Overview

Distribution

Virginian, southside of Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) This species is native from Chesapeake Bay southward through the Gulf of Mexico but was introduced into the Hudson River, New York, as early as 1937 and later to the lower Charles River, Massachusetts, according to Rehder (1937), Jacobson (1953) and Carlton (1992). Benson et al. (2001) cite invasions in Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

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Range Description

This species is native to the USA, from Chesapeake Bay southward through the Gulf of Mexico (NatureServe 2009).

It has spread from its native range to other parts of the USA via ship ballast water - invading the Hudson River, New York in the 1930s, the Upper Mississippi River in the 1980s, and southern New England in the 1990s (Therriault et al. 2004). This species is thought to have spread to Europe as early as 1835, and is now found along the North Sea coasts from Germany to France, including the Thames Estuary in England. It was recently identified for the first time from the Dniester Liman, Black Sea basin (Therriault et al. 2004).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is highly adaptible has broad ecological tolerances, inhabiting freshwater through to oligohaline habitats. It has spread from its native range via ship ballast water and through canals (Therriault et al. 2004). It can also be found in coastal and estuarine habitats, riparian zones and wetlands, even occurring in cooling water conduits of power stations (Global Invasive Species Database 2005).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Depth range based on 89 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 19
  Temperature range (°C): 17.743 - 24.196
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 1.601
  Salinity (PPS): 32.419 - 35.785
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.855 - 5.571
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 0.336
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.607

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 19

Temperature range (°C): 17.743 - 24.196

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 1.601

Salinity (PPS): 32.419 - 35.785

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.855 - 5.571

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 0.336

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.607
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Alien species

De brakwatermossel Mytilopsis leucophaeata is een Amerikaanse soort die bij ons terecht kwam via scheepvaart. De soort is typisch voor rivier-mondingen en komt in België voor in de Schelde. De brakwatermossel veroorzaakt aangroei- of ‘biofouling’ problemen in veel industriële sites in Europa, doordat de mossels zich gaan vestigen in koelwatersystemen. Het feit dat deze soort goed bestand is tegen schommelingen in temperatuur en zoutgehalte maakt het extra moeilijk om efficiënte tegenmaatregelen te nemen.
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Alien species

The brackish water mussel or dark falsemussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata is an American species that came to Beligan regions via ships. The species typically occurs in estuaries and in Belgium it is found in the Scheldt estuary. The brackish water mussel settles in cooling systems, causing ‘biofouling’ problems in many industrial sites in Europe. The fact that this species is highly resistant to fluctuations in temperature and salinity makes it difficult to take effective countermeasures.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
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Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: Introduced sites in New England include the Housatonic River in Shelton, Fairfield Co., Connecticut; the Charles River in Boston, Suffolk Co., Massachusetts; and the lower Hudson River basin, New York (Smith and Boss, 1996). In Alabama, it is locally abundant in upper Mobile Bay and parts of the Mobile Delta and is occasionally found far inland in the Tennessee River and Mobile Basin, presumably dispersed by barges although there is evidence that it reproduces in fresh water in Alabama (Williams et al., 2008).

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Mytilopsis leucophaeata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AAAGATATTGGTTCCCTTTATTTTTTTTTATCTTTGTGGGCTGGTTTAGTAGGAACTGGTTTT---AGGGTTTTAATTCGTTTAGAACTTAGGGCTCCTGGAAGTGTTTTAGGAGAT---TACCATTTATATAATTTGGTTGTAACAACGCACGGTTTAGTTATAATTTTTTTTCTTGTTATACCTATAATGATGGGTGGTTTTGGAAATTGATTAGTTCCAATAATA---CTAGCAGTGCCTGATATAGGATTTCCTCGTTTAAATAATGTTAGGTTTTGGGTGTTACCTGTATCTATAGGTCTTTTATTTTGCTCGGCTTTCAGAGAAGGTGGTTTTGGAGGGGGTTGAACTTTATATCCTCCATTGTCTAGAGTTATAGGACACTCTGGACCTGCAATGGACTTT---TTAATTTTATCTCTTCATATTGGAGGTGCGTCTTCTATTATAGCTTCTATTAATTTTTATAGAACTTGAGGAAATATACGTGCTGGGTGTCATCAGTTTTATCGAGTACCTTTGTTTTGTACCTCAATTGGTGTAACTAGATTTTTGTTAATTTTGGCTATACCAGTTTTAGCTGGA---GGATTGACTATGCTTTTGACTGATCGAAATTTTAATACAAGTTTTTTTGATCCTACTGGGTTGGGGGATCCTATATTATTTGTTCATTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mytilopsis leucophaeata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This species is native from Chesapeake Bay southward through the Gulf of Mexico but was introduced into the Hudson River, New York, as early as 1937 and later to the lower Charles River, Massachusetts, according to Rehder (1937), Jacobson (1953) and Carlton (1992).

