Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 2 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 1.5
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:55Public Records:54
Specimens with Sequences:54Public Species:12
Specimens with Barcodes:54Public BINs:9
Species:12         
Species With Barcodes:12         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Crocodylus

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Wikipedia

Crocodylus megarhinus

"Crocodylus" megarhinus is an extinct species of crocodile from the Eocene of Egypt. A partial skull was found by British paleontologist Charles William Andrews in the Fayum Depression. Andrews named Crocodylus megarhinus in 1905 on the basis of the holotype skull. A complete skull was also uncovered from Egypt in 1907 but was not recognized as "C." megarhinus until 1927.[1]

"C." megarhinus shares many features with living crocodiles like the Nile crocodile (C. niloticus), including a robust triangular skull that is shorter than most other crocodiles. Similarities are also seen in the teeth of the two species. Like living crocodiles, "C." megarhinus has several constricted areas along the upper jaw that provide spaces for the teeth of the lower jaw when the mouth is closed. The proportions of "C." megarhinus and C. niloticus are so similar that American paleontologist Charles C. Mook considered it "very probable that C. megarhinus is a direct ancestor of C. niloticus."[1]

A second Fayum crocodilian, "Crocodylus" articeps, was named alongside "C." megarhinus. Andrews distinguished "C." articeps from "C." megarhinus on the basis of its narrower snout, which is more similar to the Slender-snouted crocodile than the Nile crocodile. "C." articeps has recently been synonymized with "C." megarhinus, and may represent a less mature form in the species' population.[2]

Although it has traditionally been described as a species of Crocodylus, "C." megarhinus has been placed outside the genus in many recent phylogenetic analyses. A new genus has not yet been erected for the species. "C." megarhinus is usually found to be a basal crocodyline outside the genus but still more closely related to it than the false gharial or mekosuchines. Below is a cladogram modified from Puértolas et al. (2011) showing its phylogenetic placement among crocodiles:[3]

Crocodyloidea

Prodiplocynodon



Asiatosuchus




Arenysuchus



"Crocodylus" affinis




Brachyuranochampsa



"Crocodylus" acer


 Crocodylidae 

Tomistominae




Mekosuchinae




"Crocodylus" megarhinus




Crocodylus




Voay



Osteolaemus










References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mook, C.C. (1927). "The skull characters of Crocodilus megarhinus Andrews". American Museum Noviates 289: 1–8. 
  2. ^ Brochu, C. A. (2000). "Phylogenetic relationships and divergence timing of Crocodylus based on morphology and the fossil record". Copeia 2000 (3): 657–673. 
  3. ^ Eduardo Puértolas, José I. Canudo and Penélope Cruzado-Caballero (2011). "A New Crocodylian from the Late Maastrichtian of Spain: Implications for the Initial Radiation of Crocodyloids". PLoS ONE 6 (6): e20011. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020011. 
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Crocodylus

Deuterostomia

Crocodylus is one of three genera from the Crocodylinae subfamily extending from the Crocodylidae family.

Established species include four extinct species:[1]

The 13 living species are:

Phylogeny

The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2011 analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences by Robert W. Meredith, Evon R. Hekkala, George Amato and John Gatesy.[4]

 Crocodylus 
 Asia-Australia 


C. porosus




C. palustris



C. siamensis






C. johnsoni




C. novaeguineae



C. mindorensis





 Africa-New World 

C. suchus




C. niloticus


 New World 

C. rhombifer




C. moreletii




C. acutus



C. intermedius








The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2012 analysis of morphological traits by Christopher A. Brochu and Glenn W. Storrs. Many extinct species of Crocodylus might represent different genera. C. suchus was not included, because its morphological codings were identical to these of C. niloticus. However, the authors suggested that it could be explained by their specimen sampling, and considered the two species to be distinct.[1]

 Crocodyloidea 

"Asiatosuchus" germanicus



Prodiplocynodon langi




Asiatosuchus grangeri



"Crocodylus" affinis



"Crocodylus" depressifrons




Brachyuranochampsa eversolei



"Crocodylus" acer


 Crocodylidae 
 Tomistominae 

Kentisuchus spenceri




Dollosuchoides densmorei



Megadontosuchus arduini






Gavialosuchus eggenburgensis



Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis





Tomistoma lusitanica



Tomistoma schlegelii






"Tomistoma" cairense




Thecachampsa antiqua



Thecachampsa americana



Thecachampsa carolinense





Penghusuchus pani




Paratomistoma courti



"Tomistoma" petrolica








 Crocodylinae 

"Crocodylus" megarhinus


 Mekosuchinae 

Kambara implexidens



Australosuchus clarkae




Trilophosuchus rackhami



Quinkana







"Crocodylus" pigotti



"Crocodylus" gariepensis




Euthecodon arambourgii



Euthecodon brumpti




 Osteolaeminae 

Rimasuchus lloydi




Voay robustus




Osteolaemus osborni



Osteolaemus tetraspis







Mecistops cataphractus


 Crocodylus 

C. checchiai



C. palaeindicus




C. anthropophagus



C. thorbjarnarsoni




C. niloticus




C. siamensis




C. palustris




C. porosus



C. johnsoni



C. mindorensis




C. novaeguineae



C. raninus








C. acutus



C. intermedius



C. rhombifer



C. moreletii











References

  1. ^ a b c Brochu, C. A.; Storrs, G. W. (2012). "A giant crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene of Kenya, the phylogenetic relationships of Neogene African crocodylines, and the antiquity ofCrocodylusin Africa". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3): 587. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.652324.  edit
  2. ^ McAliley, Willis, Ray, White, Brochu & Densmore (2006). Are crocodiles really monophyletic?—Evidence for subdivisions from sequence and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 16-32.
  3. ^ Brochu, C. A.; Njau, J.; Blumenschine, R. J.; Densmore, L. D. (2010). "A New Horned Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid Sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania". PLoS ONE 5 (2): e9333. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009333. PMC 2827537. PMID 20195356. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2827537. 
  4. ^ a b Robert W. Meredith, Evon R. Hekkala, George Amato and John Gatesy (2011). "A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 183–191. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.026. 
  5. ^ http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Crocodylus&species=raninus
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