruits of Diospyros species". Journal of Wood Science (Japan: Springer Japan) 48 (5): 414–418. doi:10.1007/BF00770702. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- Quintal-Novelo, C.; Moo-Puc, R. E.; Chale-Dzul, J.; Cáceres-Farfán, M.; Mendez-Gonzalez, M.; Borges-Argáez, R. (2012). "Cytotoxic constituents from the stem bark ofDiospyros cuneataStandl". Natural Product Research: 1. doi:10.1080/14786419.2012.738201. PMID 23098219.
- Gorinstein, S.; Bartnikowska, E.; Kulasek, G.; Zemser, M.; Trakhtenberg, S. (1998). "Dietary persimmon improves lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing cholesterol". The Journal of nutrition 128 (11): 2023–2027. PMID 9808659.
- Verstanding, A. G.; Bauch, K.; Bloom, R.; Hadas, I.; Libson, E. (1989). "Small-bowel phytobezoars: detection with radiography". Radiology 172 (3): 705–707.
- Delia, C. W. (1961). "Phytobezoars (diospyrobezoars). A clinicopathologic correlation and review of six cases". Arch Surg. 82 (4): 579–583. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1961.01300100093010.
- "Bezoars". Merck Online Medical Dictionary. Merck. 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- Merck Manual, Rahway, New Jersey, Sixteenth Edition, Gastrointestinal Disorders, Section 52, page 780
- "Bezoars, Phytobezoars and Diospyrobezoars, OH MY!! Diospyros virginiana - common persimmons". Persimmonpudding.com. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- Altinli, E.; Saribeyoglu, K.; Uras, C. (2004). "Laparoscopic extirpation of a large gastric diospyrobezoar". Case Rep Clin Pract Rev, 5: 503–505.
- Hayashi, Kazuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Naitoh, Itaru; Okumura, Fumihiro; Andoh, Tomoaki; Itoh, Takafumi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Joh, Takashi (November 12, 2008). "Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: a case report". Cases Journal (London, England, U.K.: BioMed Central, published December 11, 2008) 1: 385. doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-385. ISSN 1757-1626. OCLC 234326274. Retrieved October 24, 2012. "Referring to past reports [1-9], the period from the administration of Coca-Cola until the disappearance of the bezoars was a minimum of 1 day and a maximum of 2 months."
- Cummings, C. A.; K. J. Copedge, A. W. Confer (1997). "Equine gastric impaction, ulceration, and perforation due to persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) ingestion". J Vet Diagn Invest 9 (3): 311–313. doi:10.1177/104063879700900315. PMID 9249173. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Damrosch, Barbara (2004-4-11-25). "East Meets West in a Fall Fruit". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-12-02.
- Stormh2o.com[dead link]
- Edwards, Ravae (2005-10-12). "From woolly worms to persimmons, people use a variety of methods to forecast the weather". News Tribune. Retrieved 2008-12-02.[dead link]
- "Persimmon Seeds Predict: Warm Winter, Above Average Snow Fall in the Ozarks". University of Mo. Extension. 2008-11-07. Retrieved 2013-09-10.
Diospyros is a genus of over 700 species of deciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs and small bushes. The majority are native to the tropics, with only a few species extending into temperate regions. Depending on their nature, individual species are commonly known as ebony or persimmon trees. Some are valued for their hard, heavy, dark timber, and some for their fruit. Some are useful as ornamentals and many are of local ecological importance.
Taxonomy and etymology
The generic name Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "Dios" (διός) and "pyros" (πυρος). In context this means more or less "divine fruit" or "divine food", though its literal meaning is more like "Wheat of Zeus". The interpretation of Diospyros is however sufficiently confusing to have given rise to some curious and inappropriate interpretations such as "God's pear" and "Jove's fire". The name Diospyros was originally applied to the Caucasian Persimmon (D. lotus).
The genus is a large one and the number of species has been estimated variously, depending on the date of the source. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew list has over 1000 entries, including synonyms and items of low confidence. Over 700 species are marked as being assigned with high confidence.
The leaves of Diospyros blancoi have been shown to contain isoarborinol methyl ether (also called cylindrin) and fatty esters of α- and β-amyrin. Both isoarborinol methyl ether and the amyrin mixture demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties have also been shown for the isolated amyrin mixture.
Diospyros species are important and conspicuous trees in many of their native ecosystems, such as lowland dry forests of the former Maui Nui in Hawaii, Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests, Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests, Louisiade Archipelago rain forests, Madagascar lowland forests, Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests, New Guinea mangroves or South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The green fruits are rich in tannins and thus avoided by most herbivores; when ripe they are eagerly eaten by many animals however, such as the rare Aders' Duiker (Cephalophus adersi).
- Neopithecops zalmora (Quaker)
- Charaxes khasianus (Kihansi Charaxes) – recorded on D. natalensis
- Dophla evelina (Redspot Duke) – recorded on D. candolleana
- Actias luna (Luna Moth) – recorded on persimmons
- Callosamia promethea (Promethea Silkmoth) – recorded on persimmons
- Citheronia regalis (Regal Moth) – recorded on American Persimmon (D. virginiana)
- "Cnephasia" jactatana (Black-lyre Leafroller Moth)
An economically significant plant pathogen infecting many Diospyros species – D. hispida, Kaki Persimmon (D. kaki), Date-plum (D. lotus), Texas Persimmon (D. texana), Coromandel Ebony (D. melanoxylon) and probably others – is the sac fungus Pseudocercospora kaki, which causes a leaf spot disease.
