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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Herbaceous or woody, perennial (rarely annual or with annual shoots from perennial roots), tendril-climbing vines or lianas, rarely shrubs or small trees lacking tendrils; usually containing cyanogenic glycosides having a cyclopentenoid ring system; glabrous to densely pubescent with simple trichomes, rarely gland-headed. Stems terete to lobed or sharply angled, occasionally with anomalous secondary growth, the shoot apex erect to cernuous. Leaves alternate (very rarely subopposite to opposite), simple (rarely palmately compound), petiolate, often with variously shaped and positioned extrafloral nectary glands on the petiole; laminas unlobed or lobed, often heteroblastic, pinnately to often palmately (rarely pedately) veined, variegated or not, entire to serrate, peltate or not, often bearing small nectaries associated with marginal teeth or indentations, or abaxially submarginal, or abaxial between the major veins. Stipules setaceous or narrowly triangular to foliaceous, persistent or early deciduous, entire to serrate, sometimes the margins with glands, occasionally cleft. Tendrils axillary, simple (rarely compound), representing a modified flower stalk of the central part of the inflorescence, straight, curved, or circinate during development at the shoot apex, rarely with adhesive terminal disks. Inflorescences axillary, bracteate or rarely ebracteate, cymose, the central pedicel developed into a tendril, the peduncle very reduced or usually absent, the pedicels then arising collateral to the tendril (sometimes aborted), solitary or paired; secondary inflorescences may be present as condensed axillary or terminal shoots, determinate or rarely indeterminate; pedicels articulate distal to bracts, the distal portion called the floral stipe; bracts setaceous and scattered to foliaceous or pinnatifid and involucrate, occasionally glandular at margin. Flowers bisexual (sometimes functionally staminate), actinomorphic or rarely the reproductive parts zygomorphic; hypanthium ± flat to campanulate, occasionally the perianth basally connate/adnate into a floral tube; sepals 5 (very rarely 8), quincuncially imbricated (rarely non-overlapping) in the bud, occasionally carinate, sometimes with a subapical projection; petals 5 (very rarely 8) or sometimes wanting, quincuncially imbricated (rarely non-overlapping) in the bud, the same length as or shorter (rarely slightly longer) than the sepals; corona present at the base of the calyx or corolla or adnate to the inside of the floral tube, in 1 to many series of distinct to occasionally connate, short to elongate, often showy filaments or outgrowths, sometimes membranous, the innermost series, called the operculum, often connate at least basally, frequently membranous and shielding the nectary; the limen (extrastaminal nectariferous disk) present as a ring or cup around base of androgynophore (or rarely the ovary if androgynophore absent), or discoid or conical and adnate to the floor of hypanthium. Stamens 5(8 in one species), usually alternate with the petals, borne on an often elongate androgynophore or androgynophore rarely absent; filaments free just below ovary or rarely connate into a tube around ovary; anthers introrse in bud, moving to become extrorse (rarely latrorse) at anthesis, dorsifixed, versatile, dehiscing longitudinally, borne parallel or perpendicular to their filaments; pollen binucleate, 3- to 12-colporate. Carpels 3(-5), connate, ovary superior, unilocular, borne on an often elongate androgynophore (rarely sessile), placentation parietal, anatropous ovules numerous on each placenta; styles distinct, rarely connate near base; stigmas capitate, clavate, reniform, or occasionally bilobed. Fruit a few to many seeded berry, rarely a loculicidal or anomalously dehiscent capsule. Seeds arillate, usually flattened, the testa pitted, reticulate-foveate, or transversely grooved or sulcate; endosperm slightly ruminate, oily, abundant; embryo straight, the cotyledons usually elliptic to oblong-elliptic; germination epigeal (rarely hypogeal). Chromosome numbers: n = 6, 9, 10, 12 (rarely 7, 11, 18, 42).
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© Kristen Porter-Utley

