Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Introduced into the U.S. in the 1860s as an ornamental plant, oriental bittersweet is often associated with old homesites, from which it has escaped into surrounding natural areas. Oriental bittersweet is still widely planted and maintained as an ornamental vine, further promoting its spread.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

History in the United States

Oriental bittersweet was introduced into the United States in the 1860s as an ornamental plant and it is still widely sold for landscaping despite its invasive qualities. It is often associated with old home sites, from which it has escaped into surrounding natural areas.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This introduced vine has ornamental fruits that resemble those of the native American Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens). Oriental Bittersweet can be distinguished from American Bittersweet by considering the following characteristics
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This woody vine is 10-60' long, producing stems that branch occasionally. It has the capacity to climb fences, trees, and other vegetation. The stem base of the vine can be up to 4" across; it is covered with rough-textured bark. Smaller stems are reddish brown to tan, more smooth, and sometimes glaucous; they have scattered white lenticels (air pores). Young vegetative shoots are light green and glabrous. Alternate deciduous leaves occur along the stems and shoots; they are 2-5" long and 1¼-3½" across. The leaves are obovate to oval-orbicular in shape with finely crenate margins; they have wedge-shaped to rounded bases and short obtuse tips. The upper leaf surface is medium green and glabrous, while the lower surface is pale green and glabrous. The slender petioles are light green and up to 1" long. Clusters of flowering cymes are produced from short spur shoots and leaf axils;  to a lesser extent, they are also produced from the tips of stems. Each small cyme has 1-3 yellowish green flowers; individual flowers span about 1/3" across. Oriental Bittersweet is almost always dioecious, producing male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on separate vines. Regardless of gender, each flower has 5 spreading petals that are lanceolate and a short calyx with 5 shallow lobes. Male flowers have 5 stamens, while female flowers have pistils with 3 knobby stigmata. The slender branches of the cymes are light green and glabrous. The blooming period occurs during late spring to early summer for about 2-3 weeks. Fertile female flowers are replaced by green fruits during the summer. Individual fruits are about 1/3" across, globoid-ovoid in shape, and glabrous. At maturity, the outer husk of each fruit turns yellow and splits open into 3 parts to reveal a bright red aril with a fleshy texture that contains 1-2 seeds. Individual seeds are 4-5 mm. long, ellipsoid in shape, and somewhat flattened. When this vine grows along riverbanks, some of the fruits and their seeds may be distributed by water. The root system has spreading lateral roots up to ¾" thick.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Oriental Bittersweet has naturalized in NE Illinois and scattered counties elsewhere (see Distribution Map). While it is still relatively uncommon within the state, this vine will undoubtedly continue to spread and become more common in the future. It was originally introduced into the United States as an ornamental plant. Habitats consist of disturbed open woodlands, woodland openings, woodland borders (especially along roadsides), thickets, fence rows, overgrown vacant lots, and abandoned fields. Disturbed areas are preferred, although some natural areas may be vulnerable to the invasive tendencies of this vine.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Celastrus orbiculatus is native to temperate east Asia, including central and northern Japan, Korea, and China north of the Yangtze River.

The exact date of Celastrus orbiculatus introduction to eastern North America is obscure, but appears to have been before 1879 (Patterson 1974). Patterson (1974) stated that C. orbiculatus has become "naturalized" in 21 of the 33 states in which it is cultivated. By the early 1970's it was naturalized north to central Maine, through New England, New York, Ohio and west to Iowa, south to Louisiana and Georgia. It was considered weedy in all of New England and most of the Atlantic Coast States by 1971. It is especially troublesome in the southern Appalachians and is considered epidemic in the vicinity of Asheville, North Carolina (Langdon 1993). Patterson (1974) also found it cultivated in the three Pacific Coast states, but it has not been reported "naturalized" there. It is reasonable to assume the vine has expanded its North American range in the twenty years since Patterson completed his research.

The western-most citation of naturalized populations found was for the "southeastern Great Plains" (Great Plains Flora Assoc. 1986). In southern Illinois, it is sometimes found in woodlands (Mohlenbrock and Voigt 1974), while the authors of "Plants of the Chicago Region" call it "an aggressive weed which gives every indication of being a future problem in the area" (Swink and Wilhelm 1979). C. orbiculatus is also "sometimes found in semi-natural situations, as in woods" in southern Ontario, Canada (Soper and Heimburger 1985).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Oriental bittersweet is native to Korea, China, and Japan [114]. Its southern limit in southeastern Asia is along the Yangtze River watershed (Cheng and Huang 1999 cited in [95]). Oriental bittersweet is nonnative in North America [42,64,70,110,129,166,167,174] and New Zealand [167,173].

In North America, Oriental bittersweet is sporadically distributed from Ontario and Quebec south through the Great Lakes states, New England, and the Southeast to Arkansas, Tennessee, Florida, Louisiana, and the southeastern edge of the Great Plains [24,24,47,70]. It was introduced in the United States around 1860 as an ornamental and for erosion control [131]. It spread to Connecticut by 1916, Massachusetts by 1919, and New Hampshire by 1938 [105]. By 1974, Oriental bittersweet had spread to 33 states [94,120] and was considered invasive in 21 [94]. As of 2011, it was widespread in the Northeast and sporadic [32] but locally dominant [24] farther south [32]. Plants database provides a distributional map of Oriental bittersweet in the United States.

Oriental bittersweet is most common and invasive in New York, coastal Connecticut, and the southern Appalachian Mountains [24]. In 2008, it covered at estimated 8,960 acres (3,630 ha) in forests of the Southeast and South [107]. Using biogeographical models, Leicht [87] predicted that Oriental bittersweet could increase in New England and spread further north. Based on Oriental bittersweet's native range and habitat preferences, others also expect Oriental bittersweet to expand its range in the United States and Canada [27,81].

  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 47. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 64. Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock, AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p. [21266]
  • 81. Kuppinger, Dane. 2000. Management of plant invasions in the southern Appalachians. Chinquapin. 8(3): 21. [51456]
  • 87. Leicht, Stacey Anne. 2005. The comparative ecology of an invasive bittersweet species (Celastrus orbiculatus) and its native congener (C. scandens). Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut. 174 p. Dissertation. [81337]
  • 94. Lynch, Amanda. 2009. Investigating distribution and treatments for effective mechanical and herbicide application for controlling oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) vines in an Appalachian hardwood forest. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University. 90 p. Thesis. [81335]
  • 95. Ma, Jinshuang; Moore, Gerry. 2004. Celastrus orbiculatus. In: Francis, John K., ed. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions: volume 1. Gen. Tech. Rep. IITF-GTR-26. San Juan, PR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry; Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-163. [52084]
  • 114. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 131. Rehder, Alfred. 1940. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs. New York: MacMillan. 996 p. [21991]
  • 166. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 167. Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. 548 p. [71904]
  • 173. Williams, Peter A.; Timmins, Susan M. 2003. Climbing spindle berry (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) biology, ecology, and impacts in New Zealand. Science for Conservation 234. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Department of Conservation. 28 p. [49955]
  • 174. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 70. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 27. Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Pontius, Jennifer; Orwig, David; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Rodgers, Vikki L.; Brazee, Nicholas; Cooke, Barry; Theoharides, Kathleen A.; Stange, Erik E.; Harringtion, Robin; Ehrenfeld, Joan; Gurevitch, Jessica; Lerdau, Manuel; [and others]. 2009. Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in the forests of northeastern North America: what can we predict? Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39(2): 231-248. [81619]
  • 32. Evans, C. W.; Moorhead, D. J.; Bargeron, C. T.; Douce, G. K. 2006. Invasive plant responses to silvicultural practices in the South. Bugwood Network BW-2006-03. Tifton, GA: The University of Georgia Bugwood Network. 52 p. Available online: http://www.invasive.org/silvicsforinvasives.pdf [2010, December 2]. [72425]
  • 105. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. S.; Tabak, N. M. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, [Online]. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Producer). Available: http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ [2010, September 27]. [70356]
  • 107. Miller, James H.; Chambliss, Erwin B.; Oswalt, Christopher M., comps. 2008. Estimates of acres covered by nonnative invasive plants in southern forests, [Online]. In: Maps of occupation and estimates of acres covered by nonnative invasive plants in southern forests using SRS FIA data posted on March 15, 2008. Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Bugwood Network; Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; Animal and Plant Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (Producers). Available: http://www.invasive.org/fiamaps/summary.pdf [2009, November 6]. [72772]
  • 110. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. [Revised edition]. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in the United States

Oriental bittersweet currently occurs in a number of states from New York to North Carolina, and westward to Illinois. It has been reported to be invasive in natural areas in 21 states (CT, DE, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, NC, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, TN, VA, VT, WI, and WV) and at least 14 national parks in the eastern U.S.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Native Range

Eastern Asia, Korea, China and Japan
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat in the United States

Oriental bittersweet has been reported to be invasive from Maine to North Carolina west to Wisconsin and Missouri. It occurs in forest edges, open woodlands, fields, hedgerows, coastal areas, salt marshes and disturbed lands. While often found in more open, sunny sites, its tolerance of shade allows it to invade forested areas.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Origin

Eastern Asia, Korea, China and Japan

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This plant is introduced to the lower 48 United States and to Canada. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)

USA (AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV) (USDA PLANTS, 2009)

CAN (NB, ON, QC) (USDA PLANTS, 2009)

Native: (USDA GRIN, 2007)

ASIA-TEMPERATE

Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Primorye, Sakhalin

Mongolia: Mongolia

China: China - Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Zhejiang

Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku; Korea

Other: (USDA GRIN, 2007)

Naturalized in s.e. United States & New Zealand

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Beck, Nicholas

Source: Indiana Dunes Bioblitz

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: capsule, dehiscent, dioecious, liana, shrubs, tree, vines

This description covers characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for identification. These sources: [42,64,110,114,129,173] provide general identification keys. Oriental bittersweet is commonly mistaken for the rarer, native American bittersweet [26]. See these sources: [41,89,106] for keys specifically designed to distinguish Oriental bittersweet from American bittersweet.

Morphology: Oriental bittersweet is a deciduous liana [175]. The stems are woody and twining [42,88,114,129]. They may reach 66 feet (20 m) in length and 4 inches (10 cm) in width [24,25,143], depending upon stem age and supporting vegetation [24]. In surveys along the plain of Lake Michigan (including sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan), Oriental bittersweet stems were likely young, ranging from only 2.4 to 10.5 mm DBH [88]. The leaves are alternate, oblong, 2 to 5 inches (4-12 cm) long, and 1.4 to 2.0 inches (3.5-5.1 cm) wide [26,42,64,110,114]. Leaf morphology is highly variable [31,175], with Oriental bittersweet showing reduced leaf mass per unit leaf area and increased leaf area in shade [31]. Oriental bittersweet is functionally dioecious (see Breeding system). Flowers are sparse, occurring in 3-flowered, axillary cymes [26,42,64,110,114]. Fruits develop next to the vegetative buds [26]. Outer vegetative bud scales may be spiny [24]. A typical plant bears upwards of 370 fruits/year [173]. Fruits are dehiscent, 3-valved capsules about 0.4 inch (1 cm) in diameter [42,114,129,152]. The capsules are relatively large [30,120] and deciduous [173]. Each valve contains 1 or 2 seeds covered by fleshy, yellowish-red arils [42,114,129,152]. In Japan, Fukui [39] recorded mean sizes of 3.8 mm in seed length, 0.023 mm in seed width, and 7.5 mm in capsule length. Similar capsule sizes occur on plants in the United States (range: 1.5-1.6 mm in width; 6-8 mm in diameter) [13,24]. Oriental bittersweet roots are deep [139] and spreading [95]. They may be as much as 0.8 inch (2.0 cm) thick [95] and reach deeper than roots of surrounding plant species [139]. In greenhouse studies, biomass of Oriental bittersweet roots infected with mycorrhizae was less than biomass of uninfected roots (P≤0.05) [91].

Stand structure and age class: Oriental bittersweet's growth habit is climbing and/or sprawling. It uses woody shrubs and/or trees for structural support, intertwining its branches around support trunks and branches. Branches may eventually overtop or shade out supporting plants. In Rock Creek Park, Washington DC, Oriental bittersweet used other bole-climbing lianas and vines including Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), poison-ivy, and English ivy (Hedera helix) for initial structural support. After twining around these lianas, Oriental bittersweet branches grew into and twined around tree crowns. This climbing habit enabled Oriental bittersweet to grow above other lianas and access the tops of the largest trees (3.7 feet (1.1 m DBH)) in the Park [128]. In red maple, American beech, red oak, and black oak forests on the plain of Lake Michigan, jack pine and white oak were more likely to support Oriental bittersweet than other overstory species (P<0.02). In general, trees larger than 0.3 inch (10 cm) in DBH were more likely to support lianas than trees of smaller girth (P<0.03), although this varied with liana and host species. Oriental bittersweet's DBH did not significantly increase with increasing DBH of host trees [88].

Oriental bittersweet assumes a sprawling form on open sites. Sprawling Oriental bittersweet branches may form impenetrable thickets [3,26]. On Naushon Island, Massachusetts, Oriental bittersweet spread horizontally in pastures. Grasses and native shrubs in the pastures, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), were covered to a height of 3 feet (1 m) [126].

On the Pleasant Valley Wildlife Sanctuary, Massachusetts, age of Oriental bittersweet plants was determined 13 years after logging and underbrush removal. Mean basal stem age was 3.4 years (range 1-12 years). Mean plant length was 4.6 feet (11.4 m; range 0.03-6.6 ft (0.01-2 m)). Some Oriental bittersweet plants just outside the Sanctuary (the likely seed sources for the infestation) were 35 years old [143]. In a red maple-American elm forest in West Virginia, Oriental bittersweet individuals (excluding seedlings) ranged from 8 to 23 years old; 15 was the median age [94].

In Pines Hills Campground in southern Illinois, Oriental bittersweet was younger and smaller, but more abundant, in forest-edge than in interior forest communities. Oriental bittersweet averaged 3.3 years of age, 3.9 mm in stem diameter, and 110.5 stems/m² in a forest-edge, white oak-black oak-bitternut hickory community. The canopy was 86% closed. In adjacent interior forests with similar overstory composition, Oriental bittersweet averaged 7.7 years of age, 8.7 mm in stem diameter, and 32.2 stems/m². The interior forest canopy was 96% closed [77].

  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 39. Fukui, Akiko. 2003. Relationship between seed retention time in bird's gut and fruit characteristics. Ornithological Science. 2(1): 41-48. [49823]
  • 64. Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock, AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p. [21266]
  • 77. Kordecki, Kristen E. 2004. Occurrence of Celastrus orbiculatus in forest ecosystems of southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 89 p. Thesis. [81346]
  • 94. Lynch, Amanda. 2009. Investigating distribution and treatments for effective mechanical and herbicide application for controlling oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) vines in an Appalachian hardwood forest. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University. 90 p. Thesis. [81335]
  • 95. Ma, Jinshuang; Moore, Gerry. 2004. Celastrus orbiculatus. In: Francis, John K., ed. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions: volume 1. Gen. Tech. Rep. IITF-GTR-26. San Juan, PR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry; Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-163. [52084]
  • 114. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 173. Williams, Peter A.; Timmins, Susan M. 2003. Climbing spindle berry (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) biology, ecology, and impacts in New Zealand. Science for Conservation 234. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Department of Conservation. 28 p. [49955]
  • 3. Ahrens, John F. 1987. Herbicides for control of oriental bittersweet. Proceedings, Northeast Weed Science Society. 41: 167-170. [49827]
  • 25. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1996. Celastrus orbiculatus--oriental or asiatic bittersweet. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 92 p. [52049]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 31. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Survival, growth and gas exchange of Celastrus orbiculatus seedlings in sun and shade. The American Midland Naturalist. 151(2): 233-240. [50128]
  • 88. Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; O'Donnell, Hillary; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A., Jr. 2009. Effects of an invasive plant species, Celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes. The American Midland Naturalist. 161(2): 219-231. [81627]
  • 106. Mehrhoff, Leslie J. 1986. Notes on the Connecticut flora - IV. The genus Celastrus (Celastraceae) in Connecticut. Newsletter of the Connecticut Botanical Society. 14(1): 4-5. [51892]
  • 126. Polatin, Christopher C. 2006. Best management practices for controlling catbrier (Smilax rotundifolia), Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), and scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) on a coastal island in Massachusetts. Keene, NH: Antioch University New England. 52 p. Thesis. [81349]
  • 128. Putz, Francis E. 1995. Relay ascension of big trees by vines in Rock Creek Park, District of Columbia. Castanea. 60(2): 167-169. [40214]
  • 139. Schnitzer, Stefan A. 2005. A mechanistic explanation for global patterns of liana abundance and distribution. The American Naturalist. 166(2): 262-276. [81772]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 41. Gleason, H. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden. 655 p. [52023]
  • 89. Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Grundel, Ralph; Frohnapple, Krystalynn J. 2007. Distinguishing native (Celastrus scandens L.) and invasive (C. orbiculatus Thunb.) bittersweet species using morphological characteristics. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 134(4): 441-450. [81621]
  • 91. Lett, Carly Nichole. 2008. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus on the growth of Celastrus orbiculatus. Cullowhee, NC: Western Carolina University. 60 p. Thesis. [81345]
  • 13. Clemants, Steven. 2005. Technical page: Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. - Oriental bittersweet, [Online]. In: New York Metropolitan Flora Project--encyclopedia. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden (Producer). Available: http://www.bbg.org/sci/nymf/encyclopedia/cel/cel0020b.htm [2005, February 17]. [51928]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 110. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. [Revised edition]. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]
  • 175. Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P. H.; Hong, D. Y., eds. 2012. Flora of China, [Online]. Volumes 1-25. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. In: eFloras. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Herbaria (Producers). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 and http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china. [72954]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Oriental bittersweet is a deciduous woody perennial plant which grows as a climbing vine and a trailing shrub. Stems of older plants 4 inches in diameter have been reported. The leaves are alternate, glossy, nearly as wide as they are long (round), with finely toothed margins. There are separate female (fruiting) and male (non-fruiting) plants. Female plants produce clusters of small greenish flowers in axillary clusters (from most leaf axils), and each plant can produce large numbers of fruits and seeds. The fruits are three-valved, yellow, globular capsules that at maturity split open to reveal three red-orange, fleshy arils each containing one or two seeds. The abundance of showy fruits have made Oriental bittersweet extremely popular for use in floral arrangements.

NOTE: Because Oriental bittersweet can be confused with our native American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) which is becoming less and less common, it is imperative that correct identification be made before any control is begun. American bittersweet produces flowers (and fruits) in single terminal panicles at the tips of the stems; flower panicles and fruit clusters are about as long as the leaves; the leaves are nearly twice as long as wide and are tapered at each end. Oriental bittersweet produces flowers in small axillary clusters that are shorter than the subtending leaves and the leaves are very rounded. Comparing the two, American bittersweet has fewer, larger clusters of fruits whereas Oriental bittersweet is a prolific fruiter with lots and lots of fruit clusters emerging at many points along the stem. Unfortunately, hybrids of the two occur which may make identification more difficult.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description and Biology

  • Plant: deciduous, woody, twining vine, sometimes occurring as a trailing shrub; stems of older plants can reach 4 in. in diameter.
  • Leaves: alternate, glossy and rounded with finely toothed margins.
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: abundant clusters of small greenish flowers emerge from most leaf axils; globular, green to yellow fruits split open at maturity to reveal fleshy red-orange arils that cover the seeds; seeds germinate in late spring.
  • Spreads: by seed, which is dispersed to new areas by many species of birds and by people who are not responsible when disposing of faded bittersweet wreaths and other floral decorations; it expands locally by stolons and rhizomes and through root suckering (the ability to send shoots up from the roots).
  • Look-alikes: is easily confused with the native American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), which produces flowers just at the terminal ends (stem tips) rather than from multiple leaf axils as in the exotic invasive. For this reason, it is important to correctly identify the vine before controls are attempted.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Deciduous twining shrubs; branchlets glabrous, gray- brown or brown, with sparse and inconspicuous lenticels; axillary buds small, ovate to elliptic, 1-3 mm. Petiole slender, 1-2 cm; leaf blade generally broadly ovate, suborbicular, or rectangular-elliptic, 5-13 × 3-9 cm, glabrous or abaxially sparsely pubescent on veins, base broadly cuneate to obtuse-orbicular, margin serrate, apex broadly rounded, muriculate, or shortly acuminate; secondary veins 3-5 pairs. Cymes axillary, sometimes terminal, 1-3 cm, 1-7-flowered; pedicels jointed below middle or nearly to base. Male flowers: sepals obtuse-triangular; petals obovate-elliptic to rectangular, 3-4 × 2-2.5 mm; disk shallowly cupuliform, lobe shallow, apex rounded-obtuse; stamens 2-3 mm. Female flowers: corolla relatively shorter than that of male flower; disk slightly thick, carnose; staminodes very short; ovary approximately globose; styles ca. 1.5 mm; stigma deeply 3-lobed, lobe apex shallowly 2-lobed. Capsule approximately globose, 8-13 mm wide, yellow, 3-valved. Seeds elliptic, slightly flat, 4-5 × 2.5-3 mm, reddish brown; aril orange-red. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul-Oct.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Overall This is a vine that forms thickets. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)

Flowers are white. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Flowers are 5-parted. The inflorescence occurs in clusters from the leaf axils. (UW, 2009)

Fruit Fruit/seed color is orange, and they are very abundant. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)

Leaves In the Fall foliage is conspicuous. Otherwise it is green and coarse. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Leaves are rounded with blunt teeth. (UW, 2009)

Stems are woody. (UW, 2009)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Beck, Nicholas

Source: Indiana Dunes Bioblitz

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Plant height at 20 Years and maturity is a maximum of 2'. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Beck, Nicholas

Source: Indiana Dunes Bioblitz

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

This species can be reliably distinguished from the native Celastrus scandens only by the location of female flowers and fruit. In C. orbiculatus they are borne in clusters of 3 - 7 in the axils of leaves. Celastrus orbiculatus fruit are never arranged in terminal clusters. In contrast the flowers and fruit of C. scandens are borne in terminal panicles which may contain numerous flowers or fruits. A second, less reliable, difference is the yellow color of the outer fruit covering in C. orbiculatus vs. the orange color of C. scandens outer fruit cover. The color of the inner aril is red in both species. Identification by leaf shape or size, or by male inflorescence type is not reliable. Illustrations showing the differences between the two species can be found in Gleason (1952) and McNab and Meeker (1987).