Use by humans
The genus includes several plants of commercial importance, either for their edible fruit (persimmons) or for their timber (ebony). The latter are divided into two groups in trade: the pure black ebony (notably from D. ebenum, but also several other species), and the striped ebony or Calamander wood (from D. celebica, D. mun and others). Most species in the genus produce little to none of this black ebony-type wood; their hard timber (e.g. of American Persimmon, D. virginiana) may still be used on a more limited basis.
Leaves of the Coromandel Ebony (D. melanoxylon) are used to roll South Asian beedi cigarettes. Several species are used in herbalism, and D. leucomelas yields the versatile medical compound betulinic acid. Though bees do not play a key role as pollinators, in plantations Diospyros may be of some use as honey plant. D. mollis, locally known as mặc nưa, is used in Vietnam to dye the famous black lãnh Mỹ A silk of Tân Châu district.
These trees are well-known in their native range, and consequently much used as floral emblems. In Indonesia, D. celebica (Makassar Ebony, known locally as eboni) is the provincial tree of Central Sulawesi, while ajan kelicung (D. macrophylla) is that of West Nusa Tenggara. The emblem of the Japanese island of Ishigaki is the Yaeyama kokutan (D. ferrea). In Thailand, the Gold Apple (D. decandra) is the provincial tree of Chanthaburi and Nakhon Pathom Provinces, while Black-and-white Ebony (D. malabarica) is that of Ang Thong Province. The name of the Thai district Amphoe Tha Tako literally means "District of the Diospyros pier" after a famous local gathering spot.
- Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White
- Diospyros acapulcensis Kunth
- Diospyros acocksii (De Winter) De Winter
- Diospyros acreana Cavalcante
- Diospyros acris Hemsl.
- Diospyros aculeata H.Perrier
- Diospyros acuminata (Thwaites) Kosterm.
- Diospyros acuta Thwaites
- Diospyros addita Fletcher
- Diospyros adenophora Bakh.
- Diospyros adiensis Kosterm.
- Diospyros aequoris Standl.
- Diospyros affinis Thwaites
- Diospyros aifatensis Kosterm.
- Diospyros alatella Kosterm.
- Diospyros albiflora Alston
- Diospyros alboflavescens (Gürke) F.White
- Diospyros alisu B.Walln.
- Diospyros alpina Kosterm.
- Diospyros amabi B.Walln.
- Diospyros amanap B.Walln.
- Diospyros amaniensis Gürke
- Diospyros amboinensis Bakh.
- Diospyros analamerensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros andamanica (Kurz) Bakh.
- Diospyros angulata Poir.
- Diospyros anisandra S.F.Blake
- Diospyros anisocalyx C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros anitae F.White
- Diospyros ankifiensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros anosivolensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros apeibocarpos Raddi
- Diospyros apiculata Hiern
- Diospyros araripensis Cavalcante
- Diospyros areolata King & Gamble
- Diospyros areolifolia Kosterm.
- Diospyros argentea Griff.
- Diospyros armata Hemsl.
- Diospyros artanthifolia Mart. ex Miq.
- Diospyros arupaj B.Walln.
- Diospyros atrata (Thwaites) Alston
- Diospyros atrotricha H.W.Li
- Diospyros attenuata Thwaites
- Diospyros aurea Teijsm. & Binn.
- Diospyros australis (R.Br.) Hiern – Yellow Persimmon, Black Plum, "grey plum"
- Diospyros balansae Guillaumin
- Diospyros balfouriana Diels
- Diospyros baloen-ldjoek Bakh.
- Diospyros bambuseti Fletcher
- Diospyros bangkana Bakh.
- Diospyros bangoiensis Lecomte
- Diospyros baranensis Lecomte
- Diospyros barberi Ramaswami
- Diospyros baroniana H.Perrier
- Diospyros barteri Hiern
- Diospyros batocana Hiern
- Diospyros beccarioides Ng
- Diospyros bejaudii Lecomte
- Diospyros bemarivensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros benstonei Kosterm.
- Diospyros bernieri Hiern
- Diospyros bernieriana (Baill.) H.Perrier
- Diospyros bezofensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros bibracteata Bakh.
- Diospyros bipindensis Gürke
- Diospyros blancoi A.DC. – Mabolo, Velvet-apple
- Diospyros blepharophylla Standl.
- Diospyros blumutensis Ng
- Diospyros boala De Wild.
- Diospyros boiviniana (Baill.) G.E. Schatz & Lowry
- Diospyros boivinii Hiern
- Diospyros boliviana Rusby
- Diospyros bonii Lecomte
- Diospyros borbonica I.Richardson
- Diospyros borneensis Hiern
- Diospyros bourdillonii Brandis
- Diospyros boutoniana A.DC.
- Diospyros brainii Ng
- Diospyros brandisiana Kurz
- Diospyros brasiliensis Mart. ex Miq.