Source: PhytoKeys

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Description

Climbing herbs or lianes. Stipules 2 or 0. Leaves alternate, lobed or simple; petiole often with glands. Tendrils usually solitary in leaf axils, rarely 0. Flowers usually large and handsome, axillary, solitary or in racemes, bisexual, 5-merous. Bracts often 3, forming an involucre below the fl. Sepals often coloured inside, sometimes with horns on the back just below apex. Petals 5 or 0, membranous, more vividly coloured than the sepals. Corona present, variously shaped, simple or usually composed of filaments. Androgynophore usually distinct. Stamens 5, free. Styles 3. Fruit usually indehiscent, ± berry-like, spherical or ellipsoid, or rarely fusiform.  The structure of the flower is described in this labelled image of Passiflora subpeltata. Species of the genus were called "Calvary Lesson" by Catholic missionaries in S America (Mabberley, 1997) and the explanation of that is also given on the same page.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Passiflora

Herbaceous or woody vines that climb by means of axillary tendrils. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or palmately lobed; petioles usually with extrafloral nectaries; stipules usually small and deciduous. Flowers usually large and showy, bisexual or less frequently unisexual, actinomorphic, produced in axillary cymes or solitary, sometimes covered at the base by an involucre of foliaceous bracts; hypanthium short or tubular; calyx of (3-)5(-8) sepals, free or connate at the base. Petals as numerous as the sepals, alternating with them, rarely absent; corona of 1 or several whorls of free or connate appendages; stamens (4)5, the filaments free or on a stipe (androgynophore), the anthers dehiscent by longitudinal valves; ovary superior, usually on a gynophore, or rarely sessile, unilocular, with (2)3(-5) carpels, the placentation parietal, with numerous ovules, the styles 3, free or connate at the base, the stigmas capitate or oblanceolate. Fruit a berry or less frequently a capsule. A genus of 400 species, 350 of these native to tropical America, the rest to the paleotropics.

  • Killip, E. P., 1938. The American species of Passifloraceae. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 19: 1-613.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 6 specimens in 2 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
Florida Passion Flower virus infects and damages stunted plant of Passiflora

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, immersed then erumpent pycnidium of Macrophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Macrophoma passifloricola is saprobic on dead stem of Passiflora
Remarks: season: 5

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Modified leaves assist climb: passion flower
 

Vetches and passion flowers climb other plants with the help of leaves modified into tendrils.

         
  "Vetches and passion flowers have modified some of their leaves even more extremely and converted them into tendrils. These grope around in space until they touch the stem of another and swiftly coil around it." (Attenborough 1995:161-162)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
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© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:351
Specimens with Sequences:382
Specimens with Barcodes:340
Species:137
Species With Barcodes:134
Public Records:227
Public Species:126
Public BINs:0
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Leaf: Macerated leaves are used as an emollient by the Guyana Patamona.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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Wikipedia

Passiflora

"Passion Flower" redirects here. For other uses, see Passion Flower (disambiguation).

Passiflora, known also as the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the namesakes of the family Passifloraceae. They are mostly vines, with some being shrubs, and a few species being herbaceous. For information about the fruit of the passiflora plant, see passionfruit. The monotypic genus Hollrungia seems to be inseparable from Passiflora, but further study is needed.

Distribution[edit]

The family Passifloraceae has a pantropical distribution. Passiflora itself is absent from Africa, where many other members of the family Passifloraceae occur (e.g. the more plesiomorphic Adenia).

Nine species of Passiflora are native to the USA, found from Ohio to the north, west to California and south to the Florida Keys. Most other species are found in South America, Eastern Asia, and Southern Asia, New Guinea, four or more species in Australia and a single endemic species in New Zealand. New species continue to be identified: for example, P. pardifolia and P. xishuangbannaensis have only been known to the scientific community since 2006 and 2005, respectively.

Some species of Passiflora have been naturalised beyond their native ranges. For example, Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea) now grows wild in Spain.[1] The purple passionfruit (P. edulis) and its yellow relative flavicarpa have been introduced in many tropical regions as commercial crops.