The primary taxonomic reference for this section is Hou (1955).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Celastrus articulatus Thunberg; C. articulatus var. pubescens Makino; C. jeholensis Nakai; C. oblongifolius Hayata; C. tartarinowii Ruprecht.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Oriental Bittersweet has naturalized in NE Illinois and scattered counties elsewhere (see Distribution Map). While it is still relatively uncommon within the state, this vine will undoubtedly continue to spread and become more common in the future. It was originally introduced into the United States as an ornamental plant. Habitats consist of disturbed open woodlands, woodland openings, woodland borders (especially along roadsides), thickets, fence rows, overgrown vacant lots, and abandoned fields. Disturbed areas are preferred, although some natural areas may be vulnerable to the invasive tendencies of this vine.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Celastrus orbiculatus habitat on its native continent of Asia is said to be lowland slopes or thickets at altitudes from 100 to 1,400 m. The vine is widely distributed in northern and central Japan and Korea. In China it is found primarily in provinces north of the Yangtze River (Hou 1955).

Its North American habitat preferences are wide but seem to be exclusively terrestrial. It is variously described as occupying open woods and thickets (Gleason and Cronquist 1991), roadsides, fence-rows, and thickets (Fernald 1970), alluvial woods, roadsides and thickets (Radford et al. 1968).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: hardwood, invasive species, litter, mesic, presence, tree

In the United States, Oriental bittersweet grows on woodland [174] and forest [3,94,97,98] edges; in thickets, woodlands, and forests [3,42,110,129,152,166]; and on coastal wetlands, beaches, and saltmarsh edges [24,152]. Oriental bittersweet is common on disturbed sites such as roadsides [3,117,129], logged forests, and old fields [3,129]. It is also common in urban areas, from which it may disperse onto wildlands. Most Oriental bittersweet specimens in West Virginia herbaria had been collected in open forests [59]:

Collection sites of Oriental bittersweet from herbaria in West Virginia [59]
Site Percent of collection (n=26 plants)
Open forest 31%
Roads 23%
Railroad tracks 11%
Closed forest 6%
Trails 6%
Streamsides 3%
Old fields 3%
Residential 3%
Other 14%

Three studies report site characteristics associated with Oriental bittersweet invasion.

On the Cheat Ranger District of the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, site conditions that increased susceptibility of sugar maple forests to invasive species, including Oriental bittersweet, included high overall species richness, north-facing slopes, mesic conditions, and clearcuts (P<0.05 for all variables). Red oak tended to codominate the sugar maple stands with these characteristics [63].

In a study of mixed-oak and yellow-poplar-sweet birch forests on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest, Oriental bittersweet was significantly associated with wind disturbance, topographical features associated with mesic conditions, bare mineral soil, tree harvest, and canopy gaps. Oriental bittersweet was most common at relatively high elevations (x=2,460 feet (749 m)), on steep slopes (x=36% slope), and on concave landforms. It was significantly associated with mesic soils, soils disturbed by animal scarification, and logged sites. Significant stand structure variables for Oriental bittersweet occurrence were canopy gaps, dense midstories, and hardwood overstories dominated by species other than oak. The 2 variables of strongest significance were lack of an oak overstory (P=0.001) and presence of animal-scarified soils (P=0.001). Oriental bittersweet was weakly associated with sites where Hurricane Opal had uprooted trees (P<0.157). McNab and Loftis [103] developed a rapid survey technique and probability-of-occurrence model for hazard rating in areas where Oriental bittersweet is known to occur. Although the study was conducted in western North Carolina, the results may be applicable over a broader area of the Southern Appalachian Mountains with similar environmental conditions [103].

Based on site variables, Pande and others [117,118] provide a model to predict Oriental bittersweet presence across southern Illinois. In their study, best predictors of Oriental bittersweet presence were high elevation, mesic soils, clay soils, proximity to roads, and an overstory other than oak [117,118]. However, Oriental bittersweet is invasive in other oak-hickory forests in southern Illinois [77], Pennsylvania, and New Jersey [61].

Soils: Oriental bittersweet grows on forest, alluvial, and floodplain [129,134,141], and glacial till [50] soils of all textures but of generally acidic pH. Oriental bittersweet typically grows in loam [94,158], sand, and silt [50,134] soils. In New Hampshire, it was negatively associated with soils having high percent clay content (P=0.05) [68]. However, in Giant City Park, Illinois, Oriental bittersweet presence was positively associated with mesic soils with high clay content (x=25% clay, P<0.05) and relatively high pH (x=pH 5.02, P<0.001) [117,118]. Parent materials of soils supporting Oriental bittersweet include granite, sandstone, hornblende, and gneiss. Soil pH is generally moderately to mildly acidic (pH 5.6-6.5) [134], although Oriental bittersweet is reported on gneiss- and schist-derived soils that are <5.5 in pH [103]. Oriental bittersweet occurred on acidic (4.9-5.3 pH) soils in Massachusetts [143], with best establishment and growth on relatively less acidic soils [134]. Transplant experiments conducted 13 years after logging on the Pleasantville Valley Wildlife Sanctuary showed that low pH, high irradiance, and high moisture content were associated with Oriental bittersweet invasion [143].

Oriental bittersweet is most common on mesic soils. It is generally intolerant of saturated or droughty soils [65,143,152,173] but appears tolerant of a range of soil moistures. It may occur on seasonally flooded soils [124] and may establish on some sites despite drought. Oriental bittersweet seedlings in Massachusetts survived a severe summer drought [29] (see Plant growth). More research is needed on moisture requirements for Oriental bittersweet [103].

Oriental bittersweet apparently prefers nutrient-rich soils [5,170]. In hardwood forests of Connecticut, soils supporting Oriental bittersweet had significantly higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels than soils without Oriental bittersweet. Nitrogen mineralization and litter decomposition rates were higher on plots with than without Oriental bittersweet (P<0.001 for all variables) [88].

Climate, elevation, and topography: Oriental bittersweet tolerates a wide range of climatic conditions [65,113,120]. It is native to temperate and tropical regions on southeastern Asia [167]. Its elevational range is from sea level to 4,600 feet (0-1,400 m) in the United States [24,103,135]; 1,500 to 7,200 feet (450-2,200 m) elevation in its native range of southeastern Asia (Cheng and Huang 1999 cited in [95]); and from sea level to 1,800 feet (0-540 m) in New Zealand [173]. In Giant City Park, Illinois, Oriental bittersweet presence was positively associated with relatively high-elevation (x=669 feet (204 m)), flat sites (P<0.001 for both variables) [117,118].

Topography varies among sites with Oriental bittersweet, although Oriental bittersweet may be most abundant on mesic depressions or slopes. In Piscataway and Fort Washington National Parks, Maryland, Oriental bittersweet occurs on floodplains, lowlands near the Potomac River, streambanks, stream terraces, and in ravine and upland forests [147]. Along the Blue Ridge Parkway, Oriental bittersweet was more common on relatively moist, north-facing slopes than on dry, south-facing slopes, and occurred up to 6,542 feet (1,994 m) elevation [48]. In a red maple-American elm forest in West Virginia, however, Oriental bittersweet was more common on south- than north-facing slopes [94]. In yellow-poplar/spicebush forests of Inwood Park, Manhattan, Oriental bittersweet was most common on ridgetops (mean density=788 stems/ha) and least common in valleys (36 stems/ha); it was more common on west-facing (589 stems/ha) than east-facing (100 stems/ha) slopes [35].

  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 77. Kordecki, Kristen E. 2004. Occurrence of Celastrus orbiculatus in forest ecosystems of southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 89 p. Thesis. [81346]
  • 94. Lynch, Amanda. 2009. Investigating distribution and treatments for effective mechanical and herbicide application for controlling oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) vines in an Appalachian hardwood forest. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University. 90 p. Thesis. [81335]
  • 95. Ma, Jinshuang; Moore, Gerry. 2004. Celastrus orbiculatus. In: Francis, John K., ed. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions: volume 1. Gen. Tech. Rep. IITF-GTR-26. San Juan, PR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry; Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-163. [52084]
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 166. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 167. Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. 548 p. [71904]
  • 170. Wendel, G. W.; Barbour, Jill R.; Karrfalt, Robert P. 2008. Celastrus scandens L.: American bittersweet. In: Bonner, Franklin T.; Karrfalt, Robert P., eds. Woody plant seed manual. Agric. Handbook No. 727. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-365. [79081]
  • 173. Williams, Peter A.; Timmins, Susan M. 2003. Climbing spindle berry (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) biology, ecology, and impacts in New Zealand. Science for Conservation 234. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Department of Conservation. 28 p. [49955]
  • 174. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 3. Ahrens, John F. 1987. Herbicides for control of oriental bittersweet. Proceedings, Northeast Weed Science Society. 41: 167-170. [49827]
  • 48. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Konopik, Evelyn; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2005. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine: an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W., ed. Proceedings, 15th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species; 2004 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-332. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 34-36. [55649]
  • 61. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2007. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods. Northeastern Naturalist. 14(2): 183-206. [80648]
  • 65. Hutchison, Max. 1992. Vegetation management guideline: round-leaved bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.). Natural Areas Journal. 12(3): 161. [20249]
  • 88. Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; O'Donnell, Hillary; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A., Jr. 2009. Effects of an invasive plant species, Celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes. The American Midland Naturalist. 161(2): 219-231. [81627]
  • 103. McNab, W. Henry; Loftis, David L. 2002. Probability of occurrence and habitat features for oriental bittersweet in an oak forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 155(1-3): 45-54. [40732]
  • 117. Pande, Archana. 2005. Habitat modeling to assess the risk of invasion by Celastrus orbiculatus on public lands in Southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 131 p. Thesis. [81343]
  • 118. Pande, Archana; Williams, Carol L.; Lant, Christopher L.; Gibson, David J. 2007. Using map algebra to determine the mesoscale distribution of invasive plants: the case of Celastrus orbiculatus in southern Illinois, USA. Biological Invasions. 9(4): 419-431. [68815]
  • 124. Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Perles, Stephanie J.; Milinor, William A.; Sneddon, Lesley A. 2005. Vegetation classification and mapping of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/012. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region. 158 p. [79637]
  • 134. Robertson, David J.; Robertson, Mary C.; Tague, Thomas. 1994. Colonization dynamics of four exotic plants in a northern Piedmont natural area. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 121(2): 107-118. [24418]
  • 141. Shelter, Stanwyn G.; Orli, Sylvia S.; Wells, Elizabeth F.; Beyersdorfer, Marcie. 2006. Checklist of the vascular plants of Plummers Island, Maryland. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington. 14(1): 1-57. [72486]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 5. Barringer, Kerry; Clemants, Steven E. 2003. The vascular flora of Black Rock Forest, Cornwall, New York. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 130(4): 292-308. [69529]
  • 29. Ellsworth, Joshua W. 2003. Controls on the establishment and early growth of oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.), an invasive woody vine. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. 59 p. Thesis. [81347]
  • 35. Fitzgerald, Judith M.; Loeb, Robert E. 2008. Historical ecology of Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan, New York. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 135(2): 281-293. [72480]
  • 50. Greller, Andrew M.; Buegler, Richard; Johnson, Edward; Matarazzo, Raymond; Anderson, Karl. 1992. Two unusual plant communities in Tottenville, Staten Island, New York, with Celtis occidentalis and Asimina triloba. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 119(4): 446-457. [20904]
  • 59. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2003. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data. Castanea. 68(1): 1-14. [46144]
  • 63. Huebner, Cynthia D.; Tobin, Patrick C. 2006. Invasibility of mature and 15-year-old deciduous forests by exotic plants. Plant Ecology. 186(1): 57-68. [79708]
  • 68. Johnson, Vanessa S.; Litvaitis, John A.; Lee, Thomas D.; Frey, Serita D. 2006. The role of spatial and temporal scale in colonization and spread of invasive shrubs in early successional habitats. Forest Ecology and Management. 228(1-3): 124-134. [62629]
  • 97. Matlack, Glenn R. 1994. Plant species in a mixed-history forest landscape in eastern North America. Ecology. 75(5): 1491-1502. [22581]
  • 98. Matlack, Glenn R. 1994. Vegetation dynamics of the forest edge--trends in space and successional time. Journal of Ecology. 82(1): 113-123. [22159]
  • 113. Nuttonson, M. Y. 1947. Ecological crop geography of China and its agro-climatic analogues in North America. International Agro-Climatological Series: Study No. 7. Washington, DC: American Institute of Crop Ecology. 28 p. [52021]
  • 135. Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N. 1993. Forest restoration on a closed landfill: rapid addition of new species by bird dispersal. Conservation Biology. 7(2): 271-278. [22062]
  • 147. Steury, Brent W; Davis, Charles A. 2003. The vascular flora of Piscataway and Fort Washington National Parks, Prince Georges and Charles counties, Maryland. Castanea. 68(4): 271-299. [73054]
  • 158. Tibbetts, Timothy Jay. 2000. The ecology of the exotic, invasive temperate liana Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. 126 p. Dissertation. [81338]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 110. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. [Revised edition]. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: cover, fern, mesic, presence, shrub

In the eastern United States, Oriental bittersweet is most abundant in mesic, mixed-hardwood forests and forest edges [72,103,134,169]. It may also be common in coniferous forests [49,103,115] and in woodland, (fact sheets by [24,152]), shrubland [156,165], old field [134], duneland, coastal beach (fact sheet by [105]), tidal freshwater [85], and saltmarsh communities (fact sheet by [105]).

Great Lakes states:
In the Great Lakes states, Oriental bittersweet occurs in mixed-hardwood, pine (Pinus spp.), and prairie or prairie-edge communities. In Giant City Park of Carbondale County, Illinois, Oriental bittersweet presence was positively associated with that of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and negatively associated with that of oaks (Quercus spp.) (P<0.001 for both variables). It was present in but not significantly associated with pine communities and was absent from silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps [117,118]. Although Oriental bittersweet sometimes avoids oak communities, in southern Illinois it was common in mixed-oak-bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) as well as mixed-deciduous forests [77], and in Delaware Gap National Recreation Area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Oriental bittersweet was found only in oak-hickory forests [61]. In Ohio, Oriental bittersweet was a component of wetland prairies dominated by either narrowleaved mountainmint (Pycnanthemum tenuifolium) or Dudley's rush (Juncus dudleyi) [40].
New England:
Oriental bittersweet is documented in mixed-hardwood, conifer, shrubland, and old-field communities of New England. In coastal southern New England, Oriental bittersweet was more common in pitch pine/wavy hairgrass (P. rigida/Deschampsia flexulosa) forests (2.2% mean Oriental bittersweet cover) than in bear oak/northern bayberry-rose (Quercus ilicifolia-Myrica pennsylvanica-Rosa spp.) shrublands (1.4% Oriental bittersweet cover) or on open sites that had <25% woody plant cover (0.6% Oriental bittersweet cover). It did not occur in heathlands (Ericaceae) [165]. In Amherst, Massachusetts, Oriental bittersweet occurred in the understory of a northern red oak-hickory-red maple (Quercus rubra-Carya spp.-Acer rubrum) forest. Native and nonnative honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.) dominated the shrub layer [30]. On riparian floodplain forests of Massachusetts, Oriental bittersweet occurred in the understory of a sugar maple-eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. deltoides) forest. Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) were occasional in the canopy. Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), and boxelder (A. negundo) dominated in the
subcanopy. Other riparian species occurring with Oriental bittersweet in the understory included staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), nonnative multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), and nonnative Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), with Japanese barberry most common. Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) dominated the herb layer [72]. In central and western Massachusetts, Oriental bittersweet, multiflora rose, and Japanese barberry were positively associated with one another (P<0.001) [100]. Oriental bittersweet occurred and sometimes codominated in Allegheny blackberry-porcelainberry (Rubus allegheniensis-Ampelopsis brevipedunculata) shrublands of Rock Creek National Park, Washington, DC [156].
In the Pennyback Wilderness of southeastern Pennsylvania, Oriental bittersweet occurred in mixed-mesophytic woodland and forest, riparian, and old-field communities.
American beech (Fagus grandifolia), oaks, yellow-poplar, white ash, red maple, and black walnut (Juglans nigra) dominated woodland and forest overstories. Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), black cherry (Prunus serotina), sweet cherry (P. avium), poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), Canadian woodnettle (Laportea canadensis), goldenrods (Solidago spp.), and nonnative Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) were common understory components. Boxelder, sycamore, green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and silver maple dominated riparian zones. Blackberries (Rubus spp.) dominated old fields. Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), and Indianhemp (Apocynum cannabinum) were common old-field components. Nonnative Japanese honeysuckle (L. japonica) associated with Oriental bittersweet in each of
the 4 community types [134].
Southeast:
In the Southeast, Oriental bittersweet occurs mostly in mixed-hardwood and old-field communities. On the George Washington Memorial Parkway in Virginia, Oriental bittersweet occurred on the edges of late-successional oak-hickory forests. White oak (Q. alba), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea), chestnut oak (Q.  prinus), pignut hickory (Carya glabra), and mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa) dominated interior forest overstories. Forest-edge communities were a mix of nonnative and native lianas and herbs including Oriental bittersweet, Japanese honeysuckle, summer grape (Vitis aestivalis), riverbank grape (V. riparia), white clover (Trifolium repens), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), common velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus), and broomsedge bluestem (Andropogon virginicus) [169].
On the Bent Creek Experimental Forest near Asheville, North Carolina, Oriental bittersweet occurred in the understory of a mixed-hardwood forest. Yellow-poplar and sweet birch (Betula lenta) dominated on mesic sites, where Oriental bittersweet was most common. Oriental bittersweet was less common on dry sites where scarlet, chestnut, and black (Q. velutina) oak mixed with occasional shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). Red maple, hickories, and white oak were scattered throughout the mixed-hardwood community [49,103]. Midstory species included red maple, sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), and flowering dogwood. Rosebay (Rhododendron maximum), blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and huckleberries (Gaylussacia spp.) occurred in the shrub layer. Oriental bittersweet did not associate with mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia), which was common on the Experimental Forest but tended to occupy relatively dry soils [103]. Another survey in Bent Creek Experimental Forest found Oriental bittersweet was mostly associated with yellow-poplar forests that had succeeded from agricultural fields. Oriental bittersweet was less common in mixed-oak forests, which had no known history of agricultural use [79].
English-language literature on Asian plants communities with Oriental bittersweet's was scant as of this writing (2010). Pande [117] reported that Oriental bittersweet is not considered a forest species in its native Asia. In Japan, Oriental bittersweet occurs in lowland and mountainous thickets and on grassy slopes [114].
The following vegetation classifications describe US plant communities in which Oriental bittersweet is dominant.