- Diospyros brassica F.White
- Diospyros brevicalyx Boerl. & Koord.-Schum.
- Diospyros brideliifolia Elmer
- Diospyros britannoborneensis Bakh.
- Diospyros bullata A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros bumelioides Standl.
- Diospyros bundeyana Kosterm.
- Diospyros burchellii Hiern
- Diospyros burmanica Kurz
- Diospyros bussei Gürke
- Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern
- Diospyros cacharensis (Das & P.C.Kanjilal) H.B.Naithani
- Diospyros cachimboensis Pires & Cavalc.
- Diospyros calcicola Merr.
- Diospyros calciphila F.White
- Diospyros californica (Brandegee) I.M.Johnst.
- Diospyros caloneura C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros calophylla Hiern
- Diospyros calycantha O.Schwarz
- Diospyros cambodiana Lecomte
- Diospyros campanulata Bakh.
- Diospyros campechiana Lundell
- Diospyros camposii Provance & A.C.Sanders
- Diospyros canaliculata De Wild.
- Diospyros candolleana Wight
- Diospyros capreifolia Mart. ex Hiern
- Diospyros capricornuta F.White
- Diospyros carbonaria Benoist
- Diospyros caribaea (A.DC.) Standl.
- Diospyros carpinifolia (Ridl.) Bakh.
- Diospyros castanea (Craib) Fletcher
- Diospyros cathayensis Steward
- Diospyros caudisepala Bakh.
- Diospyros cauliflora Blume
- Diospyros cauligera F.White
- Diospyros cavalcantei Sothers
- Diospyros cayennensis A.DC.
- Diospyros celebica Bakh. – Makassar Ebony
- Diospyros chaetocarpa Kosterm.
- Diospyros chamaethamnus Mildbr. – Sand Apple
- Diospyros changii R.H.Miao
- Diospyros chartacea Wall. ex A.DC.
- Diospyros cherrieri F.White
- Diospyros chevalieri De Wild.
- Diospyros chloroxylon Roxb.
- Diospyros choboensis Lecomte
- Diospyros christophersenii Fosberg
- Diospyros chrysocarpa F.White
- Diospyros chrysophyllos Poir.
- Diospyros chunii Metcalf & L.Chen
- Diospyros cinnabarina (Gürke) F.White
- Diospyros cinnamomoides H.Perrier
- Diospyros clementium Bakh.
- Diospyros clusiifolia (Hiern) G.E. Schatz & Lowry
- Diospyros coaetanca Fletcher
- Diospyros coccinea Gürke ex De Wild.
- Diospyros coccolobifolia Mart. ex Miq.
- Diospyros collinsiae Craib
- Diospyros comorensis Hiern
- Diospyros confertiflora (Hiern) Bakh.
- Diospyros conformis Bakh.
- Diospyros conifera H.Perrier
- Diospyros conocarpa Gürke ex K.Schum.
- Diospyros consanguinea Merr.
- Diospyros consolatae Chiov.
- Diospyros conzattii Standl.
- Diospyros cooperi (Hutch. & Dalziel) F.White
- Diospyros corallina Chun & T.C.Chen
- Diospyros cordata (Hiern) Bakh.
- Diospyros cordato-oblonga Kosterm.
- Diospyros coriacea Hiern
- Diospyros coursiana H.Perrier
- Diospyros crassiflora Hiern – Gaboon Ebony
- Diospyros crassinervis (Krug & Urb.) Standl.
- subsp. urbaniana (Leonard) Alain
- Diospyros crebripilis Kosterm.
- Diospyros crockerensis Ng
- Diospyros crotalaria Provance & A.C.Sanders
- Diospyros crumenata Thwaites
- Diospyros cupulifera H.Perrier
- Diospyros cupulosa (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
- Diospyros curranii Merr.
- Diospyros daemona Bakh.
- Diospyros dalyom B.Walln.
- Diospyros danguyana H.Perrier
- Diospyros dasyphylla Kurz
- Diospyros decandra Lour. – Gold Apple
- Diospyros decaryana H.Perrier
- Diospyros defectrix Fletcher
- Diospyros dendo Welw. ex Hiern
- Diospyros densiflora Wall. ex G.Don
- Diospyros dichroa Sandwith
- Diospyros dichrophylla (Gand.) De Winter
- Diospyros dicorypheoides H.Perrier
- Diospyros dictyoneura Hiern
- Diospyros diepenhorstii Miq.
- Diospyros digyna Jacq. – Black Sapote, Chocolate Pudding Fruit, "black persimmon"
- Diospyros dinhensis T.H.Nguyên
- Diospyros discocalyx Merr.
- Diospyros discolor Willd.
- Diospyros diversifolia Hiern
- Diospyros diversilimba Merr. & Chun
- Diospyros dodecandra Lour.
- Diospyros dolmen B.Walln.
- Diospyros domarkind B.Walln.
- Diospyros domingensis (Urb.) Alain
- Diospyros duartei Cavalcante
- Diospyros dumetorum W.W.Sm.
- Diospyros dussaudii Lecomte
- Diospyros ebenifera (H. Perrier) G.E. Schatz & Lowry
- Diospyros ebenoides Kosterm.
