Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Powerhouse Brook, Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Orland, Maine, USA
Collection date: Aug 28, 1968
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Powerhouse Brook near Orland, at entrance of road to Craig Brook National Hatchery, 1.4 miles east of the hatchery, in a dammed-up pond above the bridge on the road, 21.3 degrees C.

Lake St. Clair (Claire), Michigan, USA
Collection date: 1894 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

New Baltimore, Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA
Collection date: 1896 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: one specimen

Lake Oswego, Oregon, USA
Collection date: 1963 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: water-lily leaves in a boggy inlet on the north side of Lake Oswego. Dr. Eugene Kozloff and his student Donald Hunter provided the specimens.

near Delhi, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Oct 28, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: young and mature Curtisia foremani (and Dugesia tigrina) under stones. Water clear, current swift. A creek on Loch Alpine golf course, on Huron River Drive, near Delhi, six miles northwest of Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County.

Twin Lakes, Charlevoix, Michigan, USA
Collection date: 1896 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: On leaves of 'Nymphaea' and from 'Utricularia' washings, from Twin Lakes and West Twin Lake.

west side of South Fishtail Bay, Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jun 25-26, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Under stones along shore. Numerous asexual specimens of the spotted color pattern in full agamie reproduction.

South Fishtail Bay, Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 17, 1940
Depth: 4-5 m
Salin: freshwater
Comments: centrall interdepression area of Fishtail Bay. Collected by F.E. Eggleton. Numerous specimens of the striped, the spotted, and intermediary types, many of them mature, and one cocoon collected among vegetation (Chara).

South Fishtail Bay, Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 29, 1940
Depth: 4-5 m
Salin: freshwater
Comments: centrall interdepression area of Fishtail Bay. Collected by F.E. Eggleton. Numerous specimens of the striped, the spotted, and intermediary types, many of them mature, and one cocoon collected among vegetation (Chara).

South Fishtail Bay, Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Aug 8, 1940
Depth: 4-5 m
Salin: freshwater
Comments: centrall interdepression area of Fishtail Bay. Collected by F.E. Eggleton. Numerous specimens of the striped, the spotted, and intermediary types, many of them mature, and one cocoon collected among vegetation (Chara).

North Fishtail Bay, Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 8, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several immature specimens among vegetation (coll. C.O. Berg). A sedge pool, a few feet from the lake shore.

Bessey Creek (lower part of Lancaster Creek), Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 13, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several agamic specimens of the spotted type. Water temperature 18.0 degrees C. Sluggish stream; bottom, mud, dense vegetation. (Coll. R.I. Sailer).

Bessey Creek (lower part of Lancaster Creek), Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 25, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several agamic specimens of the spotted type. Water temperature 26.8 degrees C. Sluggish stream; bottom, mud, dense vegetation. (Coll. R.I. Sailer).

Bessey Creek (lower part of Lancaster Creek), Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 27, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several agamic specimens of the spotted type. Water temperature 26.8 degrees C. Sluggish stream; bottom, mud, dense vegetation. (Coll. R.I. Sailer).

Munro Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 23, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: very numerous animals and cocoons under pieces of wood, on the undersurfaces of stones, and on water plants. Most specimens are animals (all of the spotted type) were four sexually mature ones. Water temperature 27.5 degrees C.

Munro Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 25, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: in the southwest corner of the lake, several immature animals, and cocoons, under fallen timber. Water temperature 25.5 degrees C.

Lancaster Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 25, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: both sexual and asexual animals, and cocoons, collected under stones along the east shore. Some specimens had recently fissioned.

Lancaster Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 27, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: both sexual and asexual animals, and cocoons, collected under stones along the east shore. Some specimens had recently fissioned.

Black Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Aug 7, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Planarians and cocoons numerous under stones. Water temperature 23.0 degrees C. In a narrow bay on the west side of the lake; bottom, mud and stones, dense vegetation of algae and higher plants.

East Branch Maple River, Emmet County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 22, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: one specimen of Dugesia tigrina and several specimens of Curtisia foremani. Current swift. Water temperature 29.5 degrees C. at the bridge northeast of Pellston.

West Branch Maple River, Emmet County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Aug 14, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: two specimens (coll. Jack S. Dendy). West Branch Maple River, half-way between Larks Lake and Pellston.

Larks Lake, Emmet County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Aug 12, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: ten asexual specimens and one mature specimen under stones (coll. Harry K. Phinney). bottom, sand and stones.

Ocqueoc Lake, Presque Isle County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Jul 30, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: very numerouws planarians under stones, shells, pieces of wood, and on water plants. Most animals asexual, one mature. Water temperature 27.0 degrees C. Water clear, somewhat colored; bottom, mud and stones.