Ecology[edit]

Stinking Passion Flower or Wild water lemon (P. foetida) bracts with the insect-catching hairs.
The Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera) is adapted to feed on Passiflora mixta and similar flowers.
A Passiflora introduced in Canary Islands.

The passion flowers have a unique structure, which in most cases requires a large bee to effectively pollinate. In the American tropics, wooden beams are mounted very near passionfruit plantings to encourage carpenter bees to nest. The size and structure of flowers of other Passiflora species is optimized for pollination by hummingbirds (especially hermits like Phaethornis), bumble bees, wasps or bats, while yet others are self-pollinating. The Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera) with its immensely elongated bill has co-evolved with certain passion flowers, such as P. mixta.

Yellow Passion Flower (P. lutea) pollen is apparently the only pollen eaten by the unusual bee Anthemurgus passiflorae. However, these bees simply collect the pollen, but do not pollinate the flowers.

The leaves are used as food plants by the larva of a number of lepidoptera. To prevent the butterflies from laying too many eggs on any single plant, some passion flowers bear small colored nubs which resemble the butterflies' eggs and seem to fool them into believing that more eggs have already been deposited on a plant than actually is the case. Also, many Passiflora species produce sweet nutrient-rich liquid from glands on their leaf stems. These fluids attract ants which will kill and eat many pests that they happen to find feeding on the passion flowers.[2] Lepidoptera larvae are known to feed on the following:

The bracts of the Stinking Passion Flower are covered by hairs which exude a sticky fluid. Many small insects get stuck to this and get digested to nutrient-rich goo by proteases and acid phosphatases. Since the insects usually killed are rarely major pests, this passion flower seems to be a protocarnivorous plant.[4]

Banana Passion Flower or "banana poka" (P. tarminiana), originally from Central Brazil, is an invasive weed, especially on the islands of Hawaii. It is commonly spread by feral pigs eating the fruits. It overgrows and smothers stands of endemic vegetation, mainly on roadsides. Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea) is holding its own in Spain these days, and it probably needs to be watched so that unwanted spreading can be curtailed.[1]

On the other hand, some species are endangered due to unsustainable logging and other forms of habitat destruction. For example, the Chilean Passion Flower (P. pinnatistipula) is a rare vine growing in the Andes from Venezuela to Chile between 2,500 and 3,800 meters altitude, and in Coastal Central Chile, where it occurs in woody Chilean Mediterranean forests. P. pinnatistipula has a round fruit, unusual in Tacsonia group species like Banana Passion Flower and P. mixta, with their elongated tubes and brightly red to rose-colored petals.

Notable and sometimes economically significant pathogens of Passiflora are several sac fungi of the genus Septoria (including S. passiflorae), the undescribed proteobacterium called "Pseudomonas tomato" (pv. passiflorae), the Potyvirus Passionfruit woodiness virus, and the Carlavirus Passiflora latent virus.

Use by humans[edit]

Passiflora incarnata, one of the most common of Passion flowers.
Passiflora entwine around this 1880 Baxter process illustration by Joseph Martin Kronheim

A number of species of Passiflora are cultivated outside their natural range for of their beautiful flowers and delicious fruit. Hundreds of hybrids have been named; hybridizing is currently being done extensively for flowers, foliage and fruit. The following hybrids and cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • P. × exoniensis[5] (Exeter passion flower)
  • P. 'Amethyst'[6]
  • P. × violacea[7]

During the Victorian era the flower (which in all but a few species lasts only one day) was very popular, and many hybrids were created using the Winged-stem Passion Flower (P. alata), the Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea) and other tropical species.

Many cool-growing Passiflora from the Andes Mountains can be grown successfully for their beautiful flowers and fruit in cooler Mediterranean climates, such as the Monterey Bay and San Francisco in California and along the Western Coast of the U.S. into Canada. One Blue Passion Flower or hybrid even grew to large size at Malmö Central Station in Sweden.[8]

Passion flowers have been a subject of studies investigating extranuclear inheritance; paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA has been documented in this genus.[9] The plastome of the Two-flowered Passion Flower (P. biflora) has been sequenced.