- Diospyros ebenum J.Koenig ex Retz. – Ceylon Ebony, India Ebony, "ebony"
- Diospyros eburnea Bakh.
- Diospyros egleri Pires & Cavalc.
- Diospyros egrettarum I.Richardson
- Diospyros ehretioides Wall. ex G.Don
- Diospyros ekodul B.Walln.
- Diospyros elegans C.B.Clarke
- Diospyros elephasii Lecomte
- Diospyros elliotii (Hiern) F.White
- Diospyros ellipsoidea King & Gamble
- Diospyros elliptifolia Merr.
- Diospyros eriantha Champ. ex Benth.
- Diospyros erudita F.White
- Diospyros erythrosperma H.Perrier
- Diospyros esmereg B.Walln.
- Diospyros eucalyptifolia Bakh.
- Diospyros euphlehia Merr.
- Diospyros evena Bakh.
- Diospyros everettii Merr.
- Diospyros exsculpta Buch.-Ham.
- Diospyros fanjingshanica S.K.Lee
- Diospyros fasciculosa (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
- Diospyros fastidiosa F.White
- Diospyros feliciana Letouzey & F.White
- Diospyros fenal B.Walln.
- Diospyros fengchangensis S.Y.Lu
- Diospyros fengii C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros ferox Bakh.
- Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh.
- Diospyros ferruginescens Bakh.
- Diospyros filipendula Pierre ex Lecomte
- Diospyros filipes H.Perrier
- Diospyros fischeri Gürke
- Diospyros flavocarpa (Vieill. ex P.Parm.) F.White
- Diospyros fleuryana A.Chev. ex Lecomte
- Diospyros foliolosa Wall. ex A.DC.
- Diospyros foliosa (Rich ex A.Gray) Bakh.
- Diospyros forbesii Bakh.
- Diospyros forrestii J.Anthony
- Diospyros foxworthyi Bakh.
- Diospyros fragrans Gürke
- Diospyros froesii Cavalcante
- Diospyros frutescens Blume
- Diospyros fulvopilosa Fletcher
- Diospyros fuscovelutina Baker
- Diospyros fusicarpa Bakh.
- Diospyros fusiformis Kosterm.
- Diospyros gabunensis Gürke
- Diospyros gallo B.Walln.
- Diospyros galpinii (Hiern) De Winter
- Diospyros gambleana Bakh.
- Diospyros gaultheriifolia Mart. ex Miq.
- Diospyros geminata (R.Br.) F.Muell.
- Diospyros ghatensis B.R.Ramesh & D.De Franceschi
- Diospyros gigantocarpa Kosterm.
- Diospyros gillespiei (Fosberg) Kosterm.
- var. nandarivatensis (Gillespie) A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros gilletii De Wild.
- Diospyros gillisonii Kosterm.
- Diospyros glabra (L.) De Winter
- Diospyros glabrata (Warb.) Kosterm.
- Diospyros glandulifera De Winter
- Diospyros glandulosa Lace
- Diospyros glans F.White
- Diospyros glaucifolia Metcalf
- Diospyros glaucophylla Bakh.
- Diospyros glomerata Spruce ex Hiern
- Diospyros goudotii Hiern
- Diospyros gracilescens Gürke
- Diospyros gracilipes Hiern – (Madagascar)
- Diospyros gracilis Fletcher
- Diospyros greenwayi F.White
- Diospyros greshoffiana Koord. ex Bakh.
- Diospyros greveana H.Perrier
- subsp. boinensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros grex F.White
- Diospyros grisebachii (Hiern) Standl.
- Diospyros guatterioides A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros guianensis (Aubl.) Gürke
- subsp. akaraiensis (A.C.Sm.) F.White
- Diospyros haberi Provance & A.C.Sanders
- Diospyros hackenbergii Diels
- Diospyros hainanensis Merr.
- Diospyros haivanensis T.H.Nguyên
- Diospyros halesioides Griseb.
- Diospyros hallieri Bakh.
- Diospyros haplostylis Boivin ex Hiern
- Diospyros hartmanniana S.Knapp
- Diospyros hasseltii Zoll.
- Diospyros hassleri Hiern
- Diospyros havilandii Bakh.
- Diospyros hayatae Lecomte
- Diospyros hazomainty H.Perrier
- Diospyros hebecarpa A.Cunn. ex Benth.
- Diospyros hemiteles I.Richardson
- Diospyros heterosepala H.Perrier
- Diospyros heterotricha (Welw. ex Hiern) F.White
- Diospyros heudelotii Hiern
- Diospyros hexamera C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros hierniana (King & Gamble) Bakh.
- Diospyros hilairei (Hiern) Cavalcante
- Diospyros hillebrandii (Seem.) Fosberg
- Diospyros hirsuta L.f.
- Diospyros hispida A.DC.
- Diospyros holeana B.L.Gupta & P.C.Kanjilal
- Diospyros holttumii Bakh.
- Diospyros howii Merr. & Chun
- Diospyros hoyleana F.White
- Diospyros humbertiana H.Perrier
- Diospyros humilis (R.Br.) F.Muell. – Queensland Ebony
- Diospyros implexicalyx H.Perrier
- Diospyros impolita F.White
- Diospyros impressa Dunn & R.S.Williams
- Diospyros inconstans Jacq.