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Cummings, K.

Reviewer/s
Böhm, M. & Collen, B.

Contributor/s
Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., McGuinness, S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Kasthala, G., Thorley, J., Herdson, R., McMillan, K. & Collins, A.

Justification
Mytilopsis leucophaeta has been assessed as Least Concern as it has a wide, abundant distribution and has demonstrated attributes that make it a successful coloniser. It has a stable population and no major threats are affecting its global population.
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Population

Population
This species is locally abundant throughout its native distribution (NatureServe 2009), and occasionally reaches densities of 15,000 to 28,000 individuals per m2 in introduced parts of its range (Verween et al. 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is unlikely to be impacted by any major threats, although because of its bio-fouling abilities (causing huge economic damage to industry) it is targeted by biocides and other control measures (Global Invasive Species Database 2005).
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Management

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has a NatureServe Global Heritage Status of G5 - Secure (NatureServe 2009), and no species-specific conservation measures are in place, or needed.
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Wikipedia

Mytilopsis leucophaeata

Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a species of small bivalve mollusc in the false mussel family, Dreissenidae. It is commonly known as Conrad's false mussel or the Dark false mussel.

Identification[edit]

It can look very similar to the zebra mussel, with similar stripes, but it can be distinguished from it by an apophysis or projection on the inside of the shell near the umbo.[1] Shell length ranges between <1 and 2 cm, with an average length of 1 cm.[2]

Distribution[edit]

This species is native in the Gulf of Mexico,[3] and spread from there via ballast water, or attached to oysters that were moved, to the Hudson River in the 1930s,[4][5] and from there to other estuaries in the eastern US including Chesapeake Bay [6] as well as to the Pernambuco coast in northeastern Brazil.[7] This species also spread via ballast water to brackish waters in Europe, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea as well as the Black Sea [5][8] and the Caspian Sea.[8]

Like the zebra mussel, this species is a significant biofouling pest in many countries, especially where it has been introduced in Europe.

Habitat[edit]

Mytilopsis leucophaeata is found in brackish water, at salinities ranging from 0.5 psu to about 12 psu, although its upper salinity limit is usually about 5–6 psu. It attaches to hard substrates, including oyster and true mussel shells and cages for them, rocks, boats, and pilings, and also to ropes.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mytilopsis leucophaeata" (PDF). Främmande arter i svenska hav (Alien species in Swedish seas). Informationscentralerna för Bottniska viken, Egentliga Östersjön och Västerhavet. 
  2. ^ "Mytilopsis leucophaeata — the False Dark Mussel". ZMIS information on zebra mussels. Zebra Mussel Research Program, US Army Corps of Engineers. 
  3. ^ Therriault TW, Docker MF, Orlova MI, Heath DD, MacIsaac HJ (March 2004). "Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30 (3): 479–89. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00240-9. PMID 15012933.  as PDF
  4. ^ Walton, W. C. (1996). "Occurrence of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Oligohaline Hudson River, New York". Estuaries 19: 612–8. doi:10.2307/1352521. 
  5. ^ a b Kennedy, V. (2010). "The invasive dark falsemussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae): a literature review". Aquatic Ecology 45: 163–183. doi:10.1007/s10452-010-9344-6. 
  6. ^ Occurrence of this species in Chesapeake Bay and their role in filtration "Oyster Reefs". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Chesapeake Bay Office. 
  7. ^ De Souza, J.R.B.; Rocha, C.M.C. (2005). "Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad) (Mollusca, Bivalvia), in Brazil". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (in Portuguese) 22 (4): 1204–6. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752005000400057. ISSN 0101-8175. 
  8. ^ a b Heiler, K. C. M.; Nahavandi, N.; Albrecht, C. (2010). "A new invasion into an ancient lake — The invasion history of the dreissenid mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831) and its first record in the Caspian Sea". Malacologia 53: 185–192. doi:10.4002/040.053.0112. 
  9. ^ "Mytilopsis leucophaeata (mollusc)". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 
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