  • autumn-olive-gray dogwood-multiflora rose-eastern redcedar/Oriental bittersweet shrublands in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area of
    Pennsylvania and New Jersey; these are successional old fields [122]

  • yellow-poplar/Oriental bittersweet-Japanese honeysuckle forests of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania; Oriental bittersweet
    and Japanese honeysuckle had ≥60% ground cover and climbed almost 66 feet (20 m) into the subcanopy [124]

  • successional scrub-shrub alliances on powerline rights-of-way of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site;
    fox grape, Japanese honeysuckle, and/or multiflora rose may codominate [124]

  • sycamore-green ash/spicebush/Oriental bittersweet/Japanese stiltgrass riverine forest of Valley Forge National Historic Site, Pennsylvania [125]

  • successional old-field and/or shrubland alliances of Valley Forge National Historic Site; autumn-olive,
    multiflora rose, and/or Japanese honeysuckle may codominate [125]

  • nonnative shrub thickets on Boston Harbor Islands National Park, Massachusetts; Japanese barberry, multiflora rose, Morrow's honeysuckle
    (Lonicera morrowii), and/or glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus) may codominate [28]
  • 85. Leck, Mary Allessio; Leck, Charles F. 2005. Vascular plants of a Delaware River tidal freshwater wetland and adjacent terrestrial areas: seed bank and vegetation comparisons of reference and constructed marshes and annotated species list. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 132(2): 323-354. [60627]
  • 77. Kordecki, Kristen E. 2004. Occurrence of Celastrus orbiculatus in forest ecosystems of southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 89 p. Thesis. [81346]
  • 114. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 28. Elliman, Ted. 2005. Vascular flora and plant communities of the Boston Harbor Islands. Northeastern Naturalist. 12(3): 49-75. [81333]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 40. Geiger, Donald; Conover, Denis; Wischmeyer, Amanda; Brannen, Donald; Jablonski, Leanne. 2003. From borrow pit to long-term prairie study site. In: Fore, Stephanie, ed. Promoting prairie: Proceedings of the 18th North American prairie conference; 2002 June 23-27; Kirksville, MO. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press: 85-94. [67078]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 61. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2007. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods. Northeastern Naturalist. 14(2): 183-206. [80648]
  • 72. Kearsley, Jennifer. 1999. Inventory and vegetation classification of floodplain forest communities in Massachusetts. Rhodora. 101(906): 105-135. [35963]
  • 79. Kuhman, Timothy R. 2009. The influence of past and present land use on non-native plant invasion in the southern Appalachians. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison. 137 p. Dissertation. [81336]
  • 100. McDonald, Robert I.; Motzkin, Glenn; Foster, David R. 2008. Assessing the influence of historical factors, contemporary processes, and environmental conditions on the distribution of invasive species. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 135(2): 260-271. [71349]
  • 103. McNab, W. Henry; Loftis, David L. 2002. Probability of occurrence and habitat features for oriental bittersweet in an oak forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 155(1-3): 45-54. [40732]
  • 115. Orwig, David A.; Foster, David R. 1998. Forest response to the introduced hemlock woolly adelgid in southern New England, USA. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club. 125(1): 60-73. [44642]
  • 117. Pande, Archana. 2005. Habitat modeling to assess the risk of invasion by Celastrus orbiculatus on public lands in Southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 131 p. Thesis. [81343]
  • 118. Pande, Archana; Williams, Carol L.; Lant, Christopher L.; Gibson, David J. 2007. Using map algebra to determine the mesoscale distribution of invasive plants: the case of Celastrus orbiculatus in southern Illinois, USA. Biological Invasions. 9(4): 419-431. [68815]
  • 124. Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Perles, Stephanie J.; Milinor, William A.; Sneddon, Lesley A. 2005. Vegetation classification and mapping of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/012. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region. 158 p. [79637]
  • 134. Robertson, David J.; Robertson, Mary C.; Tague, Thomas. 1994. Colonization dynamics of four exotic plants in a northern Piedmont natural area. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 121(2): 107-118. [24418]
  • 165. Von Holle, Betsy; Motzkin, Glenn. 2007. Historical land use and environmental determinants of nonnative plant distribution in coastal southern New England. Biological Conservation. 136(1): 33-43. [65837]
  • 169. Wells, Elizabeth Fortson; Brown, Rebecca Louise. 2000. An annotated checklist of the vascular plants in the forest at historic Mount Vernon, Virginia: a legacy from the past. Castanea. 65(4): 242-257. [47363]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 105. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. S.; Tabak, N. M. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, [Online]. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Producer). Available: http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ [2010, September 27]. [70356]
  • 122. Perles, Stephanie J.; Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Eastman, E.; Sneddon, Lesley A.; Gawler, Sue C. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area: Volume 2 of 2--Appendix G, [Online]. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region, Natural Resource Stewardship and Science (Producer). 400 p. Available: http://www.nps.gov/nero/science/FINAL/DEWA_veg_map/DEWA_veg_map.htm [2010, March 3]. [79090]
  • 125. Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Sneddon, Lesley A.; Lundgren, Julie; Devine, Hugh; Slocumb, Bill; Koch, Frank. 2005. Vegetation classification and mapping of Valley Forge National Historical Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/028. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region. 115 p. Available online: http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/vafo/vaforpt.pdf [2012, January 12]. [79639]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]
  • 156. The Nature Conservancy. 1998. Vegetation classification of Rock Creek Park. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy. 50 p. Available online: http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/rocr/rocrrpt.pdf [2010, January 25]. [78028]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat in the United States

Oriental bittersweet infests forest edges, woodlands, fields, hedgerows, coastal areas and salt marsh edges, particularly those suffering some form of land disturbance. While often found in more open, sunny sites, its tolerance for shade allows oriental bittersweet to invade forested areas.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mixed forests, forest margins, thickets on grassy slopes; 400-2200 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Faunal Associations

It is still unclear to what extent the insect pests of the native American Bitterweet (Celastrus scandens) and related species will feed on Oriental Bittersweet. At least one insect that is found in North America, Unaspis euonymi  (Euonymus Scale), is known to feed on this introduced vine. The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract mostly bees, including Halictid and Andrenid bees. The fruits are consumed by various birds; these species include the Ruffed Grouse, Ring-Necked Pheasant, Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, Eastern Bluebird, Robin, Cedar Waxwing, Cardinal, Northern Mockingbird, Starling, and Northern Flicker. They are also probably consumed by the Fox Squirrel and other small mammals. These animals help to spread the seeds to new locations. Humans also play a role in the spread of this vine when they use it as an ornamental plant in landscaping, or collect branches of the colorful fruits for ornamental purposes. Some birds undoubtedly construct nests within the dense leafy cover that this vine provides.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Flowers bloom in late May to early June in Connecticut. Fruit ripens in September and remains on the vine through much of the winter. Brizicky (1964) notes that hymenopterous insects, especially bees, are its main pollinators, but Wyman (1950) also found wind pollination to be effective. Wyman also states C. orbiculatus and C. scandens can pollinate each other, and White and Bowden (1947) created a fertile hybrid through a controlled breeding program. No naturally occurring hybrid plants have been reported in the literature. However, Dreyer et al., (1987) reported two distinct sizes of pollen grains on certain individuals, tentatively identified as C. orbiculatus, growing in close proximity to C. scandens. They speculated that these plants may be hybrids.

Fruit dispersal is generally thought to be by birds and small mammals. In an unpublished undergraduate study in Connecticut, removal of fruit from seven species of woody plants by birds was observed during fall and winter (Wheeler 1987). C. orbiculatus was considered an important winter food, and was comparable in lipid and sugar content to the fruit of other species, but was not taken at all by animals in the fall. Black-capped Chickadees, Northern Mockingbirds, European Starlings and Blue Jays all fed on C. orbiculatus during the winter months.

Humans are also important dispersal agents. Fruiting stems are collected for dried flower arrangements, and are soon disposed of on compost and brush piles. The vine is highly attractive, easy to grow and propagate, and available at many nurseries, where it is often mislabeled as C. scandens. It was, and still may be, planted extensively in highway landscaping and for "conservation" plantings for wildlife food and cover, and erosion control, both as itself or mistakenly for C. scandens.

Seed germination is generally high in C. orbiculatus, particularly when compared to C. scandens. Patterson (1974) conducted a wide variety of germination tests with seed from 4 eastern U.S. states and found between 30 and 95% germination. He also noted that the highest germination rates occurred at low light intensities. Dreyer et al. (1987) confirmed the ability to germinate at low light levels and reported germination from 59 to 82%. Also in Connecticut, Clement et al. (1991) found C. orbiculatus produced 4.2 viable seeds per fruit compared to 3.2 in C. scandens. Mean germination rates for C. orbiculatus were 70% compared to 20 % for C. scandens.

In field experiments Clement et al. (1991) found that C. orbiculatus photosynthetic rates increased with increasing light intensity. In contrast, C. scandens photosynthetic rates at the same sites, tended to reach a plateau beyond which additional light had no significant effect. The ability of C. orbiculatus to acclimate to a variety of irradiance levels may be one of the factors which has allowed it to spread rapidly.

C. orbiculatus rootsuckers prolifically, especially after the main vine is damaged or cut. Rootsuckering is a common occurrence and results in large clones or patches which often spread from one or a few original plants which originated as seedlings.

Patterson (1974) noted the scarcity of other plants under dense canopies of C. orbiculatus, but could not attribute this to soil moisture, soil nutrients, precipitation interception or temperature changes. However, shading by the C. orbiculatus canopy was considered a potentially significant factor.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: cover, fire management, fire suppression, fire use, fuel, ladder fuels, prescribed fire, restoration, severity, succession

Given the potential for rapid Oriental bittersweet growth in early postfire environments, prescribed fire alone seems unlikely to control and would probably increase Oriental bittersweet. An invasive plant guide stated that Oriental bittersweet is not a fire hazard, but speculated that Oriental bittersweet is likely to sprout after prescribed fire and that a nutrient flush and increased light availability after fire might promote Oriental bittersweet spread. The authors concluded that prescribed fire was not an option for Oriental bittersweet control [32].

Preventing postfire establishment and spread: More research is needed to determine fire tolerance and postfire response of Oriental bittersweet on specific sites and ecosystems in which it occurs. The Guide to noxious weed prevention practices [160] provides several fire management considerations for weed prevention in general that apply to Oriental bittersweet. Guidelines for determining burn severity, revegetation necessity, and establishing and managing competitive plants are also available [4,43]. See Integrated noxious weed management after wildfires [43] for a more details.

Fire suppression activities may inadvertently promote Oriental bittersweet establishment. On scrub oak sandplains of Martha's Vinyard, Oriental bittersweet established along firelines [121].

Preventing invasive plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. This may be accomplished through early detection and eradication, careful monitoring and follow-up, and limiting dispersal of invasive plant propagules into burned areas. General recommendations for preventing postfire establishment and spread of invasive plants include:

  • Incorporate cost of weed prevention and management into fire rehabilitation plans
  • Acquire restoration funding
  • Include weed prevention education in fire training
  • Minimize soil disturbance and vegetation removal during fire suppression and rehabilitation activities
  • Minimize the use of retardants that may alter soil nutrient availability, such as those containing nitrogen and phosphorus
  • Avoid areas dominated by high priority invasive plants when locating firelines, monitoring camps, staging areas, and helibases
  • Clean equipment and vehicles prior to entering burned areas
  • Regulate or prevent human and livestock entry into burned areas until desirable site vegetation has recovered sufficiently to resist invasion by undesirable vegetation
  • Monitor burned areas and areas of significant disturbance or traffic from management activity
  • Detect weeds early and eradicate before vegetative spread and/or seed dispersal
  • Eradicate small patches and contain or control large infestations within or adjacent to the burned area
  • Reestablish vegetation on bare ground as soon as possible
  • Avoid use of fertilizers in postfire rehabilitation and restoration
  • Use only certified weed-free seed mixes when revegetation is necessary

For more detailed information on these topics, see the following publications: [4,11,43,160].

Use of prescribed fire as a control agent: As of early 2011, there was only one study on using fire to control Oriental bittersweet, so possible effects of prescribed fire use in areas with Oriental bittersweet were speculative. Based upon Oriental bittersweet's patterns of regeneration and succession, prescribed fire alone is more likely to increase than control Oriental bittersweet due to postfire sprouting and rapid growth under an open canopy. A Virginia fact sheet noted that merely top-killing Oriental bittersweet, and not killing the roots, results in "vigorous regrowth" [163]. If burning is prescribed to meet management objectives other than control of Oriental bittersweet, burning could be done either very early or very late in the burning season to decrease risk of postfire Oriental bittersweet spread. Because Oriental bittersweet sprouts and establishes from seed, postfire follow-up control, such as grubbing or spraying, and monitoring will be needed (see Control). Either early spring burning or late fall burning, when most associated plant species have gone dormant but Oriental bittersweet is still green, may lower Oriental bittersweet's carbohydrate reserves [132,152]. Polatin's [126] study (see Plant response to fire) suggests that fall prescribed fire is more likely to reduce Oriental bittersweet cover than spring prescribed fire. Small fires and an adaptive approach would allow managers to assess Oriental bittersweet's response over a small area, where it would be relatively easy to monitor Oriental bittersweet's postfire seedling and sprout production.

Altered fuel characteristics: Oriental bittersweet may increase fuel loads and provide ladder fuels, although as of early 2011, studies were lacking on Oriental bittersweet's effects on fuel loads and structure. See Fuels for further details. FIRE EFFECTS Leave this file blank; it is only here to run the bib program. Plans are underway to change the CRS program to match our new file structure.
  • 11. Brooks, Matthew L. 2008. Effects of fire suppression and postfire management activities on plant invasions. In: Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 269-280. [70909]
  • 4. Asher, Jerry; Dewey, Steven; Olivarez, Jim; Johnson, Curt. 1998. Minimizing weed spread following wildland fires. In: Christianson, Kathy, ed. Western Society of Weed Science: Proceedings; 1998 March 10-12; Waikoloa, HI. In: Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science. 51: 49. Abstract. [40409]
  • 126. Polatin, Christopher C. 2006. Best management practices for controlling catbrier (Smilax rotundifolia), Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), and scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) on a coastal island in Massachusetts. Keene, NH: Antioch University New England. 52 p. Thesis. [81349]
  • 132. Richburg, Julie A.; Dibble, Alison C.; Patterson, William A., III. 2001. Woody invasive species and their role in altering FIRE REGIMES of the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states. In: Galley, Krista E. M.; Wilson, Tyrone P., eds. Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species; Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management; 2000 November 27 - December 1; San Diego, CA. Misc. Publ. No. 11. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 104-111. [40682]
  • 32. Evans, C. W.; Moorhead, D. J.; Bargeron, C. T.; Douce, G. K. 2006. Invasive plant responses to silvicultural practices in the South. Bugwood Network BW-2006-03. Tifton, GA: The University of Georgia Bugwood Network. 52 p. Available online: http://www.invasive.org/silvicsforinvasives.pdf [2010, December 2]. [72425]
  • 43. Goodwin, Kim; Sheley, Roger; Clark, Janet. 2002. Integrated noxious weed management after wildfires. EB-160. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 46 p. Available online: http://www.msuextension.org/store/Products/Integrated-Noxious-Weed-Management-After-Wildfires__EB0160.aspx [2011, January 20]. [45303]
  • 121. Patterson, William A., III; Clarke, Gretel L.; Haggerty, Sarah A.; Sievert, Paul R.; Kelty, Matthew. 2005. Wildland fuel management options for the central plains of Martha's Vineyard: impacts on fuel loads, fire behavior, and rare plant and insect species. Final Report RFR# DEM705, [Online]. In: Managing fuels in Northeastern Barrens. In: Publications--Fuel treatments. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, Department of Natural Resources Conservation (Producer). Available: http://www.umass.edu/nebarrensfuels/publications/pdfs/FINAL%20DCR%20report.pdf [2008, September 8]. [70314]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]
  • 160. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2001. Guide to noxious weed prevention practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. Available online: http://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/documents/FS_WeedBMP_2001.pdf [2009, November 19]. [37889]
  • 163. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. 2003. Invasive alien plant species of Virginia, [Online]. In: Natural Heritage Program--Invasive plants list. Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage; Virginia Native Plant Society (Producers). Available: http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/documents/invlist.pdf [2009, March 23]. [44942]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Regimes

More info for the terms: fire regime, severity

FIRE REGIMES differ across Oriental bittersweet's North American range. In northeastern maple-birch-beech (Acer-Betula-Fagus) forests, historic fire return intervals were highly variable, depending upon microclimate, topography, and soil. Fires were mostly of mixed severity. Stand-replacing, medium-interval (~ 80-year) fires were most common in forests dominated by birches, while long-interval (≥300 years), mixed-severity or stand-replacing fires occurred in forests dominated by maple and/or beech [33,37,53,138]. Oak-hickory, oak-pine, and pine forests of the Northeast and Southeast had mostly short-return interval, surface fires [151]. Oriental bittersweet was not present in these forests while historic FIRE REGIMES were still operating. See the Fire Regime Table for further information on FIRE REGIMES of vegetation communities in which Oriental bittersweet may occur.

A dearth of fire studies makes it unclear how Oriental bittersweet may affect or alter FIRE REGIMES in plant communities where it is present. Oriental bittersweet's climbing habit can alter forest structure [26,34,93] and may carry fire into the canopies of forests that historically did not experience crown fires. The fire ecology of Oriental bittersweet is poorly understood [132], and research is needed to determine Oriental bittersweet's impact on fire behavior and FIRE REGIMES.

  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 34. Fike, Jean; Niering, William A. 1999. Four decades of old field vegetation development and the role of Celastrus orbiculatus in the northeastern United States. Journal of Vegetation Science. 10(4): 483-492. [37337]
  • 93. Lutz, H. J. 1943. Injuries to trees caused by Celastrus and Vitis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 70(4): 436-439. [51896]
  • 33. Fahey, Timothy J.; Reiners, William A. 1981. Fire in the forests of Maine and New Hampshire. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 108(3): 362-373. [9707]
  • 37. Forman, Richard T. T.; Boerner, Ralph E. 1981. Fire frequency and the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 108(1): 34-50. [8645]
  • 53. Harmon, Mark E. 1984. Survival of trees after low-intensity surface fires in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ecology. 65(3): 796-802. [10997]
  • 138. Runkle, James Reade. 1981. Gap regeneration in some old-growth forests of the eastern United States. Ecology. 62(4): 1041-1051. [75]
  • 151. Swain, Albert M. 1978. Environmental changes during the past 2000 years in north-central Wisconsin: analysis of pollen, charcoal, and seeds from varved lake sediments. Quaternary Research. 10(1): 55-68. [6968]
  • 132. Richburg, Julie A.; Dibble, Alison C.; Patterson, William A., III. 2001. Woody invasive species and their role in altering FIRE REGIMES of the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states. In: Galley, Krista E. M.; Wilson, Tyrone P., eds. Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species; Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management; 2000 November 27 - December 1; San Diego, CA. Misc. Publ. No. 11. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 104-111. [40682]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fuels

More info for the terms: cover, fuel, fuel continuity, hardwood, ladder fuels, liana, shrubs, tree, vines

Oriental bittersweet liana using a tree for structural support.

Oriental bittersweet may alter fuel structure and loads (review by [21], communication by [133]), although quantitative data of Oriental bittersweet fuel loads were lacking as of early 2011. Oriental bittersweet may act as a ladder fuel by growing up and over supporting shrubs and trees [34,60], which increases the chance that a fire will crown [21]. Oriental bittersweet can also support other lianas and vines [34], possibly enabling other twining species to become ladder fuels as well. It also contributes to understory fuel loads. In total, it contributes substantial biomass to forests of the Northeast [49]. Oriental bittersweet sometimes attains heavy understory cover in hardwood and coniferous communities, such as yellow-poplar, that historically had sparse understories (for example, [124]). Forest understories with Oriental bittersweet or a mix of Oriental bittersweet and other nonnative invasive woody shrubs, such as Japanese honeysuckle and Japanese barberry, can have substantially greater overall cover than uninvaded forests( [19], review by [21]). On opens sites where host plants are scarce, Oriental bittersweet's sprawling habit may also increase fuel continuity and loads over historic levels. Studies are needed on how Oriental bittersweet affects fuel characteristics.

In the laboratory, Oriental bittersweet's mean heat of combustion was near average for northeastern nonnative and native lianas and shrubs [18,20].

