Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species has a wide geographic distribution extending from Zanzibar and Madagascar in the west to northern Australia in the east and as far north as southern Japan. Its distribution includes the east coast of Africa, Red Sea, The Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia from Monte Bello Island in Western Australia to Townsville in Queensland, South and East China Seas and Yellow Sea (Reid et al. 2005). This species is a species complex (Anderson et al. 2011) and therefore this extensive distribution should be treated with caution.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This large, demersal species occurs in fairly shallow depths over a wide geographic range (Reid et al. 2005). This species rises up into the lower water column at night to feed on crustaceans and small fish (Reid et al. 2005). Growth rates are higher in females (Reid et al. 2005). Energy and nutrients for reproductive development are sequestered from diet rather than existing body tissue (Reid et al. 2005). In the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Seas abundances are highest between 10 and 40 m, whereas off Hong Kong large numbers congregate between 40 and 80 m during the mating season (November to February) (Reid et al. 2005). Off Hong Kong spawning occurs seasonally between April and May and is seasonal with two peaks in January to February and July to September in the Gulf of Thailand (Reid et al. 2005).

In the Iranian waters of the Gulf of Oman (northern part), spawning occurs post south-west monsoon (September to December) (Valinassab 1993, Reid et al. 2005). In the northern Persian Gulf, the spawning season occurs February to April. The white-yellowish eggs are attached to hard substances, mainly wire traps called 'Gargoor' (Iran) (Valinassab 1993, 2010). In the Gulf of Thailand during the spawning season there is a female bias in the sex ratio (M:F) 1:3 (Reid et al. 2005). Spawning in females is intermittent; the white eggs are attached to plants, shells and other substrates either in clusters (Hong Kong) or singly (Gulf of Thailand) (Reid et al. 2005).

Systems
  • Marine
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shelf
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Depth range based on 95 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 35 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 102
  Temperature range (°C): 23.476 - 27.425
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 4.152
  Salinity (PPS): 34.394 - 35.444
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.736 - 4.696
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.514
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 10.066

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 102

Temperature range (°C): 23.476 - 27.425

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 4.152

Salinity (PPS): 34.394 - 35.444

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.736 - 4.696

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.514

Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 10.066
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sepia pharaonis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTTTATATTTTATTTTTGGTATTTGATCAGGTTTATTAGGTACATCTTTA---AGATTAATAATCCGTAGAGAATTAGGTAAACCTGGAACCCTATTAAATGAT---GATCAACTGTATAATGTTATAGTAACAGCACATGGATTTATTATAATTTTCTTTTTAGTTATACCTATTATAATTGGTGGATTTGGTAATTGGTTAGTTCCTTTAATA---TTAGGTGCACCTGATATAGCATTCCCACGTATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCTCCCTCTTTAACCTTACTCCTATCATCTTCCGCAGTAGAAAGTGGAGCAGGAACAGGATGAACAGTTTATCCTCCTTTATCTAGTAATCTTTCACACGCAGGACCCTCAGTAGATTTA---GCTATTTTTTCACTTCACCTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTAGGAGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACAATCTTAAATATACGATGAGAAGGTTTACAAATAGAACGTTTACCTTTATTTGCATGATCTGTATTTATTACTGCCATTTTATTATTATTATCTTTACCAGTTTTAGCTGGA---GCTATTACAATACTATTAACAGATCGAAACTTCAACACTACATTTTTTGACCCAAGAGGAGGAGGAGATCCAATTCTTTACCAACATCTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sepia pharaonis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 55
Specimens with Barcodes: 55
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Reid, A., Rogers, Alex & Bohm, M.

Contributor/s
Valinassab, T., Herdson, R. & Duncan, C.

Justification
Sepia pharaonis has been assessed as Data Deficient as although it has a very wide geographic distribution it consists of a species complex. It is fished throughout its range but intensively in some regions such as off Yemen, Hong Kong and Thailand. In order to assess the impact of these fisheries it is paramount that the boundaries between the species within this species complex are known. Until taxonomic clarity is provided this species cannot be accurately assessed.
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Population

Population
The population size of this species is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Ocean acidification caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is potentially a threat to all cuttlefish. Studies have shown that under high pCO2 concentrations, cuttlefishes actually lay down a denser cuttlebone which is likely to negatively affect buoyancy regulation (Gutowska et al. 2010). This species potentially represents a species complex (Norman 2003, Reid et al. 2005). Its tasty flesh and abundance means its a commercially important fishery species throughout its geographic range (Reid et al. 2005). It is caught during the spawning season off Thailand and Iran with traps baited with eggs (Reid et al. 2005).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Yemen where this is a commercially important species, stocks have been estimated and an annual fishing quota has been recommended (Reid et al. 2005). Further research is recommended regarding the population trends, distribution, life history traits and threats impacting this species.
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Wikipedia

Pharaoh cuttlefish

The pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) is a large cuttlefish species, growing to 42 cm in mantle length and 5 kg in weight.[1] When raised in the laboratory, the maximum recorded size for males is 16.2 cm, and for females 15.5 cm.[2]

Sepia pharaonis is likely a complex of at least three species, the distributions of which are not well understood.

The type specimen was collected in the Gulf of Suez and is deposited at the Zoologisches Museum in Berlin.[3]

Contents

Ecology[edit]

Sepia pharaonis photographed off Egypt

The pharaoh cuttlefish is native to at least the western Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.[4] Of all the cuttlefish species in the Persian Gulf, it is the most commonly caught. Inhabiting the neritic zone, it is often found in depths up to 130 m.[2] When hunting at night, it swims up to shallower parts of the sea to feast on a variety of smaller fish, crabs, and occasionally other cuttlefish.[5]

Spawning times vary depending on its habitat. Near Hong Kong, it mates during Spring, from March to May. In the Red Sea area, it takes place from August to October.[5] After mating, the female deposits her eggs near the coast, between depths of 5 and 20 m.[2]

Human uses[edit]

It is a commonly fished species of cuttlefish in the Philippines, as well as the most economically important cuttlefish in the northern Indian Ocean. Off the coast of Australia, 90% of the cuttlefish caught are S. pharaonis.[2] It is often eaten by humans in these areas.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reid, A., P. Jereb, & C.F.E. Roper 2005. Family Sepiidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Volume 1. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. pp. 57–152.
  2. ^ a b c d Tehranifar, Akram (2011). General morphological characteristics of the Sepia Pharaonis (cephalopoda) from Persian gulf, Bushehr region 11. IACSIT Press. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  3. ^ Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda.
  4. ^ Norman, M.D. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks.
  5. ^ a b Nair (June 1993). "Stock assessment of the pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis". Indian Journal of Fisheries (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute) 40: 85–94. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
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