Tahquamenon River, Luce County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Aug 12, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several large, asexual specimens of the spotted type, under stones (coll. Stephen P. Hatchett). Water warm, clear, highly colored, current sluggish; bottom, sand and clay, with stones.

Eliza Creek, Keweenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Aug 18, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: two asexual specimens under stones. Water temperature 19.3 degrees C. Water almost stagnant; bottom, sand, mud, and stones.

Huron River, Oakland County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: May 18, 1941
Salin: freshwater
Comments: two immature, spotted specimens under stones. Water temperature 20.1 degrees C. Moderate current.

Huron River, at the Delhi dam, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Sep 28, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several asexual specimens of the spotted type under stones.. Water temperature 20.1 degrees C. Swift current.

Huron River, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Apr 8, 1941
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Very numerous specimens under stones, all of the spotted pattern, but with varying amounts of spottiness, and different tones of brown. Ten individuals in more than one hundred were sexual. These were rather small (6-8 mm long).

Huron River, near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: 1903 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Pearl reported 'Planaria maculata' from Huron River.

Huron River, near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: 1925 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Hyman reported 'Planaria lata' from Huron River.

Portage Lake, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Sep 22, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several asexual specimens of the spotted type under stones. Water warm, exposed to waves; bottom, stones and mud.

outlet of Portage Lake, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Sep 22, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: many asexual spotted specimens under stones. Water warm, current swift; bottom, stones and sand.

Fleming (Fleming's) Creek, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: May 16, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several spotted specimens, all asexual, under stones. Rapid current.

Fleming (Fleming's) Creek, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: May 19, 1940
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several spotted specimens, all asexual, under stones. Rapid current.

Honey Creek, Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Feb 12, 1941
Salin: freshwater
Comments: several immature specimens under stones.

Honey Creek, Livingston County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Apr 7, 1941
Salin: freshwater
Comments: two specimens under stones.

Honey Creek, Livingston County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Apr 7, 1941
Salin: freshwater
Comments: two specimens taken with samples of water plants.

Grape, Monroe County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Apr 25, 1941
Salin: freshwater
Comments: three immature individuals with spotted pattern, under stones. A pond one and one-half miles west of Grape.

Stoney (Stony) Creek, Monroe County, Michigan, USA
Collection date: Apr 25, 1941
Salin: freshwater
Comments: seventeen specimens, one of them mature, all with spotted coloration, under stones. Water temperature 14.9 degrees C. Clear, swiftly running water. Much with vegetation on stones.

De Leijen Lake, Netherlands (Holland)
Collection date: Jun 7-12, 1971
Depth: littoral
Substrate: Bricks, rough stones
Salin: freshwater
Comments: North shore. Bricks, rough stones. Vegetation, Phragmites, little detritus. 11-30 individuals per hour.

Koevorde (Koevordermeer) Lake, Netherlands
Collection date: Jun 7-12, 1971
Depth: littoral
Substrate: bricks
Salin: freshwater
Comments: North shore. Bricks. Vegetation, Phragmites, little detritus. 11-30 individuals per hour.

Slotermeer Lake, Netherlands (Holland)
Collection date: Jun 7-12, 1971
Depth: littoral
Substrate: bricks, rough stones
Salin: freshwater
Comments: North shore. Bricks, rough stones. Vegetation, Phragmites, little detritus. 1-10 individuals per hour.

Slotermeer Lake, Netherlands (Holland)
Collection date: Jun 7-12, 1971
Depth: littoral
Substrate: vegetation
Salin: freshwater
Comments: North shore. Bricks, rough stones. Vegetation, Phragmites, little detritus. 31-100 individuals per hour.

Sneekermeer Lake, Netherlands (Holland)
Collection date: Jun 7-12, 1971
Depth: littoral
Substrate: broken bricks.
Salin: freshwater
Comments: West shore. Broken bricks. Vegetation, Phragmites, little Scirpus, little detritus. 1-10 individuals per hour.

Tjeukemeer Lake, Netherlands (Holland)
Collection date: Jun 7-12, 1971
Depth: littoral
Substrate: vegetation
Salin: freshwater
Comments: South shore. Broken bricks. Vegetation, Phragmites, medium detritus. 11-30 individuals per hour.

Tjeukemeer Lake, Netherlands (Holland)
Collection date: Jun 7-12, 1971
Depth: littoral
Substrate: broken bricks
Salin: freshwater
Comments: South shore. Broken bricks. Vegetation, Phragmites, medium detritus. 101-300 individuals per hour.