  • 21. Dibble, Alison C.; Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler. 2008. Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Northeast bioregion. In: Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 61-90. [70902]
  • 34. Fike, Jean; Niering, William A. 1999. Four decades of old field vegetation development and the role of Celastrus orbiculatus in the northeastern United States. Journal of Vegetation Science. 10(4): 483-492. [37337]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 124. Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Perles, Stephanie J.; Milinor, William A.; Sneddon, Lesley A. 2005. Vegetation classification and mapping of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/012. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region. 158 p. [79637]
  • 18. Dibble, Alison C.; Patterson, William A., III; White, Robert H. 2003. Relative flammability of native and invasive exotic plants of the northeastern U.S. In: Bennett, Karen P.; Dibble, Alison C.; Patterson, William A., III, compilers. Using fire to control invasive plants: what's new, what works in the Northeast?--2003 workshop proceedings; 2003 January 24; Portsmouth, NH. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Cooperative Extension: 34-37. [81701]
  • 19. Dibble, Alison C.; Rees, Catherine A. 2005. Does the lack of reference ecosystems limit our science? A case study in nonnative invasive plants as forest fuels. Journal of Forestry. 103(7): 329-338. [62256]
  • 20. Dibble, Alison C.; White, Robert H.; Lebow, Patricia K. 2007. Combustion characteristics of north-eastern USA vegetation tested in the cone calorimeter: invasive versus non-invasive plants. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 16(4): 426-443. [68947]
  • 60. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2006. Fire and invasive exotic plant species in eastern oak communities: an assessment of current knowledge. In: Dickinson, Matthew B., ed. Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers: Proceedings of a conference; 2005 November 15-17; Columbus, OH. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-1. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 218-232. [66412]
  • 133. Richburg, Julie A.; Patterson, William A., III, compilers. 2003. Questions from the Fire and Invasives Workshop January 24, 2003, Portsmouth, NH. In: Bennett, Karen P.; Dibble, Alison C.; Patterson, William A., III, compilers. Using fire to control invasive plants: what's new, what works in the Northeast?--2003 workshop proceedings; 2003 January 24; Portsmouth, NH. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Cooperative Extension: 42-49. [81819]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire adaptations and plant response to fire

More info for the terms: cohort, cover, graminoid, mesic, prescribed fire, root crown, root sprout, succession

Fire adaptations: Oriental bittersweet sprouts from the root crown and roots [3,26,30,152]. Additionally, it produces abundant, animal-dispersed seed and shows rapid growth on open sites [25,49,62,135,152,171] (see Regeneration Processes). Although there is no literature suggesting that these regeneration strategies evolved in response to fire disturbances in southeastern Asia, sprouting, bird dispersal of off-site seed, and rapid growth would likely favor Oriental bittersweet regeneration in postfire environments of North America.

Plant response to fire: Published accounts of Oriental bittersweet's response to fire were sparse as of this writing (2011); however, since Oriental bittersweet can sprout from the root crown and roots and establishes from animal-dispersed seed following other types of disturbance, it would likely establish from sprouts and/or seed after fire. Dibble and others [21] inferred that species like Oriental bittersweet, which persist in closed canopies and spread after the canopy opens, may spread and become dominant in early postfire environments. Both Oriental bittersweet sprouts and seedlings respond to canopy release with rapid growth [49,104] (see Successional Status and Plant growth). Oriental bittersweet may increase after nutrient flushes (see Disturbance), which often occur after fire [1,2,69]. It may also establish later in postfire succession. In southeastern Connecticut, portions of an old field that was burned and abandoned 40 years prior to the study were dominated by Oriental bittersweet, with Japanese and Morrow's honeysuckle also establishing around postfire year 40 [19].

Seedling establishment: New burns may provide favorable sites for Oriental bittersweet establishment. Field and laboratory studies suggest that open conditions [30,94,117,143] and exposed mineral soil [103,143] favor Oriental bittersweet seedling establishment on mesic sites. Plants with bird-dispersed seed have good opportunities for short- and long-distance seed transport after fire [84]. Birds are known to disperse Oriental bittersweet seeds from nearby seed sources onto old fields and other disturbed sites [34,104,135], so they would likely disperse Oriental bittersweet seed onto burns as well. Long gut-retention times for Oriental bittersweet seed may result in long-distance dispersal by birds [39]. Greenberg and others' [48] germination study suggests that seed scarification by fire or animals does not enhance Oriental bittersweet germination rates.

Because most Oriental bittersweet seed remains viable in the seed bank for only 1 year [30,162], fire that kills a year's cohort of Oriental bittersweet seedlings, and any seeds remaining on plants, would remove most of the Oriental bittersweet seed bank. Even with severe fire, however, it is unlikely that a single fire would kill all Oriental bittersweet seed sources on or near a site. Because Oriental bittersweet is a prolific seed producer, its seed bank can be quickly replenished by on-site, unburned plants or nearby seed sources [7].

Sprouting: Plants that can sprout from the roots, such as Oriental bittersweet (see Vegetative reproduction), can be powerful competitors for space, light, and nutrients in early postfire environments [71,74,99,136]. Roots are less susceptible to fire damage, and often capable of greater carbohydrate storage, than rhizomes and root crowns [73,74]. Although many of Oriental bittersweet's associates in eastern mixed-hardwood forests can sprout from their root crowns (for example, [8,36]), Oriental bittersweet may have a competitive edge over associated species that cannot root sprout. Huebner [60] speculates that growing-season fire may increase Oriental bittersweet abundance by promoting Oriental bittersweet root sprouting.

On Naushon Island, Massachusetts, the effectiveness controlling Oriental bittersweet by mowing followed by either spring or fall prescribed burning was compared with the effectiveness of mowing followed by either 1) spring mowing, 2) fall mowing, 3) spring herbicide (triclopyr), or 4) fall herbicide treatments. The management objective was to reduce encroachment of nonnative Oriental bittersweet, nonnative Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), and native common greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia) onto a remnant little bluestem-indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) prairie. Initially, all plots except the untreated controls were mowed to reduced standing woody vegetation. Early-season (spring) plots were mowed in early May, with follow-up spot burning, mowing, or spraying in July. Late-season (fall) plots were mowed in July, with follow-up spot burning, mowing, or spraying in mid-October. Oriental bittersweet cover was less on fall-burned plots than on unburned control plots, although the difference was not statistically significant. Spring prescribed fire had no appreciable effect on Oriental bittersweet cover compared to controls. In both spring and fall treatments, herbicide reduced Oriental bittersweet the most [126].

Mean percent difference (SD) in Oriental bittersweet cover (%) on early- and late-season treatments from cover on control treatments on Naushon Island [126]
Treatment Early season Late season
Control 6.3 (11.6) 14.6 (6.0)
Burn -8.3 (6.7) -25.0 (5.9)
Mow -8.3 (9.7) +8.3 (6.8)
Herbicide -50.0 (6.4) -72.9 (9.0)

Native graminoids had positive responses to fall fire or herbicide application, averaging 20.8% higher cover on burned or sprayed plots than on control plots. Spring burning had no effect on graminoid cover compared to control plots, while early-season herbicide plots averaged 31.3% greater graminoid cover than control plots [126].

  • 21. Dibble, Alison C.; Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler. 2008. Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Northeast bioregion. In: Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 61-90. [70902]
  • 39. Fukui, Akiko. 2003. Relationship between seed retention time in bird's gut and fruit characteristics. Ornithological Science. 2(1): 41-48. [49823]
  • 94. Lynch, Amanda. 2009. Investigating distribution and treatments for effective mechanical and herbicide application for controlling oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) vines in an Appalachian hardwood forest. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University. 90 p. Thesis. [81335]
  • 69. Jordan, Marilyn J.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J.; Fry, Brian. 1997. Nitrogen cycling in forest and grass ecosystems irrigated with 15N-enriched wastewater. Ecological Applications. 7(3): 864-881. [49829]
  • 3. Ahrens, John F. 1987. Herbicides for control of oriental bittersweet. Proceedings, Northeast Weed Science Society. 41: 167-170. [49827]
  • 25. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1996. Celastrus orbiculatus--oriental or asiatic bittersweet. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 92 p. [52049]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 34. Fike, Jean; Niering, William A. 1999. Four decades of old field vegetation development and the role of Celastrus orbiculatus in the northeastern United States. Journal of Vegetation Science. 10(4): 483-492. [37337]
  • 48. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Konopik, Evelyn; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2005. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine: an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W., ed. Proceedings, 15th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species; 2004 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-332. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 34-36. [55649]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 103. McNab, W. Henry; Loftis, David L. 2002. Probability of occurrence and habitat features for oriental bittersweet in an oak forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 155(1-3): 45-54. [40732]
  • 104. McNab, W. Henry; Meeker, Marilynn. 1987. Oriental bittersweet: a growing threat to hardwood silviculture in the Appalachians. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(4): 174-177. [9939]
  • 117. Pande, Archana. 2005. Habitat modeling to assess the risk of invasion by Celastrus orbiculatus on public lands in Southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 131 p. Thesis. [81343]
  • 126. Polatin, Christopher C. 2006. Best management practices for controlling catbrier (Smilax rotundifolia), Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), and scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) on a coastal island in Massachusetts. Keene, NH: Antioch University New England. 52 p. Thesis. [81349]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 162. Van Clef, Michael; Stiles, Edmund W. 2001. Seed longevity in three pairs of native and non-native congeners: assessing invasive potential. Northeastern Naturalist. 8(3): 301-310. [49782]
  • 1. Adams, Paul W.; Boyle, James R. 1980. Effects of fire on soil nutrients in clearcut and whole-tree harvest sites in central Michigan. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 44(4): 847-850. [8532]
  • 2. Adams, Paul W.; Boyle, James R. 1982. Soil fertility changes following clearcut and whole-tree harvesting and burning in central Michigan. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 46(3): 638-640. [6785]
  • 8. Beck, Donald E.; Della-Bianca, Lino. 1981. Yellow-poplar: Characteristics and management. Agric. Handb. 583. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 91 p. [10983]
  • 19. Dibble, Alison C.; Rees, Catherine A. 2005. Does the lack of reference ecosystems limit our science? A case study in nonnative invasive plants as forest fuels. Journal of Forestry. 103(7): 329-338. [62256]
  • 36. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55(19): 2550-2554. [6362]
  • 60. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2006. Fire and invasive exotic plant species in eastern oak communities: an assessment of current knowledge. In: Dickinson, Matthew B., ed. Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers: Proceedings of a conference; 2005 November 15-17; Columbus, OH. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-1. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 218-232. [66412]
  • 62. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2007. Strategic management of five deciduous forest invaders using Microstegium vimineum as a model species. In: Cavender, Nicole, ed. Ohio invasive plants research conference: Continuing partnerships for invasive plant management: proceedings; 2007 January 18; Ironton, OH. Columbus, OH: Ohio Biological Survey: 19-28. [76570]
  • 71. Kauffman, J. Boone; Martin, R. E. 1985. A preliminary investigation on the feasibility of preharvest prescribed burning for shrub control. In: Proceedings, 6th annual forestry vegetation management conference; 1984 November 1-2; Redding, CA. Redding, CA: Forest Vegetation Management Conference: 89-114. [7526]
  • 74. Keeley, Jon E. 1986. Resilience of Mediterranean shrub communities to fires. In: Dell, B.; Hopkins, A. J. N.; Lamont B. B., eds. Resilience in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk Publishers: 95-112. [9826]
  • 84. Lanner, Ronald M. 1996. Made for each other: a symbiosis of birds and pines. New York: Oxford University Press. 160 p. [29914]
  • 99. McDonald, Philip M.; Fiddler, Gary O. 1989. Competing vegetation in ponderosa pine plantations: ecology and control. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-113. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. [15923]
  • 135. Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N. 1993. Forest restoration on a closed landfill: rapid addition of new species by bird dispersal. Conservation Biology. 7(2): 271-278. [22062]
  • 136. Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.; Wallace, Linda L.; Walker, Jennifer S. 1995. Aspen, elk, and fire in northern Yellowstone National Park. Ecology. 76(7): 2097-2106. [25945]
  • 171. White, Douglas W.; Stiles, Edmund W. 1992. Bird dispersal of fruits of species introduced into eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 70(8): 1689-1696. [19713]
  • 73. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and FIRE REGIMES. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. FIRE REGIMES and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. [4395]
  • 7. Bean, Ellen; McClellan, Linnea, tech. eds. 1997. Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculata Thunb., [Online]. In: Tennessee exotic plant management manual. Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.tneppc.org/Manual/Oriental_Bittersweet.htm [2005, February 11]. [51920]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: geophyte, initial off-site colonizer, secondary colonizer

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY
[149]:
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
Initial off-site colonizer (off site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on- or off-site seed sources)
  • 149. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: root crown

As of this writing (early 2011), there was no published information on the effects of fire on Oriental bittersweet. It is likely that fire top-kills Oriental bittersweet but does not damage the root crown and roots, which are insulated by soil.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant growth

More info for the terms: cover, density, litter, mesic

Oriental bittersweet shows rapid growth under partial to full sun [3,102], although seedlings grow slower in low than in high light [49,119]. In Massachusetts, artificially shaded Oriental bittersweet transplants showed greatest aboveground biomass gain under 28% of full sunlight. Mean aboveground biomass 1 year after transplanting was significantly different (P=0.002) under 100% full sunlight (0.9 g), 28% of full sunlight (14.4 g), and 2% of full sunlight (0.3 g) [29]. Oriental bittersweet growing in partial to full sun can overtop 3- to 7-foot (1-2 m) tall associated vegetation after one growing season [31]. On mesic sites in full sunlight, Oriental bittersweet may grow 10 to 12 feet (3-3.7 m)/year [102]. In Connecticut, Oriental bittersweet grew 10 feet (3 m)/year [120]. The Tennessee Exotic Plant Pest Council [154] reported annual growth rates of 1 to 12 feet (0.3-3.0 m) in the first 7 years after establishment, with little growth thereafter. Oriental bittersweet may persist in a densely shaded understory for many years, then respond with rapid growth when disturbance opens the canopy [102,120].

Besides having both shade and sun tolerance, other factors contributing to Oriental bittersweet's often rapid growth include tolerance to varying soil moisture and ability to form mycorrhizal associations. In Connecticut, transplanted Oriental bittersweet seedlings showed low morality and good height and biomass gain across a wide range of soil moisture and light conditions [89]. See Effects on diversity for further information on this study and Soils for more information on Oriental bittersweet soil tolerances. In greenhouse studies, Oriental bittersweet with their roots infected with mycorrhizae grew taller than plants with uninfected roots when phosphorus was limiting (P≤0.05). When phosphorus was added to the soil, mycorrhizae appeared to limit Oriental bittersweet growth [91]. Oriental bittersweet has shown faster growth rates than associated native lianas. In Michigan, Oriental bittersweet plants were younger than native riverbank grapes (x=3.7 vs. 4.2 years, respectively) but stems were 8% thicker [157].

Clonal growth can result in large patches of Oriental bittersweet that originated from a few seedlings (fact sheet by [24]). Increased seedling vigor (biomass and growth rates) under high light intensity in the greenhouse and higher cover of Oriental bittersweet on open sites led researchers to suggest that canopy disturbance aids vegetative spread of established seedlings [48]. In Connecticut, Oriental bittersweet cover on 0.1 acre (0.06 ha) increased from 5% to 100% within 5 years [120].

A study by Ellsworth [29] illustrates many Oriental bittersweet characteristics that enhance its invasiveness: abundant seed production, high rates of germination and seedling establishment, and tolerance to a wide range of light intensities. The study included field, shadehouse, and greenhouse experiments. Across 15 sites in Massachusetts, Oriental bittersweet seed rain averaged 168 seeds/m². Seed rain was highly variable, however, ranging from 13 to 826 seeds/m². In the greenhouse, germination averaged 68%, and emergence averaged 107 seedlings/m². In the field, emergence averaged 1 seedling/m². In the shadehouse, litter biomass greater than 4 Mg/ha reduced seedling emergence. Survival of Oriental bittersweet seedlings in the field varied and was not associated with Oriental bittersweet seedling density. Survival averaged 16.8% by August; summer weather conditions were "extremely dry". In the field and shadehouse, light intensities of 100%, 28%, and 5% of full sunlight had no significant effect on Oriental bittersweet survival or growth in the 1st growing season. In the 2nd growing season, survivorship was similar (68%) under all light intensities, but seedlings in 28% sunlight had greater total stem length (all stems combined: 15.1 feet (4.6 m)) than seedlings in full sun (7 feet (2 m)) or 5% sun (0.7 feet (0.2 m)). The author predicted that given partially shaded to open conditions, seedlings surviving their 1st year would have high survivorship thereafter. He suggested that given Oriental bittersweet's high seedling survivorship in deep shade and growth plasticity under variable light intensities, intact forests are vulnerable to Oriental bittersweet invasion. He predicted that a density of 12 seedlings/m² is enough to establish a new Oriental bittersweet population on many sites [29].

  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 3. Ahrens, John F. 1987. Herbicides for control of oriental bittersweet. Proceedings, Northeast Weed Science Society. 41: 167-170. [49827]
  • 31. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Survival, growth and gas exchange of Celastrus orbiculatus seedlings in sun and shade. The American Midland Naturalist. 151(2): 233-240. [50128]
  • 48. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Konopik, Evelyn; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2005. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine: an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W., ed. Proceedings, 15th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species; 2004 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-332. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 34-36. [55649]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 102. McNab, W. Henry. 1988. Oriental bittersweet: another kudzu? In: Hardwood supply--feast and famine: Proceedings, 16th annual Hardwood Research Council symposium; 1988 May 15-18; Chashiers, NC. Memphis, TN: Hardwood Research Council: 190-191. [49825]
  • 119. Patterson, D. T. 1975. Photosynthetic acclimation to irradiance in Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Photosynthetica. 9(2): 140-144. [51897]
  • 29. Ellsworth, Joshua W. 2003. Controls on the establishment and early growth of oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.), an invasive woody vine. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. 59 p. Thesis. [81347]
  • 89. Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Grundel, Ralph; Frohnapple, Krystalynn J. 2007. Distinguishing native (Celastrus scandens L.) and invasive (C. orbiculatus Thunb.) bittersweet species using morphological characteristics. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 134(4): 441-450. [81621]
  • 91. Lett, Carly Nichole. 2008. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus on the growth of Celastrus orbiculatus. Cullowhee, NC: Western Carolina University. 60 p. Thesis. [81345]
  • 157. Tibbetts, Tim J.; Ewers, Frank W. 2000. Root pressure and specific conductivity in temperate lianas: exotic Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) vs. native Vitis riparia (Vitaceae). American Journal of Botany. 87(9): 1272-1278. [49780]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 154. Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2009. Invasive plants of Tennessee, [Online]. In: TN-EPPC invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee--December 2009. 2nd ed. Fairview, TN: Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.tneppc.org/invasive_plants [2010, June 23]. [80199]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seedling establishment

More info for the terms: density, litter

Oriental bittersweet seedling emergence is generally high [104,120], but survivorship may vary greatly depending upon field conditions and population differences. Survivorship of field-germinated seedlings in Massachusetts ranged from 0% to 88% (x=17%) [30]. Patterson [120] reported densities of 60 emergents/m² for an Oriental bittersweet population in Connecticut; however, seedling density declined over the growing season. He attributed seedling mortality to drought [120]. In the laboratory, seedling emergence rate differed significantly among 2 Oriental bittersweet populations in Connecticut (P<0.001). Percent emergence after 21 days was 59% and 82% [26].

Oriental bittersweet frequently establishes along fencelines and other sites where birds perch and defecate the seeds [44,45,104,104].

Thick litter may retard Oriental bittersweet seedling emergence. A study on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest found Oriental bittersweet was significantly less abundant in oak communities than in yellow-poplar-sweet birch communities (P<0.005) [103], which may have been partially due to differences in litter depth. A survey in North Carolina found Oriental bittersweet was associated with yellow-poplar forests that had succeeded from agricultural fields, while Oriental bittersweet was less common in mixed-oak forests. The author concluded that thinner leaf litter layers and moister soils in yellow-poplar forests favored Oriental bittersweet germination, seedling establishment, and growth. Survivorship was greater on plots with thin litter (1 kg litter/m²) than with thick (3 kg litter/m²) or no litter (P≤0.01) [79]. A greenhouse study showed that intact oak litter physically impeded Oriental bittersweet seedling emergence, although hypocotyls grew sideways as much as 4 inches (9 cm) to find a point of reduced litter (in this case, the pot edge), and then emerged. Seedlings in deep litter tended to allocate more growth to hypocotyls, while seedlings in shallow litter tended to allocate more growth to cotyledons. The authors concluded that Oriental bittersweet seedlings would probably find litter patches thin enough for emergence in all but the deepest oak litter, but pine litter may be more conducive to Oriental bittersweet establishment than oak litter [30]. A shadehouse experiment showed mixed-deciduous litter loads above 3 Mg/ha lowered Oriental bittersweet seedling emergence (P<0.05), but lesser loads or fine-ground litter had no significant effect on Oriental bittersweet emergence. The author suggested that litter disturbance likely favors Oriental bittersweet establishment [29].

  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 79. Kuhman, Timothy R. 2009. The influence of past and present land use on non-native plant invasion in the southern Appalachians. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison. 137 p. Dissertation. [81336]
  • 103. McNab, W. Henry; Loftis, David L. 2002. Probability of occurrence and habitat features for oriental bittersweet in an oak forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 155(1-3): 45-54. [40732]
  • 104. McNab, W. Henry; Meeker, Marilynn. 1987. Oriental bittersweet: a growing threat to hardwood silviculture in the Appalachians. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(4): 174-177. [9939]
  • 29. Ellsworth, Joshua W. 2003. Controls on the establishment and early growth of oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.), an invasive woody vine. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. 59 p. Thesis. [81347]
  • 44. Goslee, Sarah C. 1998. The effects of environmental factors and land use history on the long-term vegetation dynamics of the Bolleswood natural area, Connecticut College Arboretum. Duhram, NC: Duke University. 173 p. Dissertation. [81339]
  • 45. Gosper, Carl R.; Stansbury, Chris D.; Vivian-Smith, Gabrielle. 2005. Seed dispersal of fleshy-fruited invasive plants by birds: contributing factors and management options. Diversity and Distributions. 11(6): 549-558. [81620]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Germination

In the field, Oriental bittersweet seeds likely require overwintering to germinate. The embryos are dormant, and seeds require stratification for germination ([13,26,48], fact sheet by [24]). Overall germination rate of Oriental bittersweet seed is high [24,152,162], showing 85% (review by [170]) to 95% (fact sheet by [24]) germination in the laboratory.

