The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (January, 2008) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 2. Ecological Research and Development Group: The Horseshoe Crab (March, 2004) External link.
  • 3. Well, S.M., Pyle, R.M. and Collins, N.M. (1983) The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  • 4. Smithsonian Marine Station (March, 2004) External link.
  • Anderson L. y Selden, P. A. 1997. Ophisthomal fusion and phylogeny of palaeozoic Xiphosura. Lethaia. (30) : 19-31.
  • Arriaga, L., Espinoza, J. M, Aguilar, C., Martínez, E., Gómez, L. y Loa, E. 2000. Regiones terrestres prioritarias de México. CONABIO. México D. F.
  • Boxshall, G. (2015). Limulus polyphemus (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Day, Cherie H. 1987. "Life on Intertidal Rocks." Nature Study Guild Publishers, Rochester, NY.
  • García, E. 1987. Modificaciones al sistema de clasificación climática de Köppen. Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México D. F.
  • Gonzalez-Uribe,J. y Ortega-Salas,A. 1991. Environmental factors in rearing eggs and larvae of Limulus polyphemus L. under labotory conditions.
  • Gould, James L.; Keeton, William T. 1993. "Biological Science." W.W. Norton and Company, Inc. New York and London.
  • Gómez-Aguirre, S. 1979. Notas para estudios de población de Limulus polyphemus L. (Xiphosura: Xiphosuridae) en la Isla del Carmen, Campeche. Anales de Instituto de biologia. (1) : 769-772.
  • Gómez-Aguirre, S. 1993. Cacerolita de mar (Limulus polyphemus L.) en la península de Yucatán En: Salazar-Vallejo S. I. y N. E. González (eds.) Biodiversidad Marina y Costera de México CONABIO y CIQRO.
  • Gómez-Aguirre, S. y Flores-Moran, M. 1997. Vida planctónica de la larva trilobita de Limulus polyphemus. Anales de Instituto de biologia. (2) : 839-842.
  • Gómez-Aguirre, S., Ochoterena-Booth y Sapien-Silva. 1992. Diferenciación sexual y comportamiento de Limulus polyphemus en cautiverio. Anales de Instituto de biologia. (63) : 161-164.
  • Hickman, Cleveland P.; Roberts, Larry S. 1995. "Animal Diversity." Wm. C. Brown Pubishers. Dubuque, Iowa.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Lavrov, D. V., J. L. Boore, and W. M. Brown. 2000. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17:813-824.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Rudloe, A. 1979. Limulus polyphemus: a review of the ecologically significant literature. En: Biomedical applications of the horseshoe crab (Limulidae) Alan R. Liss Inc.
  • Rudloe, A. 1980. The breeding behavior and paterns of movent of horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus in the vicinity of breeding beaches in Apalachee Bay, Florida. Estuaries. (3) : 177-183.
  • Ruppert, E. y Barnes, R. 1996. Zoología de los Invertebrados. McGraw-Hill Interamericana. México D. F.
  • Sekiguchi, K., Seshimo y Sugita, H. 1988. Post-Embryonic development of the horseshoe crab. Bulletin Biological. (174) : 337--345.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
  • Shultz, J. W. 2001. Gross muscular anatomy of Limulus polyphemus (Xiphosura, Chelicerata) and its bearing on evolution in the Arachnida. Journal of Arachnology 29:283-303.
  • Shuster, C. N., Jr., R. B. Barlow, and H. J. Brockmann, eds. 2003. The American Horseshoe Crab. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Stanton, J. L., L. L. Daehler, and W. M. Brown. 1997. Mitochondrial gene arrangement of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L.: Conservation of major features among arthropod classes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14:867-874.
  • Williams, Austin B. 1984. "Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs of the Atlantic Coast." Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.


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