Catalog Number: US 2491313
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Stocks & J. Law
Locality: Malabar, Concan etc., Kerala, India, Asia-Tropical
- Possible Type: Dalzell, N. A. 1852. Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4: 110.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:1494
Specimens with Barcodes:1386
Species With Barcodes:245
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diospyros sp8 aff melocarpa
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diospyros sp5 aff polystemon
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Diospyros is a genus of over 700 species of deciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs and small bushes. The majority are native to the tropics, with only a few species extending into temperate regions. Depending on their nature, individual species are commonly known as ebony or persimmon trees. Some are valued for their hard, heavy, dark timber, and some for their fruit. Some are useful as ornamentals and many are of local ecological importance.
Taxonomy and etymology
The generic name Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "Dios" (διός) and "pyros" (πυρος). In context this means more or less "divine fruit" or "divine food", though its literal meaning is more like "Wheat of Zeus". The interpretation of Diospyros is however sufficiently confusing to have given rise to some curious and inappropriate interpretations such as "God's pear" and "Jove's fire". The name Diospyros was originally applied to the Caucasian Persimmon (D. lotus).
The genus is a large one and the number of species has been estimated variously, depending on the date of the source. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew list has over 1000 entries, including synonyms and items of low confidence. Over 700 species are marked as being assigned with high confidence.
The leaves of Diospyros blancoi have been shown to contain isoarborinol methyl ether (also called cylindrin) and fatty esters of α- and β-amyrin. Both isoarborinol methyl ether and the amyrin mixture demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties have also been shown for the isolated amyrin mixture.
Diospyros species are important and conspicuous trees in many of their native ecosystems, such as lowland dry forests of the former Maui Nui in Hawaii, Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests, Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests, Louisiade Archipelago rain forests, Madagascar lowland forests, Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests, New Guinea mangroves or South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The green fruits are rich in tannins and thus avoided by most herbivores; when ripe they are eagerly eaten by many animals however, such as the rare Aders' Duiker (Cephalophus adersi).
- Neopithecops zalmora (Quaker)
- Charaxes khasianus (Kihansi Charaxes) – recorded on D. natalensis
- Dophla evelina (Redspot Duke) – recorded on D. candolleana
- Actias luna (Luna Moth) – recorded on persimmons
- Callosamia promethea (Promethea Silkmoth) – recorded on persimmons
- Citheronia regalis (Regal Moth) – recorded on American Persimmon (D. virginiana)
- "Cnephasia" jactatana (Black-lyre Leafroller Moth)
An economically significant plant pathogen infecting many Diospyros species – D. hispida, Kaki Persimmon (D. kaki), Date-plum (D. lotus), Texas Persimmon (D. texana), Coromandel Ebony (D. melanoxylon) and probably others – is the sac fungus Pseudocercospora kaki, which causes a leaf spot disease.
Use by humans
The genus includes several plants of commercial importance, either for their edible fruit (persimmons) or for their timber (ebony). The latter are divided into two groups in trade: the pure black ebony (notably from D. ebenum, but also several other species), and the striped ebony or Calamander wood (from D. celebica, D. mun and others). Most species in the genus produce little to none of this black ebony-type wood; their hard timber (e.g. of American Persimmon, D. virginiana) may still be used on a more limited basis.
Leaves of the Coromandel Ebony (D. melanoxylon) are used to roll South Asian beedi cigarettes. Several species are used in herbalism, and D. leucomelas yields the versatile medical compound betulinic acid. Though bees do not play a key role as pollinators, in plantations Diospyros may be of some use as honey plant. D. mollis, locally known as mặc nưa, is used in Vietnam to dye the famous black lãnh Mỹ A silk of Tân Châu district.
These trees are well-known in their native range, and consequently much used as floral emblems. In Indonesia, D. celebica (Makassar Ebony, known locally as eboni) is the provincial tree of Central Sulawesi, while ajan kelicung (D. macrophylla) is that of West Nusa Tenggara. The emblem of the Japanese island of Ishigaki is the Yaeyama kokutan (D. ferrea). In Thailand, the Gold Apple (D. decandra) is the provincial tree of Chanthaburi and Nakhon Pathom Provinces, while Black-and-white Ebony (D. malabarica) is that of Ang Thong Province. The name of the Thai district Amphoe Tha Tako literally means "District of the Diospyros pier" after a famous local gathering spot. Extracts from Diospyros plants have also been proposed as novel ant-viral treatment.
- Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White
- Diospyros acuminata (Thwaites) Kosterm.
- Diospyros alatella Kosterm.
- Diospyros andamanica (Kurz) Bakh.
- Diospyros areolata King & Gamble
- Diospyros atrata (Thwaites) Alston
- Diospyros attenuata Thwaites
- Diospyros australis (R.Br.) Hiern – Yellow Persimmon, Black Plum, "grey plum"
- Diospyros beccarioides Ng
- Diospyros blancoi A.DC. – Kamagong, Mabolo, Butter fruit, Velvet-apple
- Diospyros borneensis Hiern
- Diospyros britannoborneensis Bakh.
- Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern
- Diospyros candolleana Wight
- Diospyros celebica Bakh. – Makassar Ebony
- Diospyros chaetocarpa Kosterm.
- Diospyros chamaethamnus Mildbr. – Sand Apple
- Diospyros chloroxylon Roxb.
- Diospyros clementium Bakh.
- Diospyros confertiflora (Hiern) Bakh.
- Diospyros cordata (Hiern) Bakh.
- Diospyros coriacea Hiern
- Diospyros crassiflora Hiern – Gaboon Ebony, Gabon ebony, African ebony, West African ebony, Benin ebony
- Diospyros crockerensis Ng
- Diospyros curranii Merr.
- Diospyros daemona Bakh.
- Diospyros decandra Lour. – Gold Apple
- Diospyros dichrophylla (Gand.) De Winter
- Diospyros dictyoneura Hiern
- Diospyros diepenhorstii Miq.
- Diospyros discocalyx Merr.
- Diospyros discolor Willd.
- Diospyros ebenum J.Koenig ex Retz. – Ceylon Ebony, India Ebony, "ebony"
- Diospyros elliptifolia Merr.
- Diospyros eriantha Champ. ex Benth.
- Diospyros eucalyptifolia Bakh.
- Diospyros euphlehia Merr.
- Diospyros evena Bakh.
- Diospyros everettii Merr.
- Diospyros fasciculosa (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
- Diospyros ferox Bakh.
- Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh.
- Diospyros ferruginescens Bakh.
- Diospyros foxworthyi Bakh.
- Diospyros frutescens Blume
- Diospyros fusiformis Kosterm.
- Diospyros geminata (R.Br.) F.Muell.
- Diospyros hallieri Bakh.
- Diospyros havilandii Bakh.
- Diospyros hebecarpa A.Cunn. ex Benth.
- Diospyros hillebrandii (Seem.) Fosberg
- Diospyros hirsuta L.f.
- Diospyros humilis (R.Br.) F.Muell. – Queensland Ebony
- Diospyros insularis Bakh. – Papua Ebony
- Diospyros kaki L.f. – Japanese Persimmon, Kaki Persimmon, Asian Persimmon
- Diospyros keningauensis Ng
- Diospyros korthalsiana Hiern
- Diospyros kurzii Hiern – Andaman Marblewood
- Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb.
- Diospyros lateralis Hiern
- Diospyros leucomelas Poir.
- Diospyros lotus L. – Date-plum, Caucasian Persimmon, Lilac Persimmon
- Diospyros lunduensis Ng
- Diospyros lycioides Desf. – Bushveld Bluebush
- Diospyros mabacea (F.Muell.) F.Muell. – Red-fruited Ebony
- Diospyros macrophylla Blume
- Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh.
- Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. – Black-and-white Ebony, Pale Moon Ebony, Malabar Ebony, Gaub Tree
- Diospyros maritima Blume
- Diospyros marmorata R.Parker – Marblewood Ebony, "marblewood"
- Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. – Coromandel Ebony, East Indian Ebony
- var. tupru (Buch.-Ham.) V.Singh
- Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC. – Jackalberry, "African Ebony"
- Diospyros mindanaensis Merr.
- Diospyros mun A.Chev. ex Lecomte – Mun Ebony
- Diospyros muricata Bakh.
- Diospyros neurosepala Bakh.
- Diospyros nigra (J.F.Gmel.) Perrier – Black Sapote, Chocolate Pudding Fruit, "black persimmon"
- Diospyros oligantha Merr.
- Diospyros oocarpa Thwaites
- Diospyros oppositifolia Thwaites
- Diospyros ovalifolia Wight
- Diospyros parabuxifolia Ng
- Diospyros pendula Hasselt ex Hassk.
- Diospyros penibukanensis Bakh.