Mechanical or chemical scarification of the seed is not necessary for germination [30,49,120]; however, germination in the laboratory is delayed or reduced when arils remain attached to the seeds [49]. In a laboratory study, Oriental bittersweet seeds that had either been ingested by birds or had the fruits and arils removed manually showed similar, and higher, germination rates (x=82%) than seeds with intact fruits (x=51%). The authors concluded that although animals aid in seed defleshing and dispersal, gastrointestinal scarification is not needed for germination to occur [48]. Near Asheville, North Carolina, seeds that fell beneath the parent plant, and thus were not ingested by animals, showed reduced germination rates (51%) compared to ingested seeds (82%). However, the authors noted that 51% germination was high enough to substantially contribute to Oriental bittersweet recruitment. Seeds still on the plant in February were damaged and unviable [49].

Light is not required for germination [26,143]. Oriental bittersweet germination occurs under a wide range of light intensities [119]. Greenberg and others [48] found Oriental bittersweet seed germination and seedling survival rates in the greenhouse were similar from 20% photosynthetically active radiation to full sunlight (P=0.05 X² value). They concluded that the ability to germinate over a wide range of light intensities allows Oriental bittersweet to establish under closed canopies [48]. In the greenhouse, Oriental bittersweet germination rates were not significantly different under 20% sunlight to full sunlight, although seedlings with ≥70% full sunlight had more leaves, more stem and root biomass, and longer roots than seedlings in lower light levels [48]. In contrast, Patterson [120] found best germination occurred under low-light conditions in the greenhouse.

Some water-dispersed seed may germinate on floodplains, although seed that floats may be less viable than seed that cannot float. In Connecticut, Oriental bittersweet seed viability was tested for floating vs. sinking seeds. Mean viability was 41% for floating seeds and 88% for sinking seeds [26].

  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 170. Wendel, G. W.; Barbour, Jill R.; Karrfalt, Robert P. 2008. Celastrus scandens L.: American bittersweet. In: Bonner, Franklin T.; Karrfalt, Robert P., eds. Woody plant seed manual. Agric. Handbook No. 727. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-365. [79081]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 48. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Konopik, Evelyn; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2005. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine: an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W., ed. Proceedings, 15th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species; 2004 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-332. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 34-36. [55649]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 119. Patterson, D. T. 1975. Photosynthetic acclimation to irradiance in Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Photosynthetica. 9(2): 140-144. [51897]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 162. Van Clef, Michael; Stiles, Edmund W. 2001. Seed longevity in three pairs of native and non-native congeners: assessing invasive potential. Northeastern Naturalist. 8(3): 301-310. [49782]
  • 13. Clemants, Steven. 2005. Technical page: Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. - Oriental bittersweet, [Online]. In: New York Metropolitan Flora Project--encyclopedia. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden (Producer). Available: http://www.bbg.org/sci/nymf/encyclopedia/cel/cel0020b.htm [2005, February 17]. [51928]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed banking

More info for the term: density

Oriental bittersweet has a short-lived soil seed bank. Field [29], and laboratory [30] studies suggest Oriental bittersweet seed does not remain viable for more than one growing season, although some managers report that soil-stored Oriental bittersweet seed remains viable for several years [7,24]. The small portion of viable seed remaining in seed banks for more than 1 year contributes little to Oriental bittersweet regeneration [30,78]. A 3-year field study in New Jersey showed a 90% establishment rate of Oriental bittersweet seed the 1st spring after a winter planting. There was no "appreciable" Oriental bittersweet germination in the 2nd or 3rd years of the study [162]. In a 2-year study in an Oriental bittersweet-infested Massachusetts field, Oriental bittersweet seedling recruitment was measured after Oriental bittersweet seed was hand-sown onto study plots. Density of Oriental bittersweet seedling recruitment closely matched the density of seeds sown. Seed rain ranged from 14 seeds/m² to 826 seeds/m² (x=168 seeds/m²). Oriental bittersweet seedling emergence from the seed bank averaged 0.9 seedling/m². All seedlings emerged in the 1st year of the study, with seedling recruitment ranging from 11 seedlings/m² to 532 seedlings/m² (x=107 seedlings/m²) [30].

In a green ash-yellow-poplar forest near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Oriental bittersweet seedlings emerged from the seed bank following herbicide treatment of Japanese stiltgrass. Oriental bittersweet was a common component of the aboveground vegetation before spraying [46].

Field workers in Great Smoky National Park reported substantial Oriental bittersweet seedling recruitment during the first 6 years of a grubbing and herbicide control program involving "complete removal and rootkill" of Oriental bittersweet (Langon 1993 cited in [24]), suggesting that either the seedlings originated from the seed bank or there was an off-site seed source. In a fact sheet, Dreyer [24] noted that because Oriental bittersweet is such a prolific seed producer, its seed bank is quickly replenished when seed sources remain on site or nearby.

  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 162. Van Clef, Michael; Stiles, Edmund W. 2001. Seed longevity in three pairs of native and non-native congeners: assessing invasive potential. Northeastern Naturalist. 8(3): 301-310. [49782]
  • 29. Ellsworth, Joshua W. 2003. Controls on the establishment and early growth of oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.), an invasive woody vine. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. 59 p. Thesis. [81347]
  • 46. Gover, A. E.; Burton, D. A. 2002. Stiltgrass management in a forest understory. In: VanGessel, Mark, ed. Proceedings, 56th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society; 2002 January 7-10; Philadelphia, PA. Baltimore, MD: Northeastern Weed Science Society: 27-30. [44658]
  • 78. Kostel-Hughes, Faith; Young, Truman P.; McDonnell, Mark J. 1998. The soil seed bank and its relationship to the aboveground vegetation in deciduous forests in New York City. Urban Ecosystems. 2(1): 43-59. [51882]
  • 7. Bean, Ellen; McClellan, Linnea, tech. eds. 1997. Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculata Thunb., [Online]. In: Tennessee exotic plant management manual. Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.tneppc.org/Manual/Oriental_Bittersweet.htm [2005, February 11]. [51920]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed dispersal

More info for the terms: liana, restoration, shrub

Animals, water, and humans disperse Oriental bittersweet seed [26,105,129]. The seed disperses after the 3-valved capsules split open and expose the arils [129]. The brightly colored, fleshy arils attract birds and small mammals, which disperse most of the seed after ingesting the arils [49,96,106,120,143]. The fruits can float if they fall into water [105]. Undispersed seed falls under or near parent plants. Along the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina, 24% of Oriental bittersweet fruits fell to the ground [48].

Frugivorous birds are probably most important for Oriental bittersweet seed dispersal because they are highly mobile, travel in flocks, and often eat "voraciously" [25,49,171]. Northern flickers, yellow-rumpled warblers, American robins and other thrushes (Turdidae), mockingbirds and catbirds (Mimidae), and European starlings and mynas (Sturnidae) are the primary Oriental bittersweet seed dispersers [171]. In an oak forest in North Carolina, small animals removed 75% of the total Oriental bittersweet seed crop [49]. Near Asheville, North Carolina, birds and small mammals dispersed Oriental bittersweet seeds in "large numbers". Still, more than 80% of Oriental bittersweet arils remained on the parent plant until December, and >50% remained until mid-January [49]. Birds likely disperse Oriental bittersweet seeds where they perch. In central Japan, where Oriental bittersweet is native, Oriental bittersweet seed rain was densest under the liana Smilax china (10 seeds/1.5 m²) and the shrub Neolitsea sericea (8 seeds/1.5 m²), both of which were used as bird perches [153].

Seed dispersal by birds is an important factor in Oriental bittersweet's ability to rapidly colonize a site. Long-distance dispersal of seed by birds may promote faster rates of Oriental bittersweet establishment on new sites compared to plant species without bird-mediated seed dispersal, particularly late-successional herbs with seeds that are primarily dispersed by ants [97]. Oriental bittersweet seedlings were noted the first year following restoration plantings in a landfill on Staten Island, New York. Minimum mean travel distance to the nearest Oriental bittersweet seed source was 430 feet (131 m); the authors surmised that birds dispersed Oriental bittersweet seed onto the landfill [135]. Long gut-retention times may result in very long Oriental bittersweet dispersal distances when birds migrate. In Japan, Oriental bittersweet seed remained in the digestive tracts of brown-eared bulbuls (Hypsipetes amaurotis, a native Japanese passerine) for 14 to 42 days (x=27 days). That was one of the longest retention times recorded among 16 bird-dispersed plant species [39].

Roads may act as corridors for seed dispersal. Oriental bittersweet is common along roadsides [117], especially interstate highways in New England [26]. It has been used in roadside plantings in the Northeast. Humans using fruiting branches for ornaments may disperse seeds when collecting or disposing of the branches [24,26]. People can facilitate animal dispersal of Oriental bittersweet seed by planting Oriental bittersweet as an ornamental [25].

  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 39. Fukui, Akiko. 2003. Relationship between seed retention time in bird's gut and fruit characteristics. Ornithological Science. 2(1): 41-48. [49823]
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 25. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1996. Celastrus orbiculatus--oriental or asiatic bittersweet. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 92 p. [52049]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 48. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Konopik, Evelyn; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2005. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine: an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W., ed. Proceedings, 15th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species; 2004 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-332. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 34-36. [55649]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 96. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill. 500 p. [4021]
  • 106. Mehrhoff, Leslie J. 1986. Notes on the Connecticut flora - IV. The genus Celastrus (Celastraceae) in Connecticut. Newsletter of the Connecticut Botanical Society. 14(1): 4-5. [51892]
  • 117. Pande, Archana. 2005. Habitat modeling to assess the risk of invasion by Celastrus orbiculatus on public lands in Southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 131 p. Thesis. [81343]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 97. Matlack, Glenn R. 1994. Plant species in a mixed-history forest landscape in eastern North America. Ecology. 75(5): 1491-1502. [22581]
  • 135. Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N. 1993. Forest restoration on a closed landfill: rapid addition of new species by bird dispersal. Conservation Biology. 7(2): 271-278. [22062]
  • 153. Takahashi, Kazuaki; Kamitani, Tomohiko. 2004. Factors affecting seed rain beneath fleshy-fruited plants. Plant Ecology. 174(2): 247-256. [75826]
  • 171. White, Douglas W.; Stiles, Edmund W. 1992. Bird dispersal of fruits of species introduced into eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 70(8): 1689-1696. [19713]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 105. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. S.; Tabak, N. M. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, [Online]. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Producer). Available: http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ [2010, September 27]. [70356]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Breeding system and pollination

More info for the terms: dioecious, monoecious, perfect, polygamodioecious

Oriental bittersweet uses both dioecious and perfect breeding systems [62]. This species is typically "functionally dioecious" because early abortion of either male or female organs makes most individual plants unisexual [10]. Plants occasionally develop both unisexual and perfect flowers, becoming polygamodioecious [42,129], and some plants are reportedly monoecious [58].

Hymenoptera, especially bees, pollinate Oriental bittersweet flowers. Wind pollination also occurs (fact sheet by [24], review by [170]).

Four Oriental bittersweet populations from Connecticut were studied for pollen viability. Mean pollen viability across populations was 67%, but viability was significantly different among populations (P<0.05), varying from 17.3% to 74.3%. Oriental bittersweet × American bittersweet hybrids had low pollen viability [26].

  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 170. Wendel, G. W.; Barbour, Jill R.; Karrfalt, Robert P. 2008. Celastrus scandens L.: American bittersweet. In: Bonner, Franklin T.; Karrfalt, Robert P., eds. Woody plant seed manual. Agric. Handbook No. 727. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-365. [79081]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 10. Brizicky, George K. 1964. The genera of Celastrales in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 45: 206-234. [51895]
  • 58. Hou, Ding. 1955. A revision of the genus Celastrus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 42(3): 215-302. [51899]
  • 62. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2007. Strategic management of five deciduous forest invaders using Microstegium vimineum as a model species. In: Cavender, Nicole, ed. Ohio invasive plants research conference: Continuing partnerships for invasive plant management: proceedings; 2007 January 18; Ironton, OH. Columbus, OH: Ohio Biological Survey: 19-28. [76570]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Vegetative regeneration

More info for the term: root crown

Asexual regeneration is important for Oriental bittersweet spread. Oriental bittersweet sprouts from roots, root fragments, and the root crown [3,26,30,152]. Damage to the branches, root crowns, or roots encourages sprouting (fact sheet by [24]). An invasive plant guide reports "vigorous" sprouting after damage to Oriental bittersweet plants [32]. In a greenhouse study using soil samples from a Massachusetts field, no Oriental bittersweet seedlings emerged from the soil, but Oriental bittersweet root fragments in the soil samples sprouted. Sprouts were distinguished by their lack of cotyledons [30].
  • 3. Ahrens, John F. 1987. Herbicides for control of oriental bittersweet. Proceedings, Northeast Weed Science Society. 41: 167-170. [49827]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 32. Evans, C. W.; Moorhead, D. J.; Bargeron, C. T.; Douce, G. K. 2006. Invasive plant responses to silvicultural practices in the South. Bugwood Network BW-2006-03. Tifton, GA: The University of Georgia Bugwood Network. 52 p. Available online: http://www.invasive.org/silvicsforinvasives.pdf [2010, December 2]. [72425]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: breeding system, invasive species

Oriental bittersweet, August root sprouts.

Oriental bittersweet regenerates by sprouting and from seed. Its invasiveness is due, in part, to its superior ability to establish from both sprouts and seeds compared to most native lianas and other associated native woody species [49,96,106,120,129,143]. Based on Oriental bittersweet's ability to spread from both root sprouts and bird-dispersed seed and its use of multiple breeding systems (see the Regeneration Processes links above), Huebner [62] suggested that Oriental bittersweet may become the fastest spreading invasive species among Oriental bittersweet, Japanese stiltgrass, garlic mustard (Alliaria officinalis), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) [62].

A comprehensive study of Oriental bittersweet regeneration [29] is reviewed in Plant growth.

  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 96. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill. 500 p. [4021]
  • 106. Mehrhoff, Leslie J. 1986. Notes on the Connecticut flora - IV. The genus Celastrus (Celastraceae) in Connecticut. Newsletter of the Connecticut Botanical Society. 14(1): 4-5. [51892]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 29. Ellsworth, Joshua W. 2003. Controls on the establishment and early growth of oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.), an invasive woody vine. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. 59 p. Thesis. [81347]
  • 62. Huebner, Cynthia D. 2007. Strategic management of five deciduous forest invaders using Microstegium vimineum as a model species. In: Cavender, Nicole, ed. Ohio invasive plants research conference: Continuing partnerships for invasive plant management: proceedings; 2007 January 18; Ironton, OH. Columbus, OH: Ohio Biological Survey: 19-28. [76570]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, hemicryptophyte

Raunkiaer [130] life form:
Hemicryptophyte
Geophyte
  • 130. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the terms: liana, vine

Vine-liana

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Regime Table

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed production

Oriental bittersweet typically produces abundant flowers, fruits, and seeds [120,152] (see photo in IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE). In the greenhouse, both male and female plants produced flowers in their second year [176]. Open conditions promote abundant fruiting (Musser 1970 personal communication cited in [170]). For Oriental bittersweet plants in forests, fruit production may be sparse until stems reach the overstory [168].
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 170. Wendel, G. W.; Barbour, Jill R.; Karrfalt, Robert P. 2008. Celastrus scandens L.: American bittersweet. In: Bonner, Franklin T.; Karrfalt, Robert P., eds. Woody plant seed manual. Agric. Handbook No. 727. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-365. [79081]
  • 168. Webster, Christopher R.; Jenkins, Michael A.; Jose, Shibu. 2006. Woody invaders and the challenges they pose to forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. Journal of Forestry. 104(7): 366-374. [65270]
  • 176. Wyman, Donald. 1950. Fruiting habits of certain ornamental plants. Arnoldia. 10(13): 81-85. [51894]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phenology

Oriental bittersweet starts growth in midspring and flowers soon after [24,25]. Pollen sheds about 2 weeks after flowers open [127]. Leaves abscise in late fall, usually later than the leaves of associated native species [24,157]. Oriental bittersweet in Michigan, for example, retained leaves for a month after the first October frost [157]. Arils and seeds mature in autumn and remain on the plant all winter unless harvested by frugivorous animals. Animals disperse the seeds throughout autumn, winter, and into early spring [30,49,120,143], with most seeds dispersed after leaf drop [49]. Plants are dormant in winter [24]. Phenology of Oriental bittersweet in various locations is given below.

Phenology of Oriental bittersweet by area
Area Event Season
Carolinas flowers mostly in May; extends to Aug. or Sept. [129]
seed disperses November-January [49]
Connecticut flowers May-June
fruits & arils ripen September [7,24]
Illinois flowers May-June [110]
Michigan bud break late April
leaf out mid-May
flowers early June [158]
North Carolina seed disperses December-March 148
New York flowers May-June
fruits & arils develop July-October [13]
Tennessee germinates mid- to late spring
flowers May
arils mature August-September [7,24]
Blue Ridge Mountains flowers May-June [174]
China flowers May-June
fruits July-October [175]
Japan flowers May-June [114]
  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 114. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 174. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 25. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1996. Celastrus orbiculatus--oriental or asiatic bittersweet. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 92 p. [52049]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 127. Pooler, Margaret R.; Dix, Ruth L.; Feely, Joan. 2002. Interspecific hybridizations between the native bittersweet, Celastrus scandens, and the introduced invasive species, C. orbiculatus. Southeastern Naturalist. 1(1): 69-76. [51890]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 157. Tibbetts, Tim J.; Ewers, Frank W. 2000. Root pressure and specific conductivity in temperate lianas: exotic Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) vs. native Vitis riparia (Vitaceae). American Journal of Botany. 87(9): 1272-1278. [49780]
  • 158. Tibbetts, Timothy Jay. 2000. The ecology of the exotic, invasive temperate liana Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. 126 p. Dissertation. [81338]
  • 7. Bean, Ellen; McClellan, Linnea, tech. eds. 1997. Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculata Thunb., [Online]. In: Tennessee exotic plant management manual. Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.tneppc.org/Manual/Oriental_Bittersweet.htm [2005, February 11]. [51920]
  • 13. Clemants, Steven. 2005. Technical page: Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. - Oriental bittersweet, [Online]. In: New York Metropolitan Flora Project--encyclopedia. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden (Producer). Available: http://www.bbg.org/sci/nymf/encyclopedia/cel/cel0020b.htm [2005, February 17]. [51928]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 110. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. [Revised edition]. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 175. Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P. H.; Hong, D. Y., eds. 2012. Flora of China, [Online]. Volumes 1-25. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. In: eFloras. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Herbaria (Producers). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 and http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china. [72954]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fall foliage is conspicuous. The plant flowers in Spring. The fruit/seed period begins in the Summer and ends in the Fall. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Beck, Nicholas

Source: Indiana Dunes Bioblitz

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

It is a perennial that grows rapidly and has a moderate lifespan. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Beck, Nicholas

Source: Indiana Dunes Bioblitz

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Biology and Spread

Oriental bittersweet reproduces prolifically by seed, which is readily dispersed to new areas by many species of birds including mockingbirds, blue jays and European starlings. The seeds germinate in late spring. It also expands vegetatively through root suckering.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Celastrus orbiculatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Celastrus orbiculatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 35
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Information on state-level noxious weed status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Restoration Potential: Recovery of natural areas highly infested with C. orbiculatus is unpredictable. Previous natural vegetation structure and function are often severely altered, although remnants of the flora may persist. Removal methods often further disrupt remnants of previous plant communities. A number of workers report that even with complete removal and rootkill of C. orbiculatus, substantial seedling regeneration occurs in following years, probably due to a persistent soil seed bank. Langdon (1993) stresses that individual clones are difficult to kill. For example, one 5m x 5m clone treated with triclopyr in 1986 has produced 50+ sprouts each year since. The sprouts are hand-pulled but often break and resprout later. Fortunately, the six years of work at this site appear to have nearly exhausted the seed bank. In cases where all nearby seed sources cannot be eliminated, however, reinfestation is a continual possibility.

Management Requirements: Effective biological and additional effective chemical/mechanical control methods are needed. Education of nursery growers, retailers, and the gardening public is also needed to reduce the demand for and the dissemination of the vine and its fruit.

