Overview

Distribution

The Asiatic clam is found throughout Asia, North and South America, Europe and parts of Africa. The clam occurs primarily in streams south of 40 degrees latitude in the northern hemisphere.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Range Description

The species is native to southern and eastern Asia (eastern Russia, Thailand, Philippines, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan) but has been very widely introduced. This species has been introduced to several parts of Africa, North America and throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. It is considered one of the worst invaders of aquatic ecosystems. Brandt (1974) reported this species in Thailand from the Chao Praya River and some tributaries.
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Range Description

The type locality for this species is the estuary of the Artemovka River, Primorski, Russia. The distribution of this species includes southeast Siberia, southern Primorski and 'the south of the Russian Far East' (Lindholm 1928, Bogatov and Starobogatov 1994, Kantor et al. 2009). It is also found in Korea (Graf and Kummings 2011).
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)

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Physical Description

Morphology

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

The Asiatic clam prefers a lake or stream that has a a sandy or gravel substrate. However, they are also located underneath large boulders and in soft silts of deepwater lakes. The clam thrives better in fast flowing waters because the currents supply a constant source of the particulate food that the clam consumes.

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in rivers, lakes, ditches and pools of fresh or brackish waters. It is often found in the entrance of rivers or lakes to the sea. The substrate is sand, mud or a mixture of the two.


Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits brackish water bodies and estuaries (Kantor et al. 2009).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: This species can survive in almost any freshwater environment, including brackish and estuarine waters, that is permanent (Carlton, 1992). In a study of the relationships of 12 environmental variables to density oand biomass of Corbicula fluminea, higher density and biomass were found to be correlated to where substrate was > 40% fine sand, < 45% silt, and < 8% organic content (Cooper, 2007).

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Depth range based on 258 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -99 - 22.5

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -99 - 22.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

The Asiatic clam is a filter-feeding bivalve. It filters microscopic organisms, such as plankton, from the water.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: One of the farthest northerly records is in the Clinton River in southeastern Michigan from before 1990 (Janech and Hunter, 1995). This species has been documented in Colorado (Cordeiro and MacWilliams, 1999) and is expanding in that state (Sovell and Guralnick, 2005). Recently it has been found in a number of permanent water bodies at the central and western regions of Cuba (Pointier et al., 2005). This species is apparently rare in the Fox River basin in Illinois and Wisconsin as a recent comprehensive survey found it alive at only a single tributary in Illinois (none in Wisconsin portion) (Schanzle et al., 2004). It occurs throughout the Rough River (Green basin), Kentucky (Gordon, 1991). In Alabama it occurs in most of the statre and the Mobile Basin except for the Blackwater, Perdido and Escatawpa Rivers and some direct tributaries of Mobile Bay (Williams et al., 2008; McGregor et al., 1999). Pearce and Evans (2008) documented it in Plummers Island (Middle Potomac River system), Maryland. Lysne and Clark (2009) found it in the Bruneau River (survey area from Snake River confluence upstream to Hot Creek- 41 km) in Idaho.

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

The Asiatic clam is hermaphroditic, with single genopores on each sides of the body. Reproduction and larval release occurs biannually in the spring and in the late summer. The clam is believed to practice self-fertilization, enabling rapid colony regeneration when colony populations are low.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Corbicula fluminea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 13 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTGTTCCATTAATG---TTAAGGGCTCCTGATATAGCTTTTCCACGATTAAATAATTTAAGATTTTGGCTTTTACCTATAGCTATGCTTTTGTTAGTTAGATCGGCTTATGTTGAGAGTGGTGCTGGGACTGGGTGGACTGTTTATCCTCCTCTTTCTAGAAATATTGCTCATTCTGGCCCGTCAGTAGATTTA---GCTATTTTTTCTCTTCATTTAGGGGGTATTTCTTCAATTTTAGCTTCAATTAATTTTGTTGTCACTAGATTTTGTATGCGTCCTGGAGCGCAAAAGCTAATTCGGACTACAATGTTTATTTGATGTATTGTTGTAACTGGAATTTTGTTGATTATTGCAATGCCTGTGTTAGCTGGG---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GCTCTTACT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ATG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Corbicula fluminea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 15
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Historically, wild populations of the Asiatic clam were exploited and harvested, to the extent that , locally, the clams once faced endangerment or extinction. Today, the clam thrives throughout the world.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: no special status

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Aldridge, D., Madhyastha, A. & Van Damme, D.