- Diospyros inexplorata F.White
- Diospyros inflata Merr. & Chun
- Diospyros inhacaensis F.White
- Diospyros insidiosa Bakh.
- Diospyros insignis Thwaites
- Diospyros insularis Bakh. – Papua Ebony
- Diospyros intricata (A.Gray) Standl.
- Diospyros ismailii Ng
- Diospyros iturensis (Gürke) Letouzey & F.White
- Diospyros janeirensis Sandwith
- Diospyros janowskyi Bakh.
- Diospyros japonica Siebold & Zucc.
- Diospyros javanica Bakh.
- Diospyros johnstoniana Standl. & Steyerm.
- Diospyros johorensis Ng
- Diospyros juruensis A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros kabuyeana F.White
- Diospyros kajangensis Bakh.
- Diospyros kaki L.f. – Japanese Persimmon, Kaki Persimmon, Asian Persimmon
- Diospyros kamerunensis Gürke
- Diospyros kanizur B.Walln.
- Diospyros kanurii F.White
- Diospyros katendei Verdc.
- Diospyros keningauensis Ng
- Diospyros kerrii Craib
- Diospyros ketsensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros ketun B.Walln.
- Diospyros kika Debb. & Biswas
- Diospyros kingii Bakh.
- Diospyros kintungensis C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros kirkii Hiern
- Diospyros kochummenii Ng
- Diospyros koeboeensis Bakh.
- Diospyros koenigii Kosterm.
- Diospyros kolom B.Walln.
- Diospyros kondor B.Walln.
- Diospyros korthalsiana Hiern
- Diospyros korupensis Gosline
- Diospyros kostermansii V.Singh
- Diospyros kotoensis T.Yamaz.
- Diospyros krukovii A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros kupensis Gosline
- Diospyros kurzii Hiern – Andaman Marblewood
- Diospyros labillardierei F.White
- Diospyros laevis Bojer ex A.DC.
- Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb.
- Diospyros lanceolata Poir.
- Diospyros landii Cavalcante
- Diospyros lanticellata Baker
- Diospyros lateralis Hiern
- Diospyros latisepala Ridl.
- Diospyros latispathulata H.Perrier
- Diospyros leonardii (Urb. & Ekman) Alain
- Diospyros leonis (Britton & P.Wilson) Standl.
- Diospyros leucomelas Poir.
- Diospyros liberiensis A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel
- Diospyros lissocarpoides Sandwith
- Diospyros lobata Lour.
- Diospyros lolin Bakh.
- Diospyros lolinopsis Kosterm.
- Diospyros longibracteata Lecomte
- Diospyros longiciliata Merr.
- Diospyros longiflora Letouzey & F.White
- Diospyros longipedicellata Lecomte
- Diospyros longipilosa Phengklai
- Diospyros longistyla A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros longshengensis S.K.Lee
- Diospyros lotus L. – Date-plum, Caucasian Persimmon
- Diospyros loureiroana G.Don
- subsp. rufescens (Caveney) Verdc.
- Diospyros louvelii H.Perrier
- Diospyros lunduensis Ng
- Diospyros lycioides Desf. – Bushveld Bluebush
- Diospyros mabacea (F.Muell.) F.Muell. – Red-fruited Ebony
- Diospyros maclurei Merr.
- Diospyros macrocarpa Hiern
- Diospyros macrophylla Blume
- Diospyros madecassa H.Perrier
- Diospyros mafiensis F.White
- Diospyros magogoana F.White
- Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh.
- Diospyros major (G.Forst.) Bakh.
- Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. – Black-and-white Ebony, Pale Moon Ebony, Gaub Tree
- Diospyros malaccensis Bakh.
- Diospyros malacothrix Kosterm.
- Diospyros manampetsae H.Perrier
- Diospyros manausensis Cavalcante
- Diospyros mangabensis Aug.DC.
- Diospyros mangorensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros mannii Hiern
- Diospyros manu B.Walln.
- Diospyros mapingo H.Perrier
- Diospyros margaretae F.White
- Diospyros maritima Blume
- Diospyros marmorata R.Parker – Marblewood Ebony, "marblewood"
- Diospyros martabanica C.B.Clarke
- Diospyros martini Benoist
- Diospyros masoalensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros matheriana A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros mattogrossensis Hoehne
- Diospyros megasepala Baker
- Diospyros melanida Poir.
- Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. – Coromandel Ebony, East Indian Ebony
- var. tupru (Buch.-Ham.) V.Singh
- Diospyros melocarpa F.White
- Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC. – Jackalberry, "African Ebony"
- Diospyros metcalfii Chun & T.C.Chen
- Diospyros mexiae Standl.
- Diospyros miaoshanica S.K.Lee
- Diospyros micrantha Sandwith
- Diospyros micromera Bakh.
- Diospyros microrhombus Hiern
- Diospyros miltonii Cavalcante
- Diospyros minahassae Bakh.
- Diospyros mindanaensis Merr.
- Diospyros minimifolia F.White
- Diospyros minutiflora Bakh.