Management Programs: HERBICIDES: A successful control technique was developed by Dreyer (1988) for dense, low patches of C. orbiculatus where herbicide use is appropriate. Vegetation in the entire area is cut to the ground early in the growing season and allowed to resurge. Approximately one month later, foliar applications of an herbicide containing triclopyr (Garlon 4, a triclopyr ester, or Garlon 3A, a triclopyr salt) mixed at 1% to 2% in water and applied by backpack sprayer result in essentially 100% rootkill of C. orbiculatus. No off-target damage or root uptake by adjacent plants has been noted in over four years of using this technique. The same study found foliar applications of glyphosate (Roundup, Rodeo) and amitrole (Amitrol, Weedazol) were both ineffective in rootkilling C. orbiculatus.

Another advantage to using triclopyr instead of glyphosate is that it does not kill monocots. Thus grasses, sedges, liliaceous plants, etc., will not be killed and will remain to prevent soils from being completely exposed. These remaining plants often dominate sprayed sites a year after treatment. Triclopyr is also the active ingredient, in relatively dilute form, in the Ortho product Brush-B-Gone which, unlike Garlon, is not a restricted use chemical.

Hutchison (1992) reports foliar applications of a 2,4-D and triclopyr mixture (Crossbow) to C. orbiculatus will effectively "reduce the population" when applied in mid to late October.

In locations where large vines climb high into trees, cutting and treating the vine stump surface with a triclopyr-containing herbicide is a logical procedure. The vine stems hanging in the trees will decompose and fall within two to three years. Hutchison (1992) recommends cut surface treatment with "100% Roundup" (presumably undiluted with water) applied at the time of the last killing frost, but he included no data concerning the effectiveness of this technique.

MOWING: Regular, weekly mowing will exclude C. orbiculatus. However, less frequent mowing, eg. 2-3 mowings per year, stimulates rootsuckering (Dreyer, pers. obs.).

CONTACTS WITH ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON CONTROL: In addition to the Connecticut College Arboretum program described above, the following organizations have some type of C. orbiculatus control programs or experience:

Connecticut DOT, Contact: James Stotler, Conn. DOT, 24 Wolcott Hill Rd., Drawer A, Wethersfield, CT 06109.

Great Smokey Mountains National Park (Contact is Keith Langdon, see MONITORING PROJECTS section above for address).

Max Hutchison, Cache River Wetlands Project, The Nature Conservancy, Route 1, Box 53E, Ullin, Illinois, 62992. Phone: 618-634-2524.

Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (contact is W. Henry McNab, see MONITORING PROJECTS section above for address).

TNC Connecticut (Contact Beth Lapin, see MONITORING PROJECTS section above for address).

Management Research Programs: Researchers at the Connecticut College Arboretum and the College's Botany and Zoology Departments (Dreyer, Clement, Wheeler, etc.) have pursued various aspects of the problem. No projects are currently underway. Future research will probably continue to examine the comparative species biology of C. scandens vs. C. orbiculatus. No other active research programs are known.

Biological Research Needs: Research in species biology is needed in the following areas: pollination ecology; extent of natural hybridization with C. scandens; mechanisms of seed dispersal; annual vegetative growth rates; mechanisms of rootsucker induction; possible allelopathic effects on other species; seed bank dynamics.

Research is also needed to define the current range of C. orbiculatus and to monitor subsequent spread.

Work on biological control methods is apparently completely lacking. Langdon (1993) located an ornamental planting of C. orbiculatus in north Georgia that was losing vigor due to an infestation of Euonymus scale (Unaspi euomyi) and suggests this lead should be followed. The little published on chemical and mechanical control indicates further work in these areas would also be fruitful.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Impacts and Control

More info for the terms: competition, cover, density, fire management, frequency, fresh, hardwood, introgression, invasive species, liana, litter, natural, nonnative species, prescribed fire, presence, root crown, shrubs, succession, tree

Impacts: Oriental bittersweet is considered a "severe" pest plant in the Northeast and Southeast [152]. In the Northeast, it is listed as a high threat in deciduous, coniferous, and mixed conifer-deciduous forests, old fields, grasslands, riparian areas, and fresh wetlands; and an unknown threat in tidal wetlands [21]. On the west end of Long Island, for example, Oriental bittersweet was the most abundant nonnative species on Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, where it invaded old fields, thickets, and woodlands [146]. Invasion traits of Oriental bittersweet include:

  • ability to regenerate by cloning
  • abundant seed production
  • wide-ranging seed dispersal by animals and humans [49,96,106,120,129,143]
  • ability to germinate under a wide range of light conditions
  • ability to acclimate photosynthetic capacity and persist a wide range of light conditions [119,120]
  • rapid growth after release [3,102]
  • ability to climb supports of varying sizes [3,26,128]
Oriental bittersweet twining around a trunk.

Reports of Oriental bittersweet's invasiveness vary. Some classify it as invasive [38] to highly invasive [24]. Voss [166] describes it as "sometimes aggressive" when escaped from cultivation in Michigan. On the Energy Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, Tennessee, Oriental bittersweet was ranked the 5th most invasive nonnative dicot and the 9th most invasive nonnative plant species overall [22]. In Farmington, Maine, surveyors of invasive nonnatives in mixed hardwood-spruce (Picea spp.) forests ranked Oriental bittersweet as intermediate in abundance, behind Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), Morrow's honeysuckle, Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), and hybrids of the 2 honeysuckles [6].

The ease of seed dispersal and horticultural interest in Oriental bittersweet in the East and elsewhere in the United States creates a potentially large area for Oriental bittersweet invasion [24]. The southern Appalachians are particularly affected by new invasions [24,81]. In southwestern North Carolina, for example, Oriental bittersweet was one of the most commonly encountered nonnative species, occurring at 53% mean frequency on all of 25 watersheds sampled [80]. Available data and climate models suggest that Oriental bittersweet is likely to benefit from warming temperatures and increasing precipitation in the Northeast, where it is likely to increase and spread northward (review by [27]).

Oriental bittersweet presence may alter soil chemistry, plant succession, and stand structure; threaten native plant diversity; and reduce productivity in silvicultural and agricultural systems.

Effects on soils: Oriental bittersweet may alter soil pH and nutrient levels [88], and Oriental bittersweet's relatively deep roots may allow it to outcompete surrounding vegetation for soil resources [139]. In hardwood forests of Connecticut, Oriental bittersweet litter contained 3 times more calcium than red oak litter, and its leaf pH was higher. The authors concluded that these factors led to the higher soil pH on plots with than on plots without Oriental bittersweet [88]. See Soils for further information.

Effects on succession and stand structure: Oriental bittersweet may outcompete native vegetation for light and modify stand structure, altering historic patterns of plant succession ([9,24,164], review by [152]). Photosynthesis of host and understory plants can be reduced or prevented by Oriental bittersweet. Patterson [120] noted the scarcity of other plant species beneath Oriental bittersweet canopies in Pennsylvania and attributed it to shading by Oriental bittersweet. Oriental bittersweet's growth habit (blanketing and shading out support species) negatively affects the health of host plants and increases continuity of vegetation among forest strata [26,34,48,93] (see Fuels). Twining Oriental bittersweet stems may girdle support vegetation, restricting sap and water flow and damaging or killing host plants. Damaged hosts are at risk for stem breakage and uprooting from ice- and windstorms [24,25,26,93,104,152]. Oriental bittersweet may overtop other plant species in all strata. It may also inhibit or facilitate growth of other lianas. In Connecticut, Oriental bittersweet altered hardwood forest succession by inhibiting reproduction and growth of native shrubs and trees and facilitating growth of fox grape, a late-successional native liana, into the canopy (see Old fields) [34]. Conversely, Oriental bittersweet interfered with growth of native grapes (Vitis spp.) on the Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina [104]. See Successional Status and Stand structure for more information.

Effects on diversity: Oriental bittersweet can displace native species. Its thickets [104] and climbing stems cast too much shade for many native plant species to establish and grow. For example, Oriental bittersweet canopies inhibited establishment of understory spring ephemerals in Illinois [65]. Along the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina, Oriental bittersweet cover was negatively associated with native plant diversity [48]. On Plummer's Island in the Potomac River of Maryland, a 1912 survey documented presence of American bittersweet and common hop (Humulus lupulus), but in 1980, surveyors concluded that those species "appear to have been replaced entirely by the aliens" Oriental bittersweet and Japanese hop (H. japonicus) [141].

Oriental bittersweet is apparently expanding its range at the expense of American bittersweet [127,148,152]. Partially as a consequence of Oriental bittersweet competition, American bittersweet has protection status is several areas [161]. For example, Connecticut lists American bittersweet as a "species of special concern", and Great Smoky Mountains National Park lists American bittersweet as a "nonreproducing rare plant" (Langdon 1993 cited in [24]). The same characteristics that make Oriental bittersweet often preferred over American bittersweet as an ornamental: faster growth, greater fecundity, and a higher tolerance to varying environmental conditions, are the same characteristics that have enabled Oriental bittersweet to become a successful invader [81]. A field study showed Oriental bittersweet increased its photosynthetic rate with increasing light intensity, while American bittersweet's photosynthetic rate tended to saturate under low light conditions [15]. In a common garden study, Oriental bittersweet showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates and faster growth, aboveground biomass gain, and survivorship than American bittersweet in both sun and shade. Oriental bittersweet showed a positive growth response to presence of neighbors, while American bittersweet's response to neighbors was neutral (P=0.05 for all variables) [87]. In the greenhouse, Oriental bittersweet showed increased height, aboveground biomass, and total leaf mass compared to American bittersweet when both species were grown under reduced red:far red light conditions. The authors concluded that Oriental bittersweet's superior ability to grow under these conditions allows it to persist in the understory and "forage" for gaps and sunflecks, whereas American bittersweet's relative inability to gain height and biomass growth under a canopy ensures its decline unless a canopy gap occurs. Further, Oriental bittersweet's ability to detect far red light, which is transmitted and reflected by neighboring plants, may confer ability to "detect" and grow toward neighboring plants that could potentially provide support for Oriental bittersweet's stems [86].

Surveys generally show that Oriental bittersweet is more adaptable and prolific than its native congener. In Connecticut, very wet sites were the only sites where transplanted American bittersweet seedlings outperformed transplanted Oriental bittersweet seedlings (58% vs. 18% mortality for Oriental and American bittersweet, respectively). Oriental bittersweet averaged higher survival (90% vs. 68%) and about 3 times more aboveground biomass (1.93 g vs. 0.67 g) than American bittersweet in low light (≤6.4% transmittance) [90]. A New Jersey study showed a 90% germination rate for first-year, soil-stored Oriental bittersweet seed compared to a 65% germination rate for first-year, soil-stored American bittersweet seed [162]. In a Connecticut study, Dreyer and others [26] found Oriental bittersweet showed significantly higher pollen and seed viability than American bittersweet (P<0.001). While recognizing that many environmental and genetic factors affect seedling establishment, the authors stated that such viability could favor Oriental bittersweet over American bittersweet [26].

American bittersweet is further threatened by potential hybridization and introgression with Oriental bittersweet. Greenhouse studies confirm that the 2 bittersweets are cross-fertile [127,172,176] (see Taxonomy). In a preliminary greenhouse study, interspecific pollination between the bittersweets was more successful than intraspecific pollination, with 1 seedling/flower resulting from hybridization and 0.6 seedling/flower resulting from intraspecific crosses. Although not statistically significant due to small sample sizes [127], these results show the need for field studies documenting the extent of Oriental bittersweet × American bittersweet hybridization.

Effects on silvicultural and agricultural systems: Oriental bittersweet may smother or kill timber trees and understory vegetation [125]. Girdling and stem damage from Oriental bittersweet stems lowers the value of timber trees that host Oriental bittersweet. Where it was present before tree harvest, Oriental bittersweet can rapidly overtake a site after harvest. Its sprouts may overtop understory species and overstory trees. On the Pisgah National Forest, Oriental bittersweet covered sapling-sized hardwood and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) regeneration on small clearcuts [104]. In a Massachusetts clipping experiment, Oriental bittersweet growth ranged from 6.9 to 15 feet (2.1-4.7 m) in 1 year. In contrast, bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) sprouts grew from 3.0 to 5.9 feet (0.9-1.8 m) in 1 year, and yellow-poplar sprouts averaged 4.6 feet (1.4 m) in 1 year (review by [31]). On the Bent Creek Experimental Forest, a high-quality stand of upland oaks was clearcut in the summer of 1977. Oak site index before harvest was above 80, with a basal overstory area of 120 feet² (11 m²). Preharvest Oriental bittersweet density was 830 seedlings/acre and 27 saplings/acre (seedlings were <0.6 inch (2.0 cm) DBH; saplings were >0.6 inch DBH). Seven years after tree harvest, the canopy was nearly 100% Oriental bittersweet [104].

Oriental bittersweet is an alternate host for Xylella fastidiosa. This bacterium vectors several crop diseases including Pierce's grapevine (Vitis) disease, periwinkle (Vinca) wilt, plum leaf scorch and phony peach (Prunus) disease, and variegated chlorosis (affects several genera including oaks, elms, sycamores, citrus (Citrus), and mulberries (Morus)) [101].

Control: The Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council [145] recommends that Rank 1 and Rank 2 species such as Oriental bittersweet be controlled and managed in the early stages of infestation whenever possible. Because Oriental bittersweet appears to build only a short-term seed bank [30], there are better opportunities for control and a higher probability of success than if seeds were longer-lived. If on-site plants and nearby seed sources are killed before arils mature, subsequent seedling establishment may primarily come from off-site seed sources, with little seedling emergence from the seed bank [24,30]. Monitoring and early control of new outbreaks can then help control Oriental bittersweet [24,24]. Greenberg and others [48] recommend preventing seed dispersal. This implies treating on- and off-site plants before fruiting, whatever control method is used.

Since Oriental bittersweet resembles the native and rare American bittersweet, it is important to correctly identify Oriental bittersweet before control measures begin [152]. See General Botanical Characteristics for information on identification keys.

Prevention: The most efficient and effective method of managing invasive species such as Oriental bittersweet is to prevent their invasion and spread [140]. Preventing the establishment of nonnative invasive plants in wildlands is achieved by maintaining native communities and surveying, monitoring, and controlling new infestations. Dreyer [24] recommends preventing the introduction of Oriental bittersweet into uninfested areas and making early control of small infestations a priority. Inventories to establish Oriental bittersweet presence and densities are needed before control programs, or any silvicultural treatment that opens the canopy, begin. McNab [102] cautions that if Oriental bittersweet is present in the understory, canopy disturbance will probably stimulate its growth.

Monitoring is an important part of an integrated program for Oriental bittersweet control [143]. Monitoring efforts are best concentrated on the most likely sites of Oriental bittersweet invasion: disturbed soil, roadsides, old fields, woodlands, and waterways. Survey uninvaded sites periodically to detect new invasions [24]. Because Oriental bittersweet retains its leaves longer than most associated native species, its yellow leaves are easy to spot in late fall, even from a distance. Consistent fall monitoring can identify new infestations, allowing managers to implement control programs and prevent new infestations from spreading. Managers in Great Smoky Mountains National Park recommend scouting for infestations every 2 weeks after most native species have dropped their leaves, which is approximately November 10th in the Park [24]. Discouraging nurseries from stocking Oriental bittersweet [55] and encouraging plantings of alternative native ornamentals (see Ornamental and rehabilitation use) can reduce new introductions [55]. The Center for Invasive Plant Management provides an online guide to noxious weed prevention practices.

Monitoring may be more efficient if areas at high risk for Oriental bittersweet invasion are identified. See Site Characteristics for further information on Oriental bittersweet site preferences. For mountainous terrain in the southern the Appalachians, McNab and Loftis [103] describe a rapid survey technique for Oriental bittersweet hazard rating, and they provide a model for estimating probability of Oriental bittersweet occurrence for similar environments based on environmental, competitive, and disturbance factors.

Fire: See Fire Management Considerations for information on using prescribed fire to control Oriental bittersweet.

Cultural control: No information is available on this topic.

Physical or mechanical control: Frequent cutting, mowing, or grubbing helps control Oriental bittersweet. Any portion of stems or roots left on site may sprout [94]; grubbed roots usually sprout unless they are completely removed [23,24,103,152]. Small plants can by hand-pulled, but they need to be moved off site to prevent rooting [168]. Climbing or trailing stems must be cut as close to the root crown as possible (fact sheet by [24]). When grubbing, roots need to be bagged and either removed from the site or allowed to sit in the sun until the bagged plants and seeds have died ([152], fact sheet by [24]). To prevent posttreatment seedling establishment, mechanical treatments are best implemented before Oriental bittersweet is in fruit [152]. Occasional mowing, cutting, or grubbing only encourages root sprouting and is not recommended. Unless the entire root system is completely removed, treatments must be frequent enough to eventually exhaust the underground carbohydrate supply. That may be accomplished by cutting or mowing every 2 weeks [23,24,103,152]; however, that is usually not practical in wildlands.

Biological control: As of early 2011, pathogens from Oriental bittersweet's native range had not been approved for use in the United States [24,94,152]. A leaf spot fungus (Marssonina celastri) causes defoliation of Oriental bittersweet in Korea, where Oriental bittersweet is native [142]. Oriental bittersweet has no known pathogens in North America [152]. This may be a factor in Oriental bittersweet's invasiveness in the United States [117].

Chemical control: Oriental bittersweet can be controlled with herbicides, using either cut-stem or foliar applications. Systemic herbicides (for example, triclopyr or glyphosate) are recommended [24,152].

Effective use of herbicides requires appropriate herbicide concentration, application technique, and timing. For cut-stem treatments, best Oriental bittersweet control occurs when the herbicide is applied soon after stems are cut or mowed [24,152]. Cut the stems about 2 inches (5 cm) above the root crown. A second treatment may be needed to control sprouts [152]. Polatin [126] found mid-October application of triclopyr gave better control of Oriental bittersweet than spring application. Herbicide applications in early spring, before native herbs have emerged, or in late fall when natives are dormant but Oriental bittersweet is still green, can minimize effects to nontarget plants [152].

In red pine (Pinus resinosa) forests in Connecticut, late-summer (17-18 September) herbicide treatments gave fair to good control of Oriental bittersweet. Fourteen treatments involving four different herbicides, used alone or in combination, were used, with various application rates. One year after treatments, imazapyr and triclopyr gave best results with low concentrations. See Ahrens [3] for details of herbicide combinations, concentrations, and other treatment results.

See these sources: [12,17,24,32,94,126,152] for more information on chemical control of Oriental bittersweet.

Herbicides may provide initial control of a new invasion or a severe infestation, but used alone, they are rarely a complete or long-term solution to invasive species management [12]. Herbicides are most effective on large infestations when incorporated into long-term management plans that include replacement of weeds with desirable species, careful land use management, and prevention of new infestations. Control with herbicides is temporary, as it does not change the conditions that allowed the invasion to occur (for example, [177]). See The Nature Conservancy's Weed control methods handbook [159] for considerations on the use of herbicides in Natural Areas and detailed information on specific chemicals.

Integrated management: No single treatment provides effective, long-term control of Oriental bittersweet. Integrated management includes early detection, assessment, and containment of infestations before they spread. Factors to be addressed before a management decision is made also include assessment of nontarget vegetation, soil types, climatic conditions, important water resources, and an evaluation of the benefits and limitations of all control methods [112]. Hobbs and Humphries [57] advocate an integrated approach to the management of plant invasions that includes "a focus on the invaded system and its management, rather than on the invader" and "identification of the causal factors enhancing ecosystem invasibility" as an effective approach to controlling invasive species. This emphasizes removing the ecological stressors that may be underlying the causes of invasion rather than focusing on direct control of invasive species [57].