Reviewer/s
Seddon, M., von Proschwitz, T. & Richman, N.

Contributor/s
Bogan, A.

Justification
The species is thought to be native and widespread in China and other Asian countries, and has been very widely introduced, and is considered Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Rintelen, T. & Van Damme, D.

Reviewer/s
Böhm, M. & Collen, B.

Contributor/s

Justification
Corbicula finitima has been assessed as Data Deficient due to the lack of population data available and uncertainty of whether this species is being impacted by threat processes. Further research is therefore needed before a more accurate assessment of the conservation status of C. finitima can be carried out.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This species is widespread and has invaded many countries globally.

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

Comments: This species can survive in almost any freshwater environment, including brackish and estuarine waters, that is permanent (Carlton, 1992). In a study of the relationships of 12 environmental variables to density oand biomass of Corbicula fluminea, higher density and biomass were found to be correlated to where substrate was > 40% fine sand, < 45% silt, and < 8% organic content (Cooper, 2007).

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Population

Population
The exact population size is not known, but it is very common in its native and introduced range. Hence, there may not be any fluctuation in population to a large extent.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Global Short Term Trend: Increase of 10 to >25%

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of >25%

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Threats

Major Threats
There are no threats to this species
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Major Threats
It is unknown whether this species is being impacted on by any major threat processes.
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Degree of Threat: Low

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No conservation efforts are required for this species, though it should be monitored as a highly invasive species.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended to determine the abundance and threat processes of this species.
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Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

The clam creates a problem for power plants by blocking the ventalation systems and the water intake valves. Combined costs of outages, reductions in efficiency, capital investment in equipment, labor and chemical control, exceed 1 billion annually.

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The Asiatic clam is a major source of food and is harvested by humans throughout the world. The clam, when removed from its shell, also makes good fishbait.

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Wikipedia

Corbicula fluminea

Corbicula fluminea is a species of freshwater clam, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Corbiculidae.

This species is of originally mainly Asian origin and thus it is often commonly called Asian clam or Asiatic clam. In the aquarium and koi pond trade, it is often called golden clam or golden freshwater clam. In Southeast Asia, it is known as the prosperity clam or good luck clam.

This species has been introduced into many parts of the world, including North America and Europe.

Right after reaching maturity, these clams produce eggs, followed by sperm. Even later, they produce eggs and sperm simultaneously. They can self-fertilize, and release up to 2,000 juveniles per day, and more than 100,000 in a lifetime. Juveniles are only 1 mm long when discharged, and take one to four years to reach maturity. At this time, they are about 1 cm long. Adults can reach a length of about 5 cm.

The outside of the shell is normally yellow-green with concentric rings. The color can flake, leaving white spots. The shells are lightly purple on the inside.

They feed primarily on phytoplankton (algae), which they filter from the sandy or muddy bottoms of streams, lakes, or canals. According to the United States Geological Survey, C. fluminea is likely to continue to expand its North American range until it reaches its lower temperature tolerance.[1]

The primary economic and social impact of the invasion of C. fluminea has been billions of dollars in costs associated with clogged water intake pipes of power plants, among others. Ecologically, C. fluminea contributes to declines and replacement of highly vulnerable, already threatened native clams. [1].

Distribution[edit]

As a native species[edit]

This clam originally occurs in Russia, Thailand, the Philippines, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan, but also in parts of Africa.[2]

As an invasive species[edit]

C. fluminea was probably brought to North America at the latest in 1924, by Asian immigrants who used the clams as a food source. They are abundant in the Albemarle region of North Carolina, as well as other areas along the east coast. Nonindigenous distributions of C. fluminea include:

  • It was first found in the Rhine in the late 1980s and subsequently found its way into the Danube through the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. It reached the Elbe in 1998 at the latest.[3]
  • Czech Republic - in Elbe in Bohemia since 2000[4][5] and it is spreading.[6]
  • It is now in rivers of Portugal, such as the Minho River, and was first recorded in Ireland in 2010. [7]
  • Cuba[8]
  • Venezuela[9][10][11]
  • Lake Placid, NY, USA
  • Allegheny River, Pittsburgh, PA
  • River Nore & Barrow, Republic of Ireland, first recorded in April 2010
  • Guayas, Daule, Vinces, Quevedo, and Babahoyo River drainages, Ecuador
  • Lake Tahoe, on the borders of California and Nevada, they were first found in 2002, and the numbers increased rapidly after 2008. They have been blamed for algal blooms and concerns exist they will outcompete and displace native species such as the montane pea clam (Pisidium spp.) and the ramshorn snail (Planorbidae). Efforts are underway to smother the clams on the bottom with rubber mats. [2]

ist

Taxonomy[edit]

Two species are present in introduced populations, C. fluminea and C. fluminalis.[12] However, the two species are often mixed together. The names themselves are sometimes confused in the literature (e.g. by being called "Corbicula fluminata"). Care needs to be taken to properly distinguish the two species.

The ratio of width and height in C. fluminea is on average 1.1. In C. fluminalis it is smaller (0.97); still, there is much variation and considerable overlap in shape. Most easily, they can be distinguished by the amount of ribs on the shell; C. fluminea has 7 to 14 ribs per cm, C. fluminalis 13 to 28.[13] This character is already clearly recognizable (albeit only by direct comparison) in very small (5 mm diameter) specimens. In addition, when viewed from the side (looking at the opening between the shells), C. fluminalis is rounder, almost heart-shaped, while C. fluminea has a slightly flatter shape like a teardrop with a notched broad end. Small specimens of C. fluminalis are almost spherical, while those of C. fluminea are decidedly flattened. All these differences except the rib number are a consequence of C. fluminalis having a markedly more swollen, pointed and protruding umbo.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ USGS
  2. ^ USGS (2001): Nonindigenous species information bulletin: Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Corbiculidae). PDF fulltext
  3. ^ Jueg, U. & Zettler, M.L. (2004): Die Molluskenfauna der Elbe in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern mit Erstnachweis der Grobgerippten Körbchenmuschel Corbicula fluminea (O. F. Müller 1756). Mitteilungen der NGM 4(1): 85-89. [in German] PDF fulltext
  4. ^ Beran L. (2000) "First record of Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Czech Republic". Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 64: 1-2.
  5. ^ (Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. (2010). "Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1-37. PDF.
  6. ^ Beran L. (2006). Spreading expansion of Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Czech Republic. – Heldia 6 5/6: 187-192.
  7. ^ Hayden, B. and Caffrey, J.M. 2013. First recording of the Asian Clam (Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774)) from the River Shannon, with preliminary notes on population size and class distribution. Ir. Nat. J. 32: 29 - 31.
  8. ^ Vázquez A. A. & Perera S. (2010). "Endemic Freshwater molluscs of Cuba and their conservation status". Tropical Conservation Science 3(2): 190-199. HTM, PDF.
  9. ^ Martítnez E, Rafael. 1987: Corbicula manilensis molusco introducido en Venezuela. Acta Científica Venezolana 38:384-385
  10. ^ Ojasti, Juhani., González Jiménez, Eduardo, Szeplaki Otahola, Eduardo. y García Román, Luis B. 2001: Informe sobre las especies exótica en Venezuela. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Caracas. 207p. ISBN 980-04-1254-9
  11. ^ Lasso, Carlos A., Martínez E, Rafael, Capelo, Juan Carlos., Morales Betancourt, Mónica y Sánchez- Maya, Alejandro. 2009: Lista de los moluscos (Gastropodos_Bivalvia) dulceacuícolas y estuarinos de la cuenca del Orinoco (Venezuela). Biota Colombiana, 10(1 -2):63-74.
  12. ^ It is not entirely clear that this is the correct name (Jueg & Zettler, 2004)
  13. ^ Jueg & Zettler (2004), and see "External links"

7. ^ Weitere, M. et al. (2009) Linking environmental warming to the fitness of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea, Global Change Biology, Volume 15 Issue 12, Pages 2838 - 2851 [3]

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