The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (January 2003) External link.
  • 2. Hiscock, K., (2001) Botryllus schlosseri. Star ascidian. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth:Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 27/11/02]. External link.
  • 3. Fish, J. D. & Fish, S. (1996) A student's guide to the seashore. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Berril, N.J., (1950). The Tunicata with an account of the British species. London: Ray Society. External link.
  • Berril, N.J., (1975). Chordata: Tunicata. In Reproduction of marine Invertebrates, vol. II, (ed. A.C. Geise & J.S. Pearse), pp. 241-282. New York: Academic Press. External link.
  • Berrill N.J. 1950. The Tunicata with an account of the British species. The Ray Society, London. 354 p.Berril N.J. 1975. Chordata: Tunicata. pp. 241-282 In: (Geise A.C, and J.S. Pearse, eds). Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, vol. II,. Academic Press, NY.
  • Botryllus schlosseri
  • Brunetti R., Beghi L., Bressan M., and M.G. Marin. 1980. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on colonies of Botryllus schlosseri and Botrylloides leachi (Ascidiacea) from the Venetian Lagoon. Marine Ecology Progress Series 1980:202-314.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Carlton, J. T. (2007). The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon. 1001. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Chadwick-Furman N.E., and I.L. Weissman. 1995. Life history plasticity in chimaeras of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Biological Sciences 262:157-162.
  • Chadwick-Furman, N.E., & Weissman, I.L., (1995). Life histories and senescence of Botryllus schlosseri (Chordata: Ascidiacea) in Monterey Bay. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 189, 36-41. External link.
  • Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Harms J., and K. Anger. 1983. Seasonal, annual, and spatial variation in the development of hard bottom communities. Helgolaender Meeresuntersuchungen 36:137-150.
  • Hayward & Ryland, 1995; p. 709 (Norway to Mediterranean)
  • Hiscock K. 2007. Botryllus schlosseri. Star ascidian. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available online.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Lambert C.C., and G. Lambert. 1998. Non-indigenous ascidians in southern California harbors and marinas. Marine Biology 130:675-688.
  • Lambert, C. C., & Lambert G. (1998). Non-indigenous ascidians in southern California harbors and marinas. Marine Biology. 130, 675-688.
  • Lambert, C. C., & Lambert G. (2003). Persistence and differential distribution of nonindigenous ascidians in harbors of the Southern California Bight. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 259, 145-161.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2013). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Millar R.H. 1971. The biology of ascidians. Advances in Marine Biology 9:1-100.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Botryllus schlosseri species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Pallas, P. S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum. 18-451.
  • Phillippi A., Hamann E., and P.O. Yund. 2004. Fertilization in an egg-brooding colonial ascidian does not vary with population density. Biological Bulletin 206:152-160.
  • Rinkevich B., and M. Shapira. 1998. An improved diet for inland broodstock and the establishment of an inbred line from Brotryllus schlosseri, a colonial sea squirt (Ascidiacea). Aquatic Living Resources 11:163-171.
  • Ruiz G.M., Fofonoff P.W., carlton J.T., Wonham M.J., and A.H. Hines. 2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities on North America: Apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annual Review of Ecological Systematics 31:481-531.
  • Ruiz, G. M., Fofonoff P. W., Steves B., Foss S. F., & Shiba S. N. (2011). Marine invasion history and vector analysis of California: a hotspot for western North America. Diversity and Distributions. 17, 362-373.
  • Rumohr, H. & Kujawski, T., (2000). The impact of trawl fishery on the epifauna of the southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 1389-1394. External link.
  • SCAPS Patrick, ANDRÉ Frédéric, ZIEMSKI Frédéric, in : DORIS, 23/6/2012 : Botryllus schlosseri (Pallas, 1766),
  • Salem Sound Coastwatch. Undated. Guide to marine invaders in the Gulf of Maine: Botryllus schlosseri fact sheet. 2p.
  • Sanamyan, K. (2015). Botryllus schlosseri (Pallas, 1766). In: Shenkar, N.; Gittenberger, A.; Lambert, G.; Rius, M.; Moreira Da Rocha, R.; Swalla, B.J.; Turon, X. (2015) Ascidiacea World Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Schmidt G.H., and G.F. Warner. 1986. Spatial competition between colonial ascidians: the importance of stand-off. Marine Ecology Progress Series 31:101-104.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Van Name, W. G. (1945). The North and South American ascidians. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 84, 476 + plates. New York: Order of the Trustees.


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