Few studies to date (2011) investigated using multiple control methods for managing Oriental bittersweet. Compared with mowing alone or mowing and prescribed fire combined, Polatin [126] found a combination of mowing and triclopyr was "by far the most effective treatment for controlling bittersweet and allowing for grass establishment". See Plant response to fire for details of this study. Hutchison [65] recommends either grubbing or a combination of cutting and herbicide treatment. When practical, he recommends uprooting and removing individual Oriental bittersweet stems from infested sites. In other situations he recommends hand cutting after the first killing frost, then spot-treating cut stems with glyphosate. To maintain control, he advocates immediately pulling and removing invading individuals off site [65].
  • 17. Czarapata, Elizabeth J. 2005. Invasive plants of the Upper Midwest: An illustrated guide to their identification and control. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 215 p. [71442]
  • 129. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 21. Dibble, Alison C.; Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler. 2008. Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Northeast bioregion. In: Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 61-90. [70902]
  • 23. Dreyer, G. 1984. Spontaneous naturalization of woody plants in the Connecticut Arboretum. II. Newsletter of the Connecticut Botanical Society. 12(3): 2. [52022]
  • 81. Kuppinger, Dane. 2000. Management of plant invasions in the southern Appalachians. Chinquapin. 8(3): 21. [51456]
  • 87. Leicht, Stacey Anne. 2005. The comparative ecology of an invasive bittersweet species (Celastrus orbiculatus) and its native congener (C. scandens). Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut. 174 p. Dissertation. [81337]
  • 94. Lynch, Amanda. 2009. Investigating distribution and treatments for effective mechanical and herbicide application for controlling oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) vines in an Appalachian hardwood forest. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University. 90 p. Thesis. [81335]
  • 120. Patterson, David T. 1973. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Durham, NC: Duke University. 252 p. Dissertation. [52020]
  • 166. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 159. Tu, Mandy; Hurd, Callie; Randall, John M., eds. 2001. Weed control methods handbook: tools and techniques for use in natural areas. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy. 194 p. [37787]
  • 3. Ahrens, John F. 1987. Herbicides for control of oriental bittersweet. Proceedings, Northeast Weed Science Society. 41: 167-170. [49827]
  • 6. Barton, Andrew M.; Brewster, Lauri B.; Cox, Anne N.; Prentiss, Nancy K. 2004. Non-indigenous woody invasive plants in a rural New England town. Biological Invasions. 6(2): 205-211. [47715]
  • 9. Berger, John J. 1993. Ecological restoration and nonindigenous plant species: a review. Restoration Ecology. 1(2): 74-82. [22351]
  • 12. Bussan, Alvin J.; Dyer, William E. 1999. Herbicides and rangeland. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 116-132. [35716]
  • 22. Drake, Sara J.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Parr, Patricia D. 2003. Assessment of non-native invasive plant species on the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Castanea. 68(1): 15-30. [49846]
  • 25. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1996. Celastrus orbiculatus--oriental or asiatic bittersweet. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 92 p. [52049]
  • 26. Dreyer, Glenn D.; Baird, Lisa M.; Fickler, Christine. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(3): 260-264. [19960]
  • 30. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Seedling emergence, growth, and allocation of oriental bittersweet: effects of seed input, seed bank, and forest floor litter. Forest Ecology and Management. 190(2-3): 255-264. [50122]
  • 31. Ellsworth, Joshua W.; Harrington, Robin A.; Fownes, James H. 2004. Survival, growth and gas exchange of Celastrus orbiculatus seedlings in sun and shade. The American Midland Naturalist. 151(2): 233-240. [50128]
  • 34. Fike, Jean; Niering, William A. 1999. Four decades of old field vegetation development and the role of Celastrus orbiculatus in the northeastern United States. Journal of Vegetation Science. 10(4): 483-492. [37337]
  • 38. Frankel, Edward. 1999. A floristic survey of vascular plants of the Bronx River Parkway Reservation in Westchester, New York: compilation 1973-1998. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126(4): 359-366. [37376]
  • 48. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Konopik, Evelyn; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2005. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine: an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W., ed. Proceedings, 15th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species; 2004 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-332. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 34-36. [55649]
  • 49. Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Smith, Lindsay M.; Levey, Douglas J. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine--an experimental test of `sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 363-372. [49821]
  • 55. Harris, Courtney; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Dongjiao; Brian, Zachary; He, Kate. 2009. Testing the roles of species native origin and family membership in intentional plant introductions using nursery data across the state of Kentucky. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 136(1): 122-127. [79204]
  • 57. Hobbs, Richard J.; Humphries, Stella E. 1995. An integrated approach to the ecology and management of plant invasions. Conservation Biology. 9(4): 761-770. [44463]
  • 65. Hutchison, Max. 1992. Vegetation management guideline: round-leaved bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.). Natural Areas Journal. 12(3): 161. [20249]
  • 80. Kuhman, Timothy R.; Pearson, Scott M.; Turner, Monica G. 2010. Effects of land-use history and the contemporary landscape on non-native plant invasion at local and regional scales in the forest-dominated southern Appalachians. Landscape Ecology. 25(9): 1433-1445. [80577]
  • 86. Leicht, Stacey A.; Silander, John A., Jr. 2006. Differential responses of invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) and native C. scandens to changes in light quality. American Journal of Botany. 93(7): 972-977. [63926]
  • 88. Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; O'Donnell, Hillary; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A., Jr. 2009. Effects of an invasive plant species, Celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes. The American Midland Naturalist. 161(2): 219-231. [81627]
  • 90. Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Silander, John A., Jr.; Latimer, Andrew M. 2007. Comparative performance of invasive and native Celastrus species across environmental gradients. Oecologia. 154(2): 273-282. [69064]
  • 93. Lutz, H. J. 1943. Injuries to trees caused by Celastrus and Vitis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 70(4): 436-439. [51896]
  • 96. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill. 500 p. [4021]
  • 101. McElrone, Andrew J.; Sherald, James L.; Pooler, Margaret R. 1999. Identification of alternative hosts of Xylella fastidiosa in the Washington, D.C., area using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Journal of Arboriculture. 25(5): 258-263. [49781]
  • 102. McNab, W. Henry. 1988. Oriental bittersweet: another kudzu? In: Hardwood supply--feast and famine: Proceedings, 16th annual Hardwood Research Council symposium; 1988 May 15-18; Chashiers, NC. Memphis, TN: Hardwood Research Council: 190-191. [49825]
  • 103. McNab, W. Henry; Loftis, David L. 2002. Probability of occurrence and habitat features for oriental bittersweet in an oak forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 155(1-3): 45-54. [40732]
  • 104. McNab, W. Henry; Meeker, Marilynn. 1987. Oriental bittersweet: a growing threat to hardwood silviculture in the Appalachians. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(4): 174-177. [9939]
  • 106. Mehrhoff, Leslie J. 1986. Notes on the Connecticut flora - IV. The genus Celastrus (Celastraceae) in Connecticut. Newsletter of the Connecticut Botanical Society. 14(1): 4-5. [51892]
  • 112. Mullin, Barbara. 1992. Meeting the invasion: integrated weed management. Western Wildlands. 18(2): 33-38. [19462]
  • 117. Pande, Archana. 2005. Habitat modeling to assess the risk of invasion by Celastrus orbiculatus on public lands in Southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 131 p. Thesis. [81343]
  • 119. Patterson, D. T. 1975. Photosynthetic acclimation to irradiance in Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Photosynthetica. 9(2): 140-144. [51897]
  • 126. Polatin, Christopher C. 2006. Best management practices for controlling catbrier (Smilax rotundifolia), Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), and scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) on a coastal island in Massachusetts. Keene, NH: Antioch University New England. 52 p. Thesis. [81349]
  • 127. Pooler, Margaret R.; Dix, Ruth L.; Feely, Joan. 2002. Interspecific hybridizations between the native bittersweet, Celastrus scandens, and the introduced invasive species, C. orbiculatus. Southeastern Naturalist. 1(1): 69-76. [51890]
  • 128. Putz, Francis E. 1995. Relay ascension of big trees by vines in Rock Creek Park, District of Columbia. Castanea. 60(2): 167-169. [40214]
  • 139. Schnitzer, Stefan A. 2005. A mechanistic explanation for global patterns of liana abundance and distribution. The American Naturalist. 166(2): 262-276. [81772]
  • 140. Sheley, Roger; Manoukian, Mark; Marks, Gerald. 1999. Preventing noxious weed invasion. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 69-72. [35711]
  • 141. Shelter, Stanwyn G.; Orli, Sylvia S.; Wells, Elizabeth F.; Beyersdorfer, Marcie. 2006. Checklist of the vascular plants of Plummers Island, Maryland. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington. 14(1): 1-57. [72486]
  • 142. Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Lee, Hyun-Tae. 1999. A new species of Marssonina on Celastrus orbiculatus. Mycotaxon. 72: 199-203. [50132]
  • 143. Silveri, Ann; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Michaels, Helen J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions. 3(4): 379-389. [49820]
  • 146. Stalter Richard; Kincaid, Dwight; Byer, Michael. 2009. Control of nonnative invasive woody plant species at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York City. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry. 35(3): 152-156. [76768]
  • 148. Stewart, Angela M.; Clemants, Steven E.; Moore, Gerry. 2003. The concurrent decline of the native Celastrus scandens and spread of the non-native Celastrus orbiculatus in the New York City metropolitan area. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club. 130(2): 143-146. [49822]
  • 162. Van Clef, Michael; Stiles, Edmund W. 2001. Seed longevity in three pairs of native and non-native congeners: assessing invasive potential. Northeastern Naturalist. 8(3): 301-310. [49782]
  • 164. Vitousek, Peter M.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Looper, Lloyd L.; Westbrooks, Randy. 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. American Scientist. 84(5): 468-478. [52019]
  • 168. Webster, Christopher R.; Jenkins, Michael A.; Jose, Shibu. 2006. Woody invaders and the challenges they pose to forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. Journal of Forestry. 104(7): 366-374. [65270]
  • 172. White, Orland E.; Bowden, Wray M. 1947. Oriental and American bittersweet hybrids. The Journal of Heredity. 38(4): 125-127. [51898]
  • 176. Wyman, Donald. 1950. Fruiting habits of certain ornamental plants. Arnoldia. 10(13): 81-85. [51894]
  • 177. Youtie, Berta; Soll, Jonathan. 1990. Diffuse knapweed control on the Tom McCall Preserve and Mayer State Park. Grant proposal prepared for the Mazama Research Committee, Portland OR. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 18 p. [38353]
  • 15. Clement, Coralie R.; Warren, R. Scott; Dreyer, Glenn D.; Barnes, Philip T. 1991. Photosynthesis, water relations, and fecundity in the woody vines American and Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus scandens and C. orbiculatus). In: Annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America; 1991 August 4-8; San Antonio, TX. In: American Journal of Botany. 78(6)Suppl: 134. Poster paper. [Abstract]. [51934]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 27. Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Pontius, Jennifer; Orwig, David; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Rodgers, Vikki L.; Brazee, Nicholas; Cooke, Barry; Theoharides, Kathleen A.; Stange, Erik E.; Harringtion, Robin; Ehrenfeld, Joan; Gurevitch, Jessica; Lerdau, Manuel; [and others]. 2009. Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in the forests of northeastern North America: what can we predict? Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39(2): 231-248. [81619]
  • 32. Evans, C. W.; Moorhead, D. J.; Bargeron, C. T.; Douce, G. K. 2006. Invasive plant responses to silvicultural practices in the South. Bugwood Network BW-2006-03. Tifton, GA: The University of Georgia Bugwood Network. 52 p. Available online: http://www.invasive.org/silvicsforinvasives.pdf [2010, December 2]. [72425]
  • 125. Podniesinski, Gregory S.; Sneddon, Lesley A.; Lundgren, Julie; Devine, Hugh; Slocumb, Bill; Koch, Frank. 2005. Vegetation classification and mapping of Valley Forge National Historical Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/028. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Northeast Region. 115 p. Available online: http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/vafo/vaforpt.pdf [2012, January 12]. [79639]
  • 145. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2003. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council invasive plant manual, [Online]. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/eastern/eppc/index.html [2005, August 10]. [54193]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]
  • 161. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2012. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Prevention and Control

Do not buy, plant, transplant Oriental bittersweet or dispose of live or dead seed-containing material. Manual, mechanical and chemical methods can be employed to control it. Vines can be pulled out by the roots, cut repeatedly or treated with systemic herbicides. No biological controls are currently available for this plant.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Noxious Weed Information:This plant can be weedy or invasive. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. In Connecticut oriental bittersweet is listed as Invasive, banned. In Massachusetts Oriental bittersweet/Asian or Asiatic bittersweet is listed as Prohibited. In New Hampshire Oriental bittersweet is listed as Prohibited, invasive Species. In North Carolina Oriental bittersweet is listed as Class C noxious weed. In Vermont Oriental bittersweet is listed as Class B noxious weed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Beck, Nicholas

Source: Indiana Dunes Bioblitz

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

Oriental Bittersweet prefers partial to full sun, mesic conditions, and soil containing loam and/or silt. While its growth will be slowed, this vine also tolerates considerable shade. In North America, it has relatively few problems with pests and disease organisms. However, this vine should not be planted, because it is aggressive and potentially invasive of natural habitats.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

More info for the terms: cover, resistance, restoration

Medicine and other products: Oriental bittersweet is an Asian folk medicine used for treating rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections. Medical and pharmacological studies show that Oriental bittersweet derivatives have antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and insecticidal properties [66,67,108]. One Oriental bittersweet derivative shows ability to reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells to cancer-treatment drugs [75,76].

Oriental bittersweet bark is used as a fine fiber in China [175]. Enzymes in Oriental bittersweet leaves clot milk. These leaf extracts may provide an alternative to calf rennet enzymes used in making cheese [116].

Ornamental and rehabilitation: In the United States, Oriental bittersweet is commercially available and widely planted and harvested as an ornamental [105]. Wreaths and other ornaments are made from fruiting stems; Oriental bittersweet seeds may disperse if these ornaments are discarded on favorable germination sites. Oriental bittersweet was once widely planted in highway and "conservation" plantings, but it is not currently recommended for wildland plantings [51,54,102].

Alternative native lianas recommended for ornamental and restoration plantings include American bittersweet, trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens), trumpet-creeper (Campsis radicans), yellow passionflower (Passiflora lutea), pipevine (Aristolochia macrophylla), and American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) [152]. For wildlife plantings, American bittersweet arils can provide food for frugivorous animals [102]. Oriental bittersweet is sometimes mistaken for, mislabeled, and/or planted as American bittersweet in wildlife cover and erosion projects. Correct identification of American bittersweet is needed to meet restoration goals [109].

  • 54. Harrington, Robin A.; Kujawski, Ronald; Ryan, H. Dennis P. 2003. Invasive plants and the green industry. Journal of Arboriculture. 29(1): 42-48. [49826]
  • 66. Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Hang Sub; Lee, Jeong Hyeong; Hong, Young Soo; Ro, Jai Seup; Lee, Kyong Soon; Lee, Jung Joon. 2001. Antioxidant benzoylated flavan-3-ol glycoside from Celastrus orbiculatus. Journal of Natural Products. 64(1): 82-84. [50130]
  • 67. Jin, Hui Zi; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Hang Sub; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Jung Joon. 2002. Antiinflammatory constituents of Celastrus orbiculatus inhibit the NF-kB activation and NO production. Journal of Natural Products. 65(1): 89-91. [50123]
  • 75. Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Hang Sub; Hong, Young Soo; Kim, Young Choong; Lee, Jung Joon. 1999. Sesquiterpene esters from Celastrus orbiculatus and their structure--activity relationship on the modulation of multidrug resistance. Journal of Natural Products. 62(5): 697-700. [50129]
  • 76. Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Young Choong. 1998. A new sesquiterpene ester from Celastrus orbiculatus reversing multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Journal of Natural Products. 61(1): 108-111. [50124]
  • 102. McNab, W. Henry. 1988. Oriental bittersweet: another kudzu? In: Hardwood supply--feast and famine: Proceedings, 16th annual Hardwood Research Council symposium; 1988 May 15-18; Chashiers, NC. Memphis, TN: Hardwood Research Council: 190-191. [49825]
  • 108. Min, Kyung Rak; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lim, Hyoun-Soo; Kang, Bo-Seong; Oh, Gab-Jin; Lee, Jeongrai; Kang, Seh-Hoon; Lee, Kyong Soon; Ro, Jai Seup; Kim, Youngsoo. 1999. (-)-Epiafezelechin: cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor and anti-inflammatory agent from aerial parts of Celastrus orbiculatus. Planta Medica. 65(5): 460-462. [49951]
  • 116. Otani, Hajime; Iwagaki, Mitsuhiro; Hosono, Akiyoshi. 1991. The screening of trees having milk clotting activity. Animal Science and Technology. 62(5): 417-423. [49948]
  • 51. Grese, R. 1992. The landscape architect and problem exotic plants. In: Burley, J. B., ed. Proceedings, American Society of Landscape Architects' open committee on reclamation: reclamation diversity; 1991 October 29; San Diego, CA. [Washington, DC]: [American Society of Landscape Architects]: 7-15. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20122]
  • 105. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. S.; Tabak, N. M. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, [Online]. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Producer). Available: http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ [2010, September 27]. [70356]
  • 109. Minnesota Department of Natural Resouces. 2012. Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), [Online]. In: Terrestrial invasive species identification and management. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Sustainable Forests Initiative (Producer). Available: http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialplants/woody/oriental_bittersweet.html [2012, March 1]. [84667]
  • 152. Swearingen, Jil M. 2009. Fact sheet: Oriental bittersweet--Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/ceor1.htm [2011, January 5]. [81615]
  • 175. Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P. H.; Hong, D. Y., eds. 2012. Flora of China, [Online]. Volumes 1-25. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. In: eFloras. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Herbaria (Producers). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 and http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china. [72954]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the terms: cover, formation, fresh, shrub

Birds and mammals eat Oriental bittersweet arils. Birds that consume and disperse Oriental bittersweet arils include black-capped chickadees, eastern bluebirds, northern mockingbirds, European starlings, blue jays, northern bobwhites, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasants, [24,123,150,170], and wild turkeys (Poole 2005 personal communication in [21]). However, it is unclear how important Oriental bittersweet arils are as an avian food source [77]. Frugivorous mammals that eat the arils include fox squirrels and eastern cottontails (review by [170]). White-tailed deer may browse the foliage, although the foliage may not be preferred. In Rock Creek Park, Washington DC, Oriental bittersweet was more frequent in exclosure plots than in control plots that were accessible to white-tailed deer [137].

Oriental bittersweet with abundant arils.

Palatability and nutritional value: Oriental bittersweet browse is apparently unpalatable to herbivores. Although cattle, white-tailed deer, and lagomorphs browse Oriental bittersweet's congener, American bittersweet [16], browsing animals do not similarly utilize Oriental bittersweet [23].

Oriental bittersweet arils are nutritious. Arils collected on Block Island, Rhode Island had higher protein (8.6% dry weight) and carbohydrate (89.1% dry weight) content than fruits of 8 associated woody species [144]. Fresh Oriental bittersweet arils are 71% water [39]; seed oil content is about 50% [175]. The arils may be toxic to humans (review by [170]).

Cover value: Information on wildlife use of Oriental bittersweet for cover was sparse as of early 2011. Because Oriental bittersweet can alter forest structure, it probably favors thicket- and understory-dwelling animals at the expense of animals using other strata. On a Nature Conservancy Preserve on Long Island Sound, Connecticut, Oriental bittersweet threatened sand dunes providing nesting areas for the piping plover, a state-threatened bird. Managers were concerned that Oriental bittersweet would either spread onto and overtake nesting areas or alter dune erosion and formation dynamics (Lapin 1992 cited in [24]). In an American beech-yellow-poplar forest in Delaware, veeries selected nesting areas with nonnative vegetation cover significantly more than areas with native vegetation cover (P=0.05). Oriental bittersweet was among the nonnative vegetation providing cover near nests, although multiflora rose was usually selected as the actual nest shrub [56].

  • 16. Cromer, Jack I. 1974. American bittersweet. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 10-11. [51795]
  • 21. Dibble, Alison C.; Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler. 2008. Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Northeast bioregion. In: Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 61-90. [70902]
  • 23. Dreyer, G. 1984. Spontaneous naturalization of woody plants in the Connecticut Arboretum. II. Newsletter of the Connecticut Botanical Society. 12(3): 2. [52022]
  • 39. Fukui, Akiko. 2003. Relationship between seed retention time in bird's gut and fruit characteristics. Ornithological Science. 2(1): 41-48. [49823]
  • 77. Kordecki, Kristen E. 2004. Occurrence of Celastrus orbiculatus in forest ecosystems of southern Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. 89 p. Thesis. [81346]
  • 123. Pitts, T. David. 1979. Foods of eastern bluebirds during exceptionally cold weather in Tennessee. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 43(3): 752-754. [19256]
  • 137. Rossell, C. Reed, Jr.; Patch, Steven; Salmons, Susan. 2007. Effects of deer browsing on native and non-native vegetation in a mixed oak-beech forest on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Northeastern Naturalist. 14(1): 61-72. [81622]
  • 144. Smith, Susan B.; McPherson, Kathleen H.; Backer, Jeffrey M.; Pierce, Barbara J.; Podlesak, David W.; McWilliams, Scott R. 2007. Fruit quality and consumption by songbirds during autumn migration. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 119(3): 419-428. [81625]
  • 150. Stoll, Robert J., Jr.; McClain, Milford W.; Nixon, Charles M.; Worley, D. M. 1980. Foods of ruffed grouse in Ohio. Fish and Wildlife Report 7. Columbus, OH: Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. 17 p. [51885]
  • 170. Wendel, G. W.; Barbour, Jill R.; Karrfalt, Robert P. 2008. Celastrus scandens L.: American bittersweet. In: Bonner, Franklin T.; Karrfalt, Robert P., eds. Woody plant seed manual. Agric. Handbook No. 727. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-365. [79081]
  • 56. Heckscher, Christopher M. 2004. Veery nest sites in a Mid-Atlantic Piedmont forest: vegetative physiognomy and use of alien shrubs. The American Midland Naturalist. 151(2): 326-337. [72473]
  • 24. Dreyer, Glenn D. 1994. Element stewardship abstract: Celastrus orbiculata, [Online]. In: Invasives on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/celaorb.html [2005, February 11]. [51943]
  • 175. Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P. H.; Hong, D. Y., eds. 2012. Flora of China, [Online]. Volumes 1-25. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. In: eFloras. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Herbaria (Producers). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 and http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china. [72954]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

Stewardship Overview: Celastrus orbiculatus is an invasive, non-native woody vine. It is particularly troublesome in natural areas in coastal Connecticut and New York state and in the southern Appalachians but can be found growing wild from Maine to Louisiana and the southeastern Great Plains. It can severely damage desirable plants by strangling and/or overtopping them and can blanket entire stands. Upland meadows, thickets, young forests, and beaches are most vulnerable to Asian bittersweet invasion and dominance.

