The Atlas Moth (Attacus atlas), a Southeast Asian saturniid moth, is among the largest lepidopterans in the world, with a maximum recorded wing span of 262 mm. Although this is not the largest lepidopteran wing span known (that record goes to the noctuid moth Thysania agrippina), it is apparently the second largest. In terms of wing surface area, the Atlas Moth (or possibly one of its also very large close relatives) is likely the largest lepidopteran. (Kons 1998 and references therein)
The large, striking Atlas Moth larvae (caterpillars) are well defended. They are able to spray a strong-smellling defensive secretion that apparently is used against vertebrate and ant predators. This can be sprayed up to 50 cm either as a droplet or fine stream. (Deml and Dettner 1994 and references therein)
Atlas Moth larvae produce silk with mechanical properties similar to silk from the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), although the two silks have different amino acid compositions (Pérez-Rigueiro et al. 2001).
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Attacus atlas
No available public DNA sequences.
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Attacus atlas
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 65
Species With Barcodes: 1
Atlas moths were often considered the largest moths in the world in terms of total wing surface area, but recent sources confer this title upon the Hercules Moth from New Guinea and northern Australia. Their wingspans are also amongst the largest, reaching over 25 cm (10 in). Females are appreciably larger and heavier than the males.
Atlas moths are said to be named after either the Titan of Greek mythology, or their map-like wing patterns. In Hong Kong the Cantonese name translates as "snake's head moth", referring to the apical extension of the forewing, which bears a more than passing resemblance to a snake's head. Japan only has the A. a. ryukyuensis subspecies which is native to the Yaeyama Islands, principally Yonaguni, and as such is called the Yonaguni-san (ヨナグニサン《与那国蚕》?, "Yonaguni silkworm"). It is said to be the inspiration for the movie monster Mothra.
The largest lepidopteran in terms of wingspan is thought to be the White Witch, Thysania agrippina. A record specimen of Attacus atlas from Java measured 262 mm, while Thysania are claimed to be about 270–280 mm (11 in). Based on some spread specimens and angle of wing, actual measurements of around 289 mm have been estimated.
In India, Atlas moths are cultivated for their silk in a non-commercial capacity; unlike that produced by the related Silkworm moth (Bombyx mori), Atlas moth silk is secreted as broken strands. This brown, wool-like silk is thought to have greater durability and is known as fagara. Atlas moth cocoons have been employed as purses in Taiwan.
The term "Atlas moth" is sometimes used mistakenly as a name for any species in the genus Attacus, of which there are over 20 named species and subspecies.
A few New World species can be mistaken for Atlas moths, specifically members of the genus Rothschildia. Very similar in appearance to the Asian Atlas moth, Rothschildia aurota is one of the largest members of its genus and a Neotropical relative.
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Females are sexually passive, releasing powerful pheromones which males detect and home in on with the help of chemoreceptors located on their large feathery antennae. Males may thus be attracted from several kilometres downwind. Atlas moths are unsteady fliers, and the female does not stray far from the location of her discarded chrysalis: she seeks a perch where the air currents will best carry her pheromones.
Once mated, the female lays a number of spherical eggs 2.5 mm in diameter on the undersides of leaves. Dusty-green caterpillars hatch after about two weeks and feed voraciously on the foliage of certain citrus and other evergreen trees. The caterpillars are adorned with fleshy spines along their backs which are covered in a waxy white substance.
After reaching a length of about 115 millimetres (4.5 in), the caterpillars pupate within papery cocoon interwoven into desiccated leaves. The adult moths emerge after about four weeks.
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- Watson, A. & Whalley, P.E.S. (1983). The Dictionary of Butterflies and Moths in colour. Peerage Books, London, England. ISBN 0-907408-62-1
- Robert G. Foottit & Peter H. Adler. 2009. Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-405-15142-9
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- Yiu, V. (2006). Insecta Hongkongica. Hong Kong Discovery. Kowloon, Hong Kong. 655pp. ISBN 988-97173-9-5
- Yoda, Hiroko (2013-01-14). "Okinawa: Which island is for you? | CNN Travel". Travel.cnn.com. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- Hugo Kons, Jr. (1998-05-17). "Chapter 32 — Largest Lepidopteran Wing Span". Book of Insect Records. University of Florida.
- Jolly, M.S., Sen, S.K., Sonwalkar, T.N. & Prasad, G.S. (1979). Non-mulberry silks. Food & Agriculture Organisation. United Nations, Serv. Bull. 29. Rome. xvii + 178pp
- Shepherd, G.M. (1994). "Chemical Senses". In Neurobiology 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press
- Robinson, G.S., Ackery, P.R., Kitching, I.J., Beccaloni, G.W. & Hernández, L.M. (2001). Hostplants of the moth and butterfly caterpillars of the Oriental Region. Southdene Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur & The Natural History Museum, London. 744 pp. ISBN 983-40053-3-4
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