- Diospyros minutiloba H.Perrier
- Diospyros moi Lecomte
- Diospyros mollis Griff.
- Diospyros mollissima Kosterm.
- Diospyros monbuttensis Gürke
- Diospyros montana Roxb.
- Diospyros moonii Thwaites
- Diospyros morrisiana Hance
- Diospyros multibracteata (Merr.) Bakh.
- Diospyros multiflora Blanco
- Diospyros multinervis Ng
- Diospyros mun A.Chev. ex Lecomte – Mun Ebony
- Diospyros muricata Bakh.
- Diospyros mweroensis F.White
- Diospyros myrmecocarpa Mart. ex Miq.
- Diospyros myrtifolia H.Perrier
- Diospyros nana Bakh.
- Diospyros nanay B.Walln.
- Diospyros natalensis (Harv.) Brenan
- subsp. nummularia (Brenan) Jordaan
- Diospyros navillei Lév.
- Diospyros nebulosa F.White
- Diospyros neglecta F.White
- Diospyros neilgerrensis (Wight) Kosterm.
- Diospyros nemorosa Bakh.
- Diospyros nenab B.Walln.
- Diospyros neraudii A.DC.
- Diospyros neurosepala Bakh.
- Diospyros nhatrangensis Lecomte
- Diospyros nigra (J.F.Gmel.) Perrier
- Diospyros nigricans Wall. ex A.DC.
- Diospyros nigrocortex C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros nilagirica Bedd.
- Diospyros nitida Merr.
- Diospyros nodosa Poir.
- Diospyros normanbyensis Kosterm.
- Diospyros novoguineensis Bakh.
- Diospyros nummulariifolia Kosterm.
- Diospyros nur B.Walln.
- Diospyros nutans King & Gamble
- Diospyros oaxacana Standl.
- Diospyros obliquifolia (Hiern ex Gürke) F.White
- Diospyros oblonga Wall. ex G.Don
- Diospyros oblongifolia (Thwaites) Kosterm.
- Diospyros occlusa H.Perrier
- Diospyros occulta F.White
- Diospyros okkesii Kosterm.
- Diospyros oldhamii Maxim.
- Diospyros oleifera W.C.Cheng
- Diospyros olen Hiern
- Diospyros oligantha Merr.
- Diospyros oliviformis R.H.Miao
- Diospyros onanae Gosline
- Diospyros oocarpa Thwaites
- Diospyros opaca C.B.Clarke
- Diospyros oppositifolia Thwaites
- Diospyros orthioneura Diels
- Diospyros ottohuberi B.Walln.
- Diospyros oubatchensis Kosterm.
- Diospyros ovalifolia Wight
- Diospyros ovalis Hiern
- Diospyros oxycarpa (Urb.) Alain
- Diospyros pahangensis Bakh.
- Diospyros palauensis (Kaneh.) Hosok.
- Diospyros palembanica Bakh.
- Diospyros pallens (Thunb.) F.White
- Diospyros palmeri Eastw.
- Diospyros panamensis S.Knapp
- Diospyros pancheri Kosterm.
- Diospyros panguana B.Walln.
- Diospyros paniculata Dalzell
- Diospyros papuana Valeton ex Bakh.
- Diospyros parabuxifolia Ng
- Diospyros paraensis Sothers
- Diospyros parifolia H.Perrier
- Diospyros parviflora (Schltr.) Bakh.
- Diospyros parvifolia Hiern
- Diospyros pauciflora King & Gamble
- Diospyros peekelii Lauterb.
- Diospyros pemadasae Jayas.
- Diospyros penangiana King & Gamble
- Diospyros pendula Hasselt ex Hassk.
- Diospyros penibukanensis Bakh.
- Diospyros pentamera (F.Muell.) Woods & F.Muell. – Myrtle Ebony, Grey Persimmon, Black Myrtle, Grey Plum
- Diospyros perakensis Bakh.
- Diospyros perfida Bakh.
- Diospyros perglauca H.Perrier
- Diospyros perplexa F.White
- Diospyros perreticulata H.Perrier
- Diospyros perrieri Jum.
- Diospyros pervillei Hiern
- Diospyros phanrangensis Lecomte
- Diospyros philippinensis A.DC.
- Diospyros phlebodes (A.C.Sm.) A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros phuketensis Phengklai
- Diospyros physocalycina Gürke
- Diospyros pierrei Lecomte
- Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco
- Diospyros pilosiuscula G.Don
- Diospyros piresii Cavalcante
- Diospyros piscatoria Gürke
- Diospyros piscicapa Ridl.
- Diospyros platanoides Letouzey & F.White
- Diospyros platycalyx Hiern
- Diospyros plectosepala Hiern
- Diospyros poeppigiana A.DC.
- Diospyros polita Bakh.
- Diospyros polystemon Gürke
- Diospyros poncei Merr.
- Diospyros potamica Kosterm.
- Diospyros potingensis Merr. & Chun
- Diospyros preussii Gürke
- Diospyros pruinosa Hiern
- var. geayana H.Perrier
- Diospyros pruriens Dalzell
- Diospyros pseudoharmandii T.H.Nguyên
- Diospyros pseudomalabarica Bakh.