- Diospyros pentamera (F.Muell.) Woods & F.Muell. – Myrtle Ebony, Grey Persimmon, Black Myrtle, Grey Plum
- Diospyros perfida Bakh.
- Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco
- Diospyros piscicapa Ridl.
- Diospyros plectosepala Hiern
- Diospyros puncticulosa Bakh.
- Diospyros pyrrhocarpa Miq.
- Diospyros rhombifolia Hemsl.
- Diospyros ridleyi Bakh.
- Diospyros rigida Hiern
- Diospyros rufa King & Gamble
- Diospyros sandwicensis (A.DC.) Fosberg
- Diospyros seychellarum (Hiern) Kosterm.
- Diospyros siamang Bakh.
- Diospyros simaloerensis Bakh.
- Diospyros singaporensis Bakh.
- Diospyros squamifolia Kosterm.
- Diospyros styraciformis King & Gamble
- Diospyros subrhomboidea King & Gamble
- Diospyros subtruncata Hochr.
- Diospyros sulcata Bourd.
- Diospyros sumatrana Miq.
- Diospyros tessellaria Poir. – Mauritius Ebony
- Diospyros texana Scheele – Texas Persimmon, Mexican Persimmon, "black persimmon"
- Diospyros thwaitesii (Hiern) Bedd.
- Diospyros tuberculata Bakh.
- Diospyros ulo Merr.
- Diospyros venosa Wall. ex A.DC.
- var. olivacea (King & Gamble) Ng
- Diospyros virginiana L. – American Persimmon, Eastern Persimmon, Common Persimmon, Possumwood, "Simmon", "Sugar-plum"
- Diospyros walkeri (Wight) Gürke
- Diospyros wallichii King & Gamble
- Diospyros whyteana (Hiern) P.White – Cape Ebony
- United States Department of Agriculture (1998). "Germplasm Resources Information Network".
- Jaeger, Edmund Carroll (1959). A source-book of biological names and terms. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. ISBN 0-398-06179-3.
- Tice, John. H. "Essay on the Diospyros virginiana" Annual report / Missouri State Horticultural Society 1864.
- "Diospyros". The Plant List. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Ragasa, CY Puno, MR Sengson, JMA Shen, CC Rideout, JA Raga, DD (November 2009). "Bioactive triterpenes from Diospyros blancoi". Natural Product Research 23 (13): 1252–1258. doi:10.1080/14786410902951054. PMID 19731144.
- The Nature Conservancy – Hawaiʻi Operating Unit (March 2004). "Kānepuʻu Preserve Lānaʻi, Hawaiʻi Long-Range Management Plan Fiscal Years 2005–2010" (PDF). Hawaii Department of Land & Natural Resources Natural Area Partnership Program. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
Persimmons // are the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae. The most widely cultivated species is the Asian persimmon, Diospyros kaki. In color the ripe fruit of the cultivated strains range from light yellow-orange to dark red-orange depending on the species and variety. They similarly vary in size from 1.5 to 9 cm (0.5 to 4 in) in diameter, and in shape the varieties may be spherical, acorn-, or pumpkin-shaped. The calyx generally remains attached to the fruit after harvesting, but becomes easy to remove once the fruit is ripe. The ripe fruit has a high glucose content. The protein content is low, but it has a balanced protein profile. Persimmon fruits have been put to various medicinal and chemical uses.
- 1 Names and etymology
- 2 Select species
- 3 Fruit
- 4 Nutrient and phytochemical content
- 5 Wood
- 6 Trees
- 7 Folklore
- 8 Gallery
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Names and etymology
The word Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "dios" (διός) and "pyros" (πυρος). In context, this means more or less "divine fruit", though its literal meaning is closer to "Wheat of Zeus". It is, however, sufficiently confusing to have given rise to some curious interpretations, such as "God's pear" and "Jove's fire". The Modern Greek name for the fruit is λωτός (lotos) which leads modern Greeks to the assumption that this is the lotus referred to in Homer's Odyssey.