Iron Gates (Trecatori Portile de Fier, La Cazane, Dealul Klisura, Klissura Derdap, Iron Gate of the Danube, Gvozdena Vrata, Eisenernes Tor, Vaskapu), Romania
Collection date: 2004 or earlier
Comments: Iron Gates II damlake

County Down, Ireland
Collection date: 2003 or earlier
Comments: Castle Espie

Lake Biwa (Biwa-ko,Biwa-See), Japan
Collection date: Aug 2002
Comments: attached to Elodea found in Kinohama Beach.

Barigui Park, Curitiba (Corityba, Curytiba), (Paraná), Brazil
Collection date: 2005 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Herault, France
Collection date: 2004 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

northern Iraq
Collection date: 1988 or earlier
Comments: Springs and Streams of Northern Parts of Iraq.

Muggelsee (Grosser Muggelsee), Berlin Friedrichshaven, Germany
Collection date: 1938 or earlier
Comments: U.S. planarian (syn. Planaria maculata Leidy) was found in abundance under stones along the shores of Muggelsee at Berlin-Friedrichshaven, apparently imported with aquatic plants.

Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, USA
Collection date: 1938 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: collected around Reelfoot Lake.

Laguna Negra, Parque Nacional de Santa Teresa, Departamento de Rocha, Uruguay
Collection date: Jan 12, 1989
Salin: freshwater
Comments: collected from a temporary pond near Laguna Negra.

São Salvador, Montenegro municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Collection date: Jun 1991
Comments: collected at Wallaure, near Salvador du Sol.

Country of Mexico
Collection date: 1989 or earlier

southern Canada
Collection date: 1989 or earlier

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1937 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Pond south of Main Street, behind the Episcopal Church, Falmouth, Massachusetts.

Mary's Lake, Naushon Island, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1937 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Mary's Lake.

Big Spring, near Kerr's Creek, Rockbridge County, Virginia, USA
Collection date: 1937 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Big Spring.

Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Collection date: 1937 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Sinclair's Pond, Park Street, Charlottesville.

Southern Bay, Canada
Collection date: Jul 6, 1986
Comments: Rattle Falls, near Southern Bay

Brigus Junction, Canada
Collection date: Jul 7, 1986
Comments: stream near Brigus Junction

Botucatú (Botucatu), State of São Paulo (San Paulo), Brazil
Collection date: Jul 26, 1967