The French name for this plant has lent itself to La Famille Passiflore, a highly successful children's book series by Geneviève Huriet, and an animated series based upon it. These have been translated into English as Beechwood Bunny Tales and The Bellflower Bunnies.

Fruit[edit]

Most species have round or elongated edible fruit from two to eight inches long and an inch to two inches across, depending upon the species or cultivar.

Traditional medicine[edit]

P. incarnata (maypop) leaves and roots have a long history of use among Native Americans in North America and were adapted by the European colonists. The fresh or dried leaves of maypop are used to make a tea that is used for insomnia, hysteria, and epilepsy, and is also valued for its analgesic properties.[12][medical citation needed] P. edulis (passion fruit) and a few other species are used in Central and South America for similar purposes. Once dried, the leaves can also be smoked.

The medical utility of only a few species of Passiflora has been scientifically studied.[13] In initial study in 2001 for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, maypop extract performed as well as oxazepam but with fewer short-term side effects.[14] It was recommended to follow up with long-term studies to confirm these results.

A study performed on mice, it was shown that Passiflora alata has a genotoxic effect on cells, and further research was recommended before this one species is considered safe for human consumption.[15]

Passionflower herb (Passiflorae herba) from P. incarnata is listed in the European Pharmacopoeia. The herbal drug should contain not less than 1.5% total flavonoids expressed as vitexin.[citation needed]

Chemistry[edit]

Chrysin, a commercially important flavone found in the blue passion flower, P. caerulea
Harman, a harmala alkaloid found in many species of Passiflora

Many species have been found to contain beta-carboline harmala alkaloids,[13][16] some of which are MAO inhibitors. The flower and fruit have only traces of these chemicals, but the leaves and the roots often contain more.[citation needed] The most common of these alkaloids is harman, but harmaline, harmalol, harmine, and harmol are also present.[13][16] The species known to bear such alkaloids include: P. actinea, P. alata (winged-stem passion flower), P. alba, P. bryonioides (cupped passion flower), P. caerulea (blue passion flower), P. capsularis, P. decaisneana, P. edulis (passion fruit), P. eichleriana, P. foetida (stinking passion flower), P. incarnata (maypop), P. quadrangularis (giant granadilla), P. ruberosa, P. subpeltata and P. warmingii.[13][16]

Other compounds found in passion flowers are coumarins (e.g. scopoletin and umbelliferone), maltol, phytosterols (e.g. lutenin) and cyanogenic glycosides (e.g. gynocardin) which render some species, i.e. P. adenopoda, somewhat poisonous. Many flavonoids and their glycosides have been found in Passiflora, including apigenin, benzoflavone[disambiguation needed], homoorientin, 7-isoorientin, isoshaftoside, isovitexin (or saponaretin), kaempferol, lucenin, luteolin, n-orientin, passiflorine (named after the genus), quercetin, rutin, saponarin, shaftoside, vicenin and vitexin. Maypop, Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea), and perhaps others contain the flavone chrysin. Also documented to occur at least in some Passiflora in quantity are the hydrocarbon nonacosane and the anthocyanidin pelargonidin-3-diglycoside.[13][16][17]

The genus is rich in organic acids including formic, butyric, linoleic, linolenic, malic, myristic, oleic and palmitic acids as well as phenolic compounds, and the amino acid α-alanine. Esters like ethyl butyrate, ethyl caproate, n-hexyl butyrate and n-hexyl caproate give the fruits their flavor and appetizing smell. Sugars, contained mainly in the fruit, are most significantly d-fructose, d-glucose and raffinose. Among enzymes, Passiflora was found to be rich in catalase, pectin methylesterase and phenolase.[13][16]

Etymology and names[edit]

The "Passion" in "passion flower" refers to the passion of Jesus in Christian theology. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish Christian missionaries adopted the unique physical structures of this plant, particularly the numbers of its various flower parts, as symbols of the last days of Jesus and