While there are many species of Diospyros that bear fruit inedible to humans, the following are those that bear edible fruit:
Diospyros kaki (Asian persimmon, Japanese persimmon)
Diospyros kaki is native to China. It is deciduous, with broad, stiff leaves and is known as the shizi (柿子 in Chinese), and also as the Japanese Persimmon or kaki (柿) in Japanese. It is the most widely cultivated species. Its fruits are sweet, and slightly tangy with a soft to occasionally fibrous texture. Cultivation of the fruit extended first to other parts of east Asia, India and Pakistan, and was later introduced to California and southern Europe in the 1800s, to Brazil in the 1890s, and numerous cultivars have been selected. It is edible in its crisp firm state, but has its best flavor when allowed to rest and soften slightly after harvest. The Japanese cultivar 'Hachiya' is widely grown. The fruit has a high tannin content which makes the immature fruit astringent and bitter. The tannin levels are reduced as the fruit matures. Persimmons like 'Hachiya' must be completely ripened before consumption. When ripe, this fruit comprises thick pulpy jelly encased in a waxy thin skinned shell.
"Sharon fruit" (named after the Sharon plain in Israel) is the marketing name for the Israeli-bred cultivar 'Triumph'. As with all pollination-variant-astringent persimmons, the fruit are ripened off the tree by exposing them to carbon dioxide. The "sharon fruit" has no core, is seedless, particularly sweet, and can be eaten whole.
Diospyros lotus (date-plum)
Date-plum (Diospyros lotus) is native to southwest Asia and southeast Europe. It was known to the ancient Greeks as "the fruit of the gods", or often referred to as "nature's candy" i.e. Dios pyros (lit. "the wheat of Zeus"), hence the scientific name of the genus. Its English name probably derives from Persian Khormaloo خرمالو literally "date-plum", referring to the taste of this fruit which is reminiscent of both plums and dates. This species is one candidate for the lotus mentioned in the Odyssey: it was so delicious that those who ate it forgot about returning home and wanted to stay and eat lotus with the lotus-eaters.
Diospyros virginiana (American persimmon)
American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) is native to the eastern United States and is higher in nutrients like vitamin C, calcium, iron and potassium than the Japanese Persimmon. Its fruit is traditionally eaten in a special steamed pudding in the Midwest and sometimes its timber is used as a substitute for ebony (e.g. in instruments). The American persimmon fruit is proven to be valuable food source for white tail deer, because the fruit ripens late into the year and will hang on the tree much throughout the winter months.[unreliable source?]
Diospyros digyna (black persimmon)
Diospyros peregrina (Indian persimmon)
Indian persimmon (Diospyros peregrina) is a slow growing tree, native to coastal West Bengal. The fruit is green and turns yellow when ripe. It is relatively small with an unremarkable flavor and is better known for uses in folk medicine rather than culinary applications.
Diospyros texana (Texas persimmon)
Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana) is a species of persimmon that is native to central and west Texas and southwest Oklahoma in the United States, and eastern Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico. The fruit of D. texana are black on the outside (as opposed to just on the inside as with the Mexican persimmon)subglobose berries with a diameter of 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) ripen in August. The fleshy berries become edible when they turn dark purple or black. At which point they are sweet and can be eaten from the hand or made into pudding or custard.
Commercially and in general, there are two types of persimmon fruit: astringent and non-astringent.
The heart-shaped Hachiya is the most common variety of astringent persimmon. Astringent persimmons contain very high levels of soluble tannins and are unpalatably astringent (or "furry" tasting) if eaten before completely softened. However, the sweet, delicate flavor of fully ripened persimmons of varieties that are astringent when unripe, is particularly relished. The astringency of tannins is removed in various ways. Examples include ripening by exposure to light for several days, and wrapping the fruit in paper (probably because this increases the ethylene concentration of the surrounding air). Ethylene ripening can be increased in reliability and evenness, and the process can be greatly accelerated by adding ethylene gas to the atmosphere in which the fruit are stored. For domestic purposes the most convenient and effective process is to store the ripening persimmons in a clean, dry container together with other varieties of fruit that give off particularly large quantities of ethylene while they are ripening; apples and related fruits such as pears are effective, and so are bananas and several others. Other chemicals are used commercially in artificially ripening persimmons or delaying their ripening. Examples include alcohol and carbon dioxide which change tannin into the insoluble form. Such bletting processes sometimes are jumpstarted by exposing the fruit to cold or frost. The resultant cell damage stimulates the release of ethylene, which promotes cellular wall breakdown.
Astringent varieties of persimmons also can be prepared for commercial purposes by drying. Tanenashi fruit will occasionally contain a seed or two, which can be planted and will yield a larger more vertical tree than when merely grafted onto the D. virginiana rootstock most commonly used in the U.S. Such seedling trees may produce fruit that bears more seeds, usually 6 to 8 per fruit, and the fruit itself may vary slightly from the parent tree. Seedlings are said to be more susceptible to root nematodes.
The non-astringent persimmon is squat like a tomato and is most commonly sold as fuyu. Non-astringent persimmons are not actually free of tannins as the term suggests, but rather are far less astringent before ripening, and lose more of their tannic quality sooner. Non-astringent persimmons may be consumed when still very firm, and remain edible when very soft.
There is a third type, less commonly available, the pollination-variant non-astringent persimmons. When fully pollinated, the flesh of these fruit is brown inside—known as goma in Japan—and the fruit can be eaten firm. These varieties are highly sought after and can be found at specialty markets or farmers markets only. Tsurunoko, sold as "chocolate persimmon" for its dark brown flesh, Maru, sold as "cinnamon persimmon" for its spicy flavor, and Hyakume, sold as "brown sugar" are the three best known.
Before ripening, persimmons usually have a "chalky" taste or bitter taste.
The table below shows figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries according to FAO statistics.
Persimmons are eaten fresh, dried, raw, or cooked. When eaten fresh, they are usually eaten whole like an apple or cut into quarters, though with some varieties, it is best to peel the skin first. One way to consume very ripe persimmons, which can have a very soft texture, is to remove the top leaf with a paring knife and scoop out the flesh with a spoon. Riper persimmons can also be eaten by removing the top leaf, breaking the fruit in half and eating from the inside out. The flesh ranges from firm to mushy, and the texture is unique. The flesh is very sweet and when firm due to being unripe, possesses an apple-like crunch. American persimmons and diospyros digyna are completely inedible until they are fully ripe.
In China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam after harvesting, 'Hachiya' persimmons are prepared using traditional hand-drying techniques, outdoors for two to three weeks. The fruit is then further dried by exposure to heat over several days before being shipped to market. In Japan the dried fruit is called hoshigaki (干し柿), in China it is known as "shìbǐng" (柿饼), in Korea it is known as gotgam (hangul: 곶감), and in Vietnam it is called hồng khô. It is eaten as a snack or dessert and used for other culinary purposes.
In Taiwan, fruits of astringent varieties are sealed in jars filled with limewater to get rid of bitterness. Slightly hardened in the process, they are sold under the name "crisp persimmon" (cuishi 脆柿) or "water persimmon" (shuishizi 水柿子). Preparation time is dependent upon temperature (5 to 7 days at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F)). In some areas of Manchuria and Korea, the dried leaves of the fruit are used for making tea. The Korean name for this tea is ghamnip cha (감잎차).
In the Old Northwest of the United States, persimmons are harvested and used in a variety of dessert dishes most notably pies. It can be used in cookies, cakes, puddings, salads, curries and as a topping for breakfast cereal. Persimmon pudding is a dessert using fresh persimmons. An annual persimmon festival, featuring a persimmon pudding contest, is held every September in Mitchell, Indiana. Persimmon pudding is a baked pudding that has the consistency of pumpkin pie but resembles a brownie and is almost always topped with whipped cream. Persimmons may be stored at room temperature 20 °C (68 °F) where they will continue to ripen. In northern China, unripe persimmons are frozen outside during winter to speed up the ripening process.
Peeled, flattened, and dried persimmons (shìbǐng, 柿餅) in a Xi'an market
Nutrient and phytochemical content
Compared to apples, persimmons have higher levels of dietary fiber, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and manganese, but lower levels of copper and zinc. They also contain vitamin C and provitamin A beta-carotene.
Unripened persimmons contain the soluble tannin shibuol, which, upon contact with a weak acid, polymerizes in the stomach and forms a gluey coagulum, a "foodball" or phytobezoar, that can affix with other stomach matter. These phytobezoars are often very hard and almost woody in consistency. More than 85% of phytobezoars are caused by ingestion of unripened persimmons. Persimmon bezoars (diospyrobezoars) often occur in epidemics in regions where the fruit is grown. Diospyrobezoars should not be of concern when consuming moderate quantities of persimmons. One case in medical literature from 2004 revealed a 51-year-old patient who had eaten a kilogram (2.2 pounds) of unpeeled persimmons each day for 40 years. Surgery is sometimes employed, but Coca-Cola has also been successfully used to chemically shrink or eliminate persimmon-related bezoars.
Horses may develop a taste for the fruit growing on a tree in their pasture and overindulge also, making them quite ill. It is often advised that persimmons should not be eaten on an empty stomach.
Though persimmon trees belong to the same genus as ebony trees, persimmon tree wood has a limited use in the manufacture of objects requiring hard wood. It is hard, but cracks easily and is somewhat difficult to process. Persimmon wood is used for paneling in traditional Korean and Japanese furniture.
In North America, the lightly colored, fine-grained wood of D. virginiana is used to manufacture billiard cues and textile shuttles. It is also used in the percussion field to produce the shaft of some mallets and drumsticks. Persimmon wood was also heavily used in making the highest-quality heads of the golf clubs known as "woods" until the golf industry moved primarily to metal woods in the last years of the 20th century. In fact, the first metal woods made by TaylorMade, an early pioneer of that club type, were branded as "Pittsburgh Persimmons". Persimmon woods are still made, but in far lower numbers than in past decades. Over the last few decades persimmon wood has become popular among bow craftsmen, especially in the making of traditional longbows. Persimmon wood is used in making a small number of wooden flutes and eating utensils such as wooden spoons and cornbread knives (wooden knives that may cut through the bread without scarring the dish).
Like some other plants of the genus Diospyros, older persimmon heartwood is black or dark brown in color, in stark contrast to the sapwood and younger heartwood, which is pale in color.
The trees of all species have stiff, tumescent leaves, but the female of the D. virginiana can look less turgid than the male because the leaves droop when fruiting, perhaps because of the heavier nutrient requirements. They grow swiftly, and are resilient to the stresses of unpredictable climates. Persimmons can tolerate and adapt to a wide range of climates. Persimmons are also known for their resistance to diseases and pests. They are one of the last trees to leaf out in the spring, and do not flower until well after the leaves have formed, bypassing the threat of blossom loss to frosts. The fruit hangs on the branches long into the winter. Because they grow swiftly and colonize off their root systems, they are ideal for helping recover habitat. A persimmon tree will be mature enough to bear fruit within 7–8 years. They hold their own against flooding riverbanks quite well and are listed in Stormwater Journal's list of water-holding trees.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010)|
- In Ozark folklore, the severity of the upcoming winter is said to be predictable by slicing a persimmon seed and observing the cutlery-shaped formation within it.
- In Korean folklore the dried persimmon (gotgam, Korean: 곶감) has a reputation for scaring away tigers.
- In Vietnam, the fruit is a part of Mid-Autumn Festival offering.
- In traditional Chinese medicine the fruit is thought to regulate ch'i.
- In philosophy, the painting of persimmons by Mu Qi (13th Century) exemplifies the progression from youth to age as a symbol of the progression from bitterness to sweetness. The persimmon when young is bitter and inedible, but as it ages it becomes sweet and agreeable to humankind. Thus, as we age, we overcome rigidity and prejudice to attain compassion and sweetness. Mu Qi's painting of Six Persimmons is considered a masterpiece.
Persimmon orchard northern Kansai region, Japan.
- Carley Petersen and Annabelle Martin. "General Crop Information: Persimmon". University of Hawaii, Extension Entomology & UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- Jaeger, Edmund Carroll (1959). A source-book of biological names and terms. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. ISBN 0-398-06179-3.
- Tice, John. H. "Essay on the Diospyros virginiana" Annual report / Missouri State Horticultural Society 1864.
- Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1984—Merriam-Webster Page 877
- Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 181. ISBN 1561643726.
- The persimmon was first introduced to the State of São Paulo, afterwards expanding across Brazil through Japanese immigration; State of São Paulo is still the greatest producer, with an area of 3,610 hectares dedicated to persimmon culture in 2003; cf. todafruta.com.br
- The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, By Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull, CABI, 2008, Page 327
- Homer. "The Odyssey". Project Gutenberg. p. 76. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- Prepper Gardens. "American Persimmon for Wildlife Attraction". Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- "ESS Website ESS : Statistics home". Fao.org. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- G. Llácer y M.ª L. Badenes. "Situación actual de la producción de caqui en el mundo.". INSTITUTO VALENCIANO DE INVESTIGACIONES AGRARIAS. p. 38.
Tabla 3: Estimación de la superficie cultivada y la producción de caqui en España en el año 2000: 33.000 tm
- "El caqui español desbanca a la producción italiana". INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE COMERCIO EXTERIOR. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
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Referring to past reports [1-9], the period from the administration of Coca-Cola until the disappearance of the bezoars was a minimum of 1 day and a maximum of 2 months.
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