- Diospyros pseudomespilus Mildbr.
- subsp. undabunda (Hiern ex Greves) F.White
- Diospyros pseudoxylopia Mildbr.
- Diospyros pterocalyx Bojer ex A.DC.
- Diospyros pubescens Pers.
- Diospyros pulchra Bakh.
- Diospyros puncticulosa Bakh.
- Diospyros punctilimba C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros pustulata F.White
- Diospyros pyrrhocarpa Miq.
- Diospyros quaesita Thwaites
- Diospyros quiloensis (Hiern) F.White
- Diospyros rabiensis Breteler
- Diospyros racemosa Roxb.
- Diospyros ramiflora Roxb.
- Diospyros ramulosa (E.Mey. ex A.DC.) De Winter
- Diospyros ranongensis Phengklai
- Diospyros rekoi Standl.
- Diospyros relit B.Walln.
- Diospyros reticulinervis C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros revaughanii I.Richardson
- Diospyros revolutissima F.White
- Diospyros rheophytica Kosterm.
- Diospyros rhodocalyx Kurz
- Diospyros rhododendroides Kosterm.
- Diospyros rhombifolia Hemsl.
- Diospyros ridleyi Bakh.
- Diospyros ridsdalei Kosterm.
- Diospyros riedelii (Hiern) B.Walln.
- Diospyros rigida Hiern
- Diospyros ropourea B.Walln.
- Diospyros rosei Standl.
- Diospyros rostrata (Merr.) Bakh.
- Diospyros rotok B.Walln.
- Diospyros rotundifolia Hiern
- Diospyros rubicunda Gürke
- Diospyros rufa King & Gamble
- Diospyros rufogemmata Lecomte
- Diospyros rumphii Bakh.
- Diospyros sahayadryensis P.Daniel & Vajr.
- Diospyros sakalavarum H.Perrier
- Diospyros saldanhae Kosterm.
- Diospyros salicifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
- Diospyros salletii Lecomte
- Diospyros samoensis A.Gray
- Diospyros sandwicensis (A.DC.) Fosberg
- Diospyros sankurensis Gürke
- Diospyros santaremnensis Sandwith
- Diospyros sanza-minika A.Chev.
- Diospyros savannarum Kosterm.
- Diospyros saxatilis S.K.Lee
- Diospyros saxicola R.H.Miao
- Diospyros scabiosa Bakh.
- Diospyros scabra (Chiov.) Cufod.
- Diospyros scabrida (Harv. ex Hiern) De Winter
- Diospyros scalariformis Fletcher
- Diospyros schmutzii Kosterm.
- Diospyros sclerophylla H.Perrier
- Diospyros scortechinii King & Gamble
- Diospyros scottmorii B.Walln.
- Diospyros selangorensis Bakh.
- Diospyros senensis Klotzsch
- Diospyros sericea A.DC.
- Diospyros serrana Sothers
- Diospyros seychellarum (Hiern) Kosterm. – Seychelles
- Diospyros shimbaensis F.White
- Diospyros siamang Bakh.
- Diospyros sichourensis C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros siderophylla H.L.Li
- Diospyros simaloerensis Bakh.
- Diospyros simii (Kuntze) De Winter
- Diospyros sinaloensis S.F.Blake
- Diospyros singaporensis Bakh.
- Diospyros sintenisii (Krug & Urb.) Standl.
- Diospyros sleumeri Kosterm.
- Diospyros sogeriensis Bakh.
- Diospyros sonorae Standl.
- Diospyros soporifera Bakh.
- Diospyros sororia Bakh.
- Diospyros soubreana F.White
- Diospyros soyauxii Gürke & K.Schum.
- Diospyros sparsirama Hiern ex Greves
- Diospyros sphaerosepala Baker
- Diospyros sprucei Hiern
- Diospyros squamifolia Kosterm.
- Diospyros squamosa Bojer ex A.DC.
- Diospyros squarrosa Klotzsch
- Diospyros streptosepala Merr.
- Diospyros stricta Roxb.
- Diospyros strigosa Hemsl.
- Diospyros striicalyx H.Perrier
- Diospyros styraciformis King & Gamble
- Diospyros suaveolens Gürke
- Diospyros subacuta Hiern
- Diospyros subenervis (H. Perrier) G.E. Schatz & Lowry
- Diospyros subfalciformis H.Perrier
- Diospyros subrhomboidea King & Gamble
- Diospyros subrotata Hiern
- Diospyros subsessilifolia H.Perrier
- Diospyros subsessilis Kosterm.
- Diospyros subtrinervis H.Perrier
- Diospyros subtruncata Hochr.
- Diospyros sulcata Bourd.
- Diospyros sumatrana Miq.
- Diospyros sundaica Bakh.
- Diospyros sunyiensis Chun & T.C.Chen
- Diospyros susarticulata Lecomte
- Diospyros sutchuensis Y.C.Yang
- Diospyros sylvatica Roxb.
- Diospyros tampinensis H.Perrier
- Diospyros tarim B.Walln.
- Diospyros tenuiflora A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros tenuipes Merr.
- Diospyros tepu B.Walln.
- Diospyros terminalis Kosterm.