The species can be distinguished from its native congener C. scandens by the location of its fruit - C. orbiculatus has small clusters in the leaf axils while C. scandens has clusters at its branch tips. The two species may be capable of hybridizing and since the native is relatively rare it is possible that its distinct genetic identity is threatened.

Little research has been conducted on C. orbiculatus control but low-growing populations have been successfully treated by cutting and applying triclopyr herbicide to the regrowth about a month later. Larger vines can be cut and the stump treated immediately with triclopyr herbicide. Unfortunately, Asian bittersweet is frequently cultivated and its fruits are gathered for decorative use, which will make preventing further spread and reinfestation all the more difficult. For this reason it is of the utmost importance that land managers, naturalists, botanists, students, horticulturists, gardeners, retailers, etc. learn to distinguish between the native and the introduced bittersweet vine. The seriousness of the problem must be communicated to those in areas where C. orbiculatus either has not yet reached or is not well established.

Species Impact: Celastrus orbiculatus poses a serious threat to individual plants and plant communities due to its high reproductive rate, long range dispersal, ability to rootsucker, and rapid growth rates. Individual plants can be severely damaged and even killed by the aggressive growth habits of this vine. Tree and shrub stems are weakened and killed by the twining and climbing growth that twists around and eventually constricts solute flow (as shown by Lutz, 1943 for C. scandens). Trees with girdled stems and large amounts of vine biomass in their canopies are more susceptible to damage by wind, snow and ice storms (Siccama, et al. 1976, Langdon 1993). All types of plants, and even entire plant communities, can be over-topped and shaded by the vine's rapid vegetative growth. Nearly pure stands of this vine are not uncommon in affected areas. Upland meadows, thickets and young forests, both natural and managed, appear to be most vulnerable to C. orbiculatus dominance.

Langdon (1993) notes that many of the rarest plants in the southeastern United States require a natural disturbance regimen of a certain quality and frequency. Because many of these processes have been altered some of these species are now relegated to roadway and utility corridors that provide exactly the sort of habitat most often invaded and dominated by C. orbiculatus. Langdon (1993) also points out that the region's old growth forests such as cove hardwood stands lose 1-2% of their canopy each year which may provide C. orbiculatus with opportunities to invade. Fortunately, it has not yet been found in virgin forests in the Great Smoky Mountains.

Beaches are also open to invasion. In Connecticut, The Nature Conservancy is managing a C. orbiculatus infestation in sand dunes adjacent to a Piping Plover nesting area on Long Island Sound. The managers are concerned that the vines will either spread into actual nesting areas or alter the dynamics of dune formation and erosion (Lapin 1992). In either case, they could interfere with the reproduction of a bird officially listed as a Threatened Species by the State of Connecticut. Very vigorous patches of C. orbiculatus have also been observed growing in pure sand in coastal Rhode Island (Dreyer, pers. obs.).

It is considered of particular concern to forestry programs in some parts of the southern United States (McNab and Meeker 1987). The problems throughout the East are most noticeable along roadsides where vegetation is blanketed by bittersweet in a way reminiscent of Kudzu infested areas of the southeastern United States.

Given the fact that hybrids with C. scandens are clearly possible, and that C. scandens appears to be less common than in the recent past (Dreyer et al. 1987, Mehrhoff 1986), the potential for introgressive hybridization, resulting in the loss of C. scandens genetic identity, is possible. Connecticut has recently listed C. scandens as a Species of Special Concern, i.e. one for which more information on distribution and abundance is needed. In Great Smoky Mountains National Park C. scandens is restricted to circumneutral soils and is considered a non-reproducing rare plant (Langdon 1993).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecological Threat in the United States

Oriental bittersweet is a vigorously growing vine that climbs over and smothers vegetation which may die from excessive shading or breakage. When bittersweet climbs high up on trees the increased weight can lead to uprooting and blow-over during high winds and heavy snowfalls. In addition, Oriental bittersweet is displacing our native American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) through competition and hybridization.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecological Threat in the United States

Oriental bittersweet is a vigorous growing plant that threatens native vegetation from the ground to the canopy level. Thick masses of vines sprawl over shrubs, small trees and other plants, producing dense shade that weakens and kills them. Shrubs and trees can be killed by girdling and by uprooting as a result of excessive weight of the vines. In the Northeast, Oriental bittersweet appears to be displacing the native American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) through competition and hybridization.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Celastrus orbiculatus

Celastrus orbiculatus is a woody vine of the Celastraceae family.[1] It is commonly called Oriental bittersweet.[2][3] Other common names include Chinese bittersweet,[2] Asian bittersweet,[3] Round-leaved bittersweet,[3] and Asiatic bittersweet. Celastrus orbiculatus was introduced into North America in 1879,[4] and is considered to be an invasive species in eastern North America. It closely resembles the native North American species, Celastrus scandens, with which it will readily hybridize.[5]

The defining characteristic of the plant is its vines: they are thin, spindly, and have silver to reddish brown bark. They are generally between 1 and 4 cm in diameter. When Celastrus orbiculatus grows by itself, it forms thickets; when it is near a tree or shrub, the vines twist themselves around the trunk. The encircling vines have been known to strangle the host tree to death, also true of the American species. The leaves are round and glossy, 2–12 cm long, have toothed margins and grow in alternate patterns along the vines. Small green flowers produce distinctive red seeds. The seeds are encased in yellow pods that break open during autumn. All parts of the plant are poisonous.[6]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Because of these uses and systematic disturbances to eastern forests for wood production and recreation, Oriental bittersweet has naturalized to landscapes, roadsides, and woodlands of eastern North America. In the United States it can be found as far south as Louisiana, as far north as Maine, and as far west as the Rocky Mountains.[7] It prefers mesic woods, where it has been known to eclipse native plants.[8]

Celastrus orbiculatus as an Invasive Species[edit]

Oriental bittersweet is a strong competitor in its environment, and its dispersal has endangered the survival of several other species. One attribute that contributes to the success of this species is having attractively colored fruit. As a result it is eaten by mammals and birds, which excrete the seeds to different locations.

The introduction of Oriental bittersweet into new areas threatens the local flora because the native plants then have a strong competitor in the vicinity. The species is native to Eastern Asia, but was introduced to the US for aesthetic purposes.[9] It has been used in floral arrangements, and because of improper disposal the plant has been recklessly introduced into areas, affecting the ecology of over 33 states from Georgia to Wisconsin, and parts of the Appalachians.[9] The organism grows primarily in the perimeter of highly vegetative areas, allowing it to readily access the frontier of resources. Oriental bittersweet’s ability to grow in a variety of environments has proven to be detrimental to many plant species along the Appalachian mountains and is moving more towards the West as time progresses.[10][11][12]

Map of Oriental bittersweet distribution
This map shows the identified locations of the Oriental bittersweet as of 2012 (provided by the United States Department of Agriculture).[12]

Oriental bittersweet employs multiple invasive and dispersal strategies allowing it to outcompete the surrounding plant species in non-native regions. This is a strong reason why the control of the species presents difficulties to manage.[13] The plant’s invasion has created diverse ecological, managerial, and agricultural complications making it a focus of environmental conservation efforts.

Response to Abiotic Factors[edit]

Oriental bittersweet can be found growing in areas that are high and steep. When placed in 10 different sites with varying light intensity and nitrogen concentration, Oriental bittersweet was found to have higher aboveground biomass as well as a lower mortality rate in comparison to its congener species, Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet). This species is able to outcompete other species by more effectively responding to abiotic conditions such as sunlight. In diverse abiotic conditions (such as varying sunlight intensity and nitrogen concentrations), Oriental bittersweet has a mortality rate of 14% in comparison to the American bittersweet, which has a mortality rate of 33%.[14] Oriental bittersweet cannot thrive as efficiently when placed in extremely wet and dry environments; however, it flourishes in moderate rainfall environments which leads to an increased growth rate.

Sunlight is one of the most vital resources for Oriental bittersweet. As demonstrated by controlled experiments, Oriental bittersweet grows more rapidly in environments that fare a higher amount of sunlight. In a study where populations received above 28% sunlight, it exhibited a higher amount of growth and biomass.[14] This study used layers of woven cloth to control the percentage of available sunlight. In this experiment, the TLL ratio (the living length of stems on each plant) increased when Oriental bittersweet was exposed to higher amounts of sunlight.[14] If Oriental bittersweet was exposed to 2% sunlight, then the TLL ratio decreased.[14] Oriental bittersweet can increase in biomass by 20% when exposed to 28% sunlight rather than 2%. The plant’s strong response to sunlight parallels its role as an invasive species, as it can outcompete other species by fighting for and receiving more sunlight. Although growth ratios decrease when Oriental bittersweet is exposed to 2% sunlight (due to a decrease in photosynthetic ability), it still exhibited a 90% survival rate.[15] Experimental data has indicated that Oriental bittersweet has a strong ability to tolerate low light conditions “ranging on average from 0.8 to 6.4% transmittance ”.[16] In comparison to its congener American bittersweet, when placed in habitats with little light, Oriental bittersweet was found to have increased height, increased aboveground biomass, and increased total leaf mass.[15][16] Oriental bittersweet, in comparison to many other competing species, is the better competitor in attaining sunlight.

Temperature is another variable that plays a role in Oriental bittersweet's growth and development as an invasive species. Unlike other invasive species, high summer temperatures have been shown to inhibit plant growth. Oriental bittersweet has also been shown to be positively favored in habitats experiencing high annual precipitation. This is noteworthy as it contrasts sharply with other common invasive species such as Berberis thunbergii and Euonymus alatus which have been shown to have a decreased probability of establishment when placed in environments experiencing high annual precipitation.[17]

Compared to other invasive species analyzed in a recent study, Oriental bittersweet was more prevalent in landscapes dominated by developed areas.[17] Open and abandoned habitats were also found to positively influence the spread of the plant compared to other invasive species.[17] Additionally the species is heavily favored in edge habitats. This ability to live in various environmental conditions raises the concern of the plant's dispersal.

Biotic Interactions[edit]

Mutualistic Interactions[edit]

A determining factor regarding Oriental bittersweet’s ability to outcompete native plant species is its ability to form mutualistic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, specifically arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.[18] Oriental bittersweet growth is highly dependent on the absorption of phosphorus. In a recent study, growth was found to be greater when arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were present in soil with low phosphorus concentrations, compared to when the plant was placed in an environment with high soil phosphorus concentrations with no arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were present.[18] The results from this study show the importance of symbiotic relationships in allowing Oriental bittersweet to effectively uptake nutrients from its surroundings. Additionally, the symbiotic relationship with mycorrhizae allows this invasive species to utilize less of its energy in root biomass to absorb necessary nutrients. This may be crucial in allowing Oriental bittersweet to act as an effective invasive species as it is able to allocate more energy to its aboveground biomass instead of its belowground biomass; a significant point regarding this plant’s invasiveness relies on photosynthetic ability and reproductive capacity.[18] It should be noted that the symbiotic relationship established with fungi only occurs with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, while no such relationship has been observed with ectomycorrhizal fungi. These studies have shown that suitable mycorrhizae are a strong determining factor regarding whether a plant can survive in its environment.[18] Studies have also shown evidence that “introduced plant species can modify microbial communities in the soil surrounding not only their own roots, but also the roots of neighboring plants, thereby altering competitive interactions among the plant species”.[18] This may be a key invasive trait for Oriental bittersweet, as it allows the plant to negatively affect surrounding plant life by altering their underground symbiotic microbial relationships.[18] However, further experimentation is necessary to determine whether this organism employs this trait as an invasive strategy.

Competitive Interactions[edit]

One of Oriental bittersweet’s invasive characteristics is its effective utilization of energy to increase plant height, thus giving it a competitive advantage over similar plants. A study conducted in 2006 showed that, in comparison to its congener American bittersweet, Oriental bittersweet had increased height, increased aboveground biomass, and increased total leaf mass.[15] This is not to say that Oriental bittersweet outperformed American bittersweet in all criteria: in comparison to Oriental bittersweet, “American bittersweet had increased stem diameter, single leaf area, and leaf mass to stem mass ratio,” suggestive that American bittersweet focused growth on ulterior portions of the plant rather than plant characteristics emphasized by Oriental bittersweet such as stem length.[15] This is significant as height plays a major role in allowing Oriental bittersweet to outcompete surrounding vegetation.[15] Focusing growth on stem length allows it to be in a strong position to absorb light, while also negatively impacting surrounding plant life by creating shade-like conditions. As a result, this surrounding plant light absorption.

The species' vine-like morphology has also been shown to have negative effects on surrounding plant life. For example, evidence suggests that this morphological characteristic facilitates its ability to girdle nearby trees, creating an overall negative effect on the trees such as making them more susceptible to ice damage or damaging branches due to the weight of the plant.[19] Additionally, studies have suggested that Oriental bittersweet is capable of siphoning away nutrients from surrounding plants. The study found this to occur in a variety of environments, suggestive of both the plant’s increased relative plasticity as well as increased nutrient uptake.[16]

One study observed that the presence of Oriental bittersweet increases the basicity of the surrounding soil, a characteristic of many successful invasive plant species.[19] This alters the availability of essential nutrients and hinders the nutrient uptake ability of native plants. Though the relationship between Oriental bittersweet and the basicity of the soil is consistent, there are a number of proposed mechanisms for this observation. The plant's significant above-ground biomass demands the preferential uptake of nitrate over ammonia, leading to soil nitrification. It also has a high cation-exchange capacity, which also supports the larger biomass. Either of these functions could explain the increased basicity, but further experimentation is needed to pinpoint the exact mechanism.[19]

Hybridization[edit]

Another major threat posed by Oriental bittersweet is hybridization with American Bittersweet. Hybridization occurs readily between American bittersweet females and Oriental bittersweet males, though the opposite is known to occur to a lesser extent. The resulting hybrid species is fully capable of reproduction.[20] In theory, if the Oriental bittersweet invasion continues to worsen, widespread hybridiation could genetically disrupt the entire American bittersweet population, possibly rendering it extinct.[10]

Management[edit]

To minimize the effects of Oriental bittersweet’s invasion into North American habitats, its growth and dispersal must be tightly managed. Early detection is essential for successful conservation efforts. To reduce further growth and dispersal, above-ground vegetation is cut and any foliage is sprayed with triclopyr, a common herbicide. Glyphosate is another chemical method of control. These two herbicides are usually sprayed directly on the plants in late fall to prevent other plants from being targeted. These steps must be repeated annually, or whenever regrowth is observed.[21] Triclopyr is non-toxic to most animal and insect species and slightly toxic to some species of fish, but it has a half-life of less than a day in water, making it safe and effective for field usage.[22] [21] Mechanical methods have also been used, but they are not as effective due to the difficulty of completely removing the root.[23] There is also no biological control agent available in helping control this species.[24] Mechanical and chemical methods are being used, but they are only temporarily fixing the situation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hou, D. 1955 A revision of the genus Celastrus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 42: 215–302
  2. ^ a b Weeks, Sally S.; Weeks, Harmon P. (Jr.) (2011). Shrubs and woody vines of Indiana and the Midwest: Identification, wildlife values, and landscaping use. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. p. 392. ISBN 9781557536105. 
  3. ^ a b c Czarapata, Elizabeth J. (2005). Invasive plants of the upper Midwest: An illustrated guide to their identification and control. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780299210540. 
  4. ^ Celastrus orbiculatus - Oriental Bittersweet Vine. Conservation New England. Accessed 31 October 2009.
  5. ^ White, Orland E.; Wray M. Bowden (1947). "Oriental and American Bittersweet Hybrids". Journal of Heredity 38 (4): 125–128. PMID 20242535. 
  6. ^ Richard H. Uva, Joseph C. Neal and Joseph M. Ditomaso, Weeds of The Northeast, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997), Pp. 336–337.
  7. ^ Max Hutchison, VEGETATION MANAGEMENT GUIDELINE: Round-leaved bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.)[dead link]
  8. ^ Archana Pande, Carol L. Williams, Christopher L. Lant, David J. Gibson. "Using map algebra to determine the mesoscale distribution of invasive plants: the case of Celastrus orbiculatus in Southern Illinois, USA". Biol Invasions:2006. 
  9. ^ a b McNab, W. H. and Loftis, D. L. (2002). "Probability of occurrence and habitat features for oriental bittersweet in an oak forest in the southern Appalachian mountains, USA" 155. Forest Ecology and Management. pp. 45–54. 
  10. ^ a b Jones, Chad C. (2012). "Challenges in predicting the future distributions of invasive plant species". Forest Ecology and Management 284: 69. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.024. 
  11. ^ Albright, Thomas P.; Anderson, Dean P.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Pearson, Scott M.; Turner, Monica G. (2009). "The spatial legacy of introduction:Celastrus orbiculatusin the southern Appalachians, USA". Journal of Applied Ecology. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01707.x. 
  12. ^ a b United States Department of Agriculture. (2012). "Plant profile for Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet)". Natural Resource Conservation Service. 
  13. ^ Greenberg, C. H., Smith, L. M., & Levey, D. J. (2001). "Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine- an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy". Biological Invasions. 4: 464–372. 
  14. ^ a b c d Ellsworth, J.W., Harrington, R.A., & Fownes, J.H (2004). "Survival, growth and gas exchange of Celastrus orbiculatus seedlings in sun and shade". American Midland Naturalist 151 (2): 233–240. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2004)151[0233:SGAGEO]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 3566741. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Leicht SA, Silander JA (July 2006). "Differential responses of invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) and native C. scandens to changes in light quality". Am. J. Bot. 93 (7): 972–7. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.7.972. PMID 21642161. 
  16. ^ a b c Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Grundel, Ralph; Frohnapple, Krystalynn J. (2007). "Distinguishing Native (Celastrus Scandens L.) and Invasive (C. Orbiculatus Thunb.) Bittersweet Species Using Morphological Characteristics". The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134 (4): 441–50. doi:10.3159/07-RA-028.1. JSTOR 20063940. 
  17. ^ a b c Ibáñez, Inés; Silander, John A.; Wilson, Adam M.; Lafleur, Nancy; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Tsuyama, Ikutaro (2009). "Multivariate forecasts of potential distributions of invasive plant species". Ecological Applications 19 (2): 359–75. doi:10.1890/07-2095.1. PMID 19323195. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f Lett, Carly N.; Dewald, Laura E.; Horton, Jonathan (2011). "Mycorrhizae and soil phosphorus affect growth of Celastrus orbiculatus". Biological Invasions 13 (10): 2339. doi:10.1007/s10530-011-0046-3. 
  19. ^ a b c Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; O'Donnell, Hillary; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A. (2009). "Effects of an Invasive Plant Species, Celastrus orbiculatus, on Soil Composition and Processes". The American Midland Naturalist 161 (2): 219. doi:10.1674/0003-0031-161.2.219. 
  20. ^ Pavlovic, N. B., & Young, S. L. (2007). "Distinguishing an alien invasive vine from the native congener: morphology, genetics, and hybridization". United States Geological Survey, Ecosystem Health and Restoration Branch. 
  21. ^ a b Pavlovic, N. Leicht-Young, S., Morford, D, & Mulcorney, N. (2011). "To Burn or Not to Burn Oriental Bittersweet: A Fire Manager’s Conundrum". United States Geological Survey, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station, Great Lakes Science Center. 
  22. ^ Ganapathy, Carissa (1997). "Environmental Fate of Triclopyr". Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management Branch, Department of Pesticide Regulation. 
  23. ^ Swearingen, J., Reshetiloff, K., Slattery B., & Zwicker, S (2002). "Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas". Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas. National Park Service and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. p. 82. 
  24. ^ Dryer, Glenn D. (2003). "Oriental Bittersweet: Element Stewardship Abstract.". Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, Weeds on the Web. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

This is one of the most widely distributed Celastrus species in China. The ripe fruit is used in Chinese traditional medicine, called "wattle flower" in NE and N China. The bark is used for fine fiber, and seed oiliness is 50%. It is also widely distributed in Asia and its leaf morphology is very variable.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Sometimes erroneously referred to as C. articulatus.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonyms

Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. [70,166]
  • 166. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 70. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

Oriental bittersweet

Asian bittersweet

climbing spindleberry

round-leaved bittersweet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!