Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description of Alexandrium

Goniodomid dinoflagellate, rounded or angular body; cingulum median but displaced by one width on right ventral side; nucleus median and u-shaped; chloroplasts present; some species form chains; many species produce PSP toxins.
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biopedia

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 12765 specimens in 20 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2422 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 500
  Temperature range (°C): -2.058 - 27.590
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.232 - 14.664
  Salinity (PPS): 24.378 - 39.081
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.600 - 9.192
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.268
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.927 - 39.813

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 500

Temperature range (°C): -2.058 - 27.590

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.232 - 14.664

Salinity (PPS): 24.378 - 39.081

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.600 - 9.192

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.268

Silicate (umol/l): 0.927 - 39.813
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 148
Specimens with Sequences: 122
Specimens with Barcodes: 44
Species: 18
Species With Barcodes: 17
Public Records: 90
Public Species: 16
Public BINs: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Alexandrium cf. catenella

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Alexandrium cf. catenella

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Alexandrium (genus)

Alexandrium is a genus of dinoflagellates, with many species related to toxin production leading to Paralytic shellfish poisoning.[1] The dinoflagellate cysts produced by this species are considered much more toxic than swimming cells.[2] Enzyme electrophoretic data [3] and RNA genetic analysis [4][5] show two of the species, Alexandrium fundyense and A. tamarense to be closely related, while mating compatibilities even suggest them to be varieties of a single heterothallic species.[6]

Recent molecular work demonstrates an Alexandrium tamarense complex (Atama complex, including A. tamarense, Alexandrium fundyense, Alexandrium catenella) and that none of the three original morphospecies designations forms monophyletic groups in the present SSU-based and previous LSU-based [7] phylogenetic trees, i.e. these species designations are invalid. This currently needs further investigation.[8]

See also[edit]

  1. ^ Anderson, D.M. 1998. Physiology and bloom dynamics of toxic Alexandrium species, with emphasis on life cycle transitions. NATO ASI series, vol. G41. Physiology of harmful algal blooms. Edited by Anderson, DM, Cembella, AD and Hallegraeff, GM.
  2. ^ Dale, B., Yentsch, C. and Hurst, J. 1978. Toxicity in Resting Cysts of the Red-Tide Dinoflagellate Gonyaulax excavata from Deeper Water Coastal Sediments. Science 201, 1223-1224.
  3. ^ HAYHOME, B.A., ANDERSON, D.M., KULIS, D.M. & WHITTEN, D.J. 1989 Variation among congeneric dinoflagellates from the northeastern United States and Canada. I. Enzyme electrophoresis; Marine Biology, 101: 427-435.
  4. ^ SCHOLIN, C.A. & ANDERSON, D.M. 1994 Identification of group- and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae). I. RFLP analysis of SSU rRNA genes; Journal of Phycology, 30: 744-754.
  5. ^ SCHOLIN, C.A., HERZOG, M., SOGIN, M. & ANDERSON, D.M. 1994 Identification of group- and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae). II. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the LSU rRNA gene; Journal of Phycology, 30: 991-1011.
  6. ^ ANDERSON, D.M., KULIS, D.M., DOUCETTE, G.J., GALLAGHER, J.C. & BALECH, E. 1994 Biogeography of toxic dinoflagellates in the genus Alexandrium from the northeastern United States and Canada; Marine Biology, 120: 467-478.
  7. ^ Lilly, E.L., Halanych, K.M., Anderson, D.M., 2007. Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol. 43 (6), 1329–1338.
  8. ^ Lilibeth N. Miranda, Yunyun Zhuang, Huan Zhang, Senjie Lin, 2012. Phylogenetic analysis guided by intragenomic SSU rDNA polymorphism refines classification of ‘‘Alexandrium tamarense’’ species complex. Harmful Algae 16: 35-48.
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