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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Breeding occurs from March to May. The eggs are deposited in a cocoon. In the Delta area the pelagic larvae are found in February-June and August-October. Before spawning it sometimes swims close to the water surface.

In the western Wadden Sea E. longa appears to be relatively tolerant to low winter temperatures. The species crawls on the surface or in the upper centimetres of the sediment. Many phyllodocids are predatory carnivores, catching their prey with their muscular pharynx. E. longa feeds on spionids, e.g. Spio filicornis and Scolelepis squamata, and on a variety of small metazoans. Cannibalism is widespread (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Wolff, 1973; Beukema, 1979; Fauchald & Jumars, 1979).

  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 Eteone longa is a long, thin, many segmented worm with a flattened body up to 6 cm long and 1 mm in width. It is transparent yellowish-white in colour and is very active. There are 4 short antennae on the head and it has a smooth eversible proboscis. The parapodia are flattened and leaf-like in shape, forming a fringe down each side of the worm that give it the name 'paddleworm'.Eteone longa can be distinguished from Eteone flava, which is morphologically similar but rose-red to orange in colour.
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Distribution

In the 1976-1986 period Eteone longa was distributed across the entire Belgian part of the North Sea but was only observed in relatively low densities (maximum 140 ind./m2). In the 1994-2001 period a different distribution pattern was noted: the distribution of E. longa was mainly limited to the nearcoastal zone, with the exception of the eastern coastal zone. In this zone the species was found in densities of maximum 550 ind./m2.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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The distribution ofEteone longa ranges from the intertidal zone down to a depth of 30 m. The highest densities are found near the coast and north of the Wadden islands.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Arctic; Hudson Bay to off North Carolina; Bering Sea to Mexico; n. Japan Sea; Iceland, Norway to English Channel
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Long, thin and very active worm with approximately 200 identical segments (up to several cms long). The head bears four little antennae. The dorsal half of the parapodia bears a large leaf-like lamella. Its colour ranges from white to light grey with brown patches or brownish-green broad transverse bands. This species is carnivorous and secretes slime upon contact.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Morphology

E. longa has a flattened, slender and elongated body with a length of a few centimetres and up to 200 segments. The numerous identical segments have prominent parapodia with a dorsal lamella. The head bears four short frontal antennae. lt is whitish or pale grey in colour, with brown blotches or broad transverse bands of brownish green (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Eteone longa is found in sediments with a wide range of median grain sizes: the species is only absent in very fine (< 100 µm) and very coarse sediments (> 500 µm). An optimum (relative occurrence > 20%) is reached with a median grain size of 150 to 250 µm. Eteone longa displays a preference (relative occurrence: > 40%) for relatively high mud contents (30 to 50%), but is found in sediments with other mud contents as well.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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E. longa occurs in all types of sediments, but prefers fine and muddy sand. it is also found in empty tubes and on oyster banks. Well-sorted types of sediments are favoured (Hartmann-Schröder, 1971; Wolff, 1973).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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intertidal, bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 1607 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 477 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -2 - 1715
  Temperature range (°C): -1.475 - 26.658
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.632 - 22.690
  Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.130
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.837 - 8.895
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 2.182
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.066 - 51.234

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -2 - 1715

Temperature range (°C): -1.475 - 26.658

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.632 - 22.690

Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.130

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.837 - 8.895

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 2.182

Silicate (umol/l): 1.066 - 51.234
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Eteone longa is found in muddy sand or mud, intertidally and offshore, to a depth of at least 120 m.
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Associations

Known predators

Eteone longa is prey of:
Platichthys flesus

Based on studies in:
Scotland (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
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Known prey organisms

Eteone longa preys on:
Pygospio elegans

Based on studies in:
Scotland (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eteone longa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eteone longa sp. 2

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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