- Diospyros tero B.Walln.
- Diospyros tessellaria Poir. – Mauritius Ebony
- Diospyros tessmannii Mildbr.
- Diospyros tetraceros H.Perrier
- Diospyros tetrandra Hiern
- Diospyros tetrapoda H.Perrier
- Diospyros tetrasperma Sw.
- Diospyros texana Scheele – Texas Persimmon, Mexican Persimmon, "black persimmon"
- Diospyros thaiensis Phengklai
- Diospyros thomasii Hutch. & Dalziel
- Diospyros thorelii (Lecomte) T.H.Nguyên
- Diospyros thouarsii Hiern
- Diospyros thwaitesii (Hiern) Bedd.
- Diospyros tireliae F.White
- Diospyros tonkinensis A.Chev.
- Diospyros torquata H.Perrier
- Diospyros touranensis Lecomte
- Diospyros toxicaria Hiern
- Diospyros transita (Bakh.) Kosterm.
- Diospyros transitoria Bakh.
- Diospyros trengganuensis Ng
- Diospyros trianthos Phengkhlai
- Diospyros trichophylla Alston
- Diospyros tricolor (Schumach. & Thonn.) Hiern
- Diospyros tridentata F.White
- Diospyros tristis King & Gamble
- Diospyros trisulca F.White
- Diospyros trombetensis Sandwith
- Diospyros troupinii F.White
- Diospyros truncata Zoll. & Moritzi
- Diospyros truncatifolia Caveney
- Diospyros tsangii Merr.
- Diospyros tuberculata Bakh.
- Diospyros turfosa Kosterm.
- Diospyros tutcheri Dunn
- Diospyros uaupensis Cavalcante
- Diospyros ubaita B.Walln.
- Diospyros ulo Merr.
- Diospyros umbrosa F.White
- Diospyros undulata Wall. ex G.Don
- Diospyros unisemina C.Y.Wu
- Diospyros urep B.Walln.
- Diospyros urschii H.Perrier
- Diospyros uzungwaensis Frim.-Møll. & Ndang.
- Diospyros vaccinioides Lindl.
- Diospyros variegata Kurz
- Diospyros veillonii F.White
- Diospyros velutinosa Bakh.
- Diospyros velutipes (H. Perrier) G.E. Schatz & Lowry
- Diospyros venenosa Bakh.
- Diospyros venosa Wall. ex A.DC.
- var. olivacea (King & Gamble) Ng
- Diospyros vera (Lour.) A.Chev.
- Diospyros vermoesenii De Wild.
- Diospyros verrucosa Hiern
- Diospyros vescoi Hiern
- Diospyros vestita Benoist
- Diospyros vieillardii (Hiern) Kosterm.
- Diospyros vignei F.White
- Diospyros villosa (L.) De Winter
- Diospyros villosiuscula Kosterm.
- Diospyros virgata (Gürke) Brenan
- Diospyros virginiana L. – American Persimmon, Eastern Persimmon, Common Persimmon, Possumwood
- Diospyros viridicans Hiern
- Diospyros vitiensis Gillespie
- var. longisepala (Gillespie) A.C.Sm.
- Diospyros wagemansii F.White
- Diospyros wajirensis F.White
- Diospyros walkeri (Wight) Gürke
- Diospyros wallichii King & Gamble
- Diospyros weddellii Hiern
- Diospyros whitei Dowsett-Lemaire & Pannell
- Diospyros whitfordii Merr.
- Diospyros whyteana (Hiern) P.White
- Diospyros winitii Fletcher
- Diospyros xavantina Sothers
- Diospyros xiangguiensis S.K.Lee
- Diospyros xishuangbannaensis C.Y.Wu & H.Chu
- Diospyros yaouhensis (Schltr.) Kosterm.
- Diospyros yatesiana Standl.
- Diospyros yeobi Bakh.
- Diospyros yomomo B.Walln.
- Diospyros yucatanensis Lundell
- subsp. spectabilis (Lundell) Provance, I.García & A.C.Sanders
- Diospyros yunnanensis Rehder & E.H.Wilson
- Diospyros zenkeri (Gürke) F.White
- Diospyros zhenfengensis S.K.Lee
- Diospyros zombensis (B.L.Burtt) F.White
- United States Department of Agriculture (1998). "Diospyros". Germplasm Resources Information Network.
- Jaeger, Edmund Carroll (1959). A source-book of biological names and terms. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. ISBN 0-398-06179-3.
- Tice, John. H. "Essay on the Diospyros virginiana" Annual report / Missouri State Horticultural Society 1864.
- "Diospyros". The Plant List. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Ragasa, CY Puno, MR Sengson, JMA Shen, CC Rideout, JA Raga, DD (November 2009). "Bioactive triterpenes from Diospyros blancoi". Natural Product Research 23 (13): 1252–1258. doi:10.1080/14786410902951054. PMID 19731144.
- The Nature Conservancy – Hawaiʻi Operating Unit (March 2004). Kānepuʻu Preserve Lānaʻi, Hawaiʻi Long-Range Management Plan Fiscal Years 2005–2010 (PDF). Hawaii Department of Land & Natural Resources Natural Area Partnership Program. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
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