Lake Ainslie, Inverness, Nova Scotia, Canada
Collection date: Aug 4, 1969

Laghi di Monticchio, Potenza, Italy
Collection date: 1999 or earlier

Schriever, Louisiana, USA
Collection date: 1999 or earlier

Canelones Department, Uruguay
Collection date: Jan 1-3, 1987
Comments: Arroyo Saves, Dept. Canalos BS, Uruguay
  • Young JO. 1972.   . The Turbellaria of some Friesland lakes with incidental records of Gasteropoda [sic] and Hirudinea. Zoologische Bijdragen 13: 59-70.
  • Sluys R, Kawakatsu M, & Ponce de León R. 2005.  abstract/note. Morphological stasis in an old and widespread group of species: Contribution to the taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Girardia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 40(2):155-180.
  • Kenk R. 1970. index card avail.
     . Freshwater triclads (Turbellaria) of North America. IV. The polypharyngeal species of Phagocata. Smithson Contrib Zool 80: 1-18.
  • Hyman LH. 1963.   . North American triclad Turbellaria. 16. Fresh-water planarians from the vicinity of Portland, Oregon. Am Mus Novitates #2123:1-5.
  • Kenk R. 1944.  abstract/note. The fresh-water triclads of Michigan. Miscell Public Mus Zool Univ Mich (60):1-44.
  • Pearl R. 1903.   . The movements and reactions of freshwater planarians: a study in animal behaviour. Q J Microsc Sci 46:509-714, 49 figures.
  • Kenk R. 1989.   . Revised list of the North American freshwater planarians (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Paludicola). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 476, 10 pp.
  • Ward H. 1894.  abstract/note. A Preliminary Report on the Worms (Mostly Parasitic) Collected in Lake St. Clare, in the Summer of 1893. (Append. 3 A biological examination of Lake St. Clair.). Bull. Michigan Fish Commission. No. 4: 49-54 Lansing 1894.
  • Woodworth WM. 1896. index card avail.
     . Preliminary report on collections of Turbellaria from Lake St. Clair and Charlevoix, Michigan. Appendix IV, pl 94-95 In: Ward, HB: A biological examination of Lake Michigan in the Traverse Bay region. Bull. Mich. Fish. Com. No. 6: 94-95.
  • Hyman LH. 1925.   . The reproductive system and other characters of Planaria dorotocephala Woodworth. Transact Amer Microsc Soc 44:51-89.
  • Nastasescu M, Popescu-Marinescu V. 2004.  abstract/note. Turbellaria spreading within iron gates area existing in benthic and phytophile fauna. Revue Roumaine de Biologie Serie de Biologie Animale 47(1-2): 97-105.
  • Anderson R. 2003.   . Dugesia tigrina (Girard) (Tricladida: Paludicola) new to Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal 27(6): 236.
  • Nishino M, Ohtaka A, Kawakatsu M. 2002.  abstract/note. A naturalized population of an exotic freshwater planarian, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), found in Lake Biwa-ko, Japan. Ohmia 75:4.
  • Bueno-Silva M, Fischer ML. 2005.  abstract/note. Population dynamics and phenology of Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850) (Platyhelminthes: Paludicola) in the Barigui Park, Curitiba, PR. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 27(2): 93-98.
  • Vila M, Sancho M, Cardona A, Fernandez J, Romero R. 2004.  abstract/note. New sexual population of Girardia tigrina (GIRARD, 1850) KENK, 1974 (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida, Dugesidae), in southern France. Boletin de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural Seccion Biologica 99(1-4): 49-53.
  • Lazim MN, Shuker-Khan AO, Saeed IS. 1988.   . Some of the Macrobenthic Invertebrates from Springs and Streams of Northern Parts of Iraq. Journal of Biological Sciences Research. 19(2): 425-428.
  • Tu TJ. 1938.  abstract/note. Uber das Vorkommen von Euplanaria tigrina (Girard) in der Umegbung von Berlin. Zool. Anz. 124:81-85.
  • Bolen HR. 1938.  abstract/note. Planarians of the Reelfoot Lake Region in Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 13: 164-165.
  • Kawakatsu M, Hauser J, Ponce de Leon R. 1992.  abstract/note. Freshwater planarians from Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Dugesia ururiograndeana sp. n. and Dugesia tigrina (Girard, 1850) (Turbellaria: Tricladida: Paludicola). Bull Biogeogr Soc Jap 47:33-50.
  • Kenk R. 1937. index card avail.
     . Sexual and asexual reproduction in Euplanaria tigrina (Girard). Biol Bull 73:280-294.
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It is an introduced species in Europe and Japan, where it has been found in Hokkaidô, Honshû, and Kyûshû (Sluys et al., 2010).

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Physical Description

Morphology

G. tigrina specimens have an equilateral-triangular head with two eyes in the middle surrounded by a large, free-pigmented area.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Girardia tigrina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AGC---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TGCAGT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTTTGGTTTTTTGGACATCCTGAAGTTTATATATTGATTTTGCCTGGGTTTGGTATGATTTCTCACATAGTGATTTATTATAGGGGTAAGTTW---AATTCATTTGGTCATTTGGGGATGGTTTTTGCCATGGTTGCAATTGGTTTTTTGGGTTTTATTGTATGAGCCCACCATATGTATACGGTGGGTATGGATTTTGATTCTCGGGCTTATTTTACTGGTGTGACGATGATTATTGGAGTGCCTACTGGGATAAAGGTGTTTAGGTGATTG---GCTACTTTRTATGGGGGT---TGKTATGATTTATTTATTTCTGTATTGTGAGCTTTGGGGTTTATATATTTGTTTACGGTTGGRGGGTTGACTGGGATTGTTCTTTCRAATGCTTCTTTAGATGTTTGTTTGCATGATACTTATTATGT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Girardia tigrina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Salo E, Tauler J, Jimenez E, Bayascas JR, Gonzalez-Linares J, Garcia-Fernandez J, Baguna J 2001 (citation)-  "Hox and ParaHox genes in flatworms: Characterization and expression." 

 Sheiman IM, Zubina EV, Kreshchenko ND 2002 (citation)- "Regulation of feeding behaviour in the turbellarian Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina." 

 Rebrikov DV, Bogdanova EA, Bulina ME, Lukyanov SA 2002 (citation)- "A new planarian extrachromosomal virus-like element revealed by subtraction hybridization." 

 Bueno D, Fernandez-Rodriguez J, Cardona A, Hernandez-Hernandez V, Romero R 2002 (citation)- "A novel invertebrate trophic factor related to invertebrate neurotrophins is involved in planarian body regional survival and asexual reproduction." 

 Pineda D, Rossi L, Batistoni R, Salvetti A, Marsal M, Gremigni V, Falleni A, Gonzalez-Linares J, Deri P, Salo  E 2002 (citation)- "The genetic network of prototypic planarian eye regeneration is Pax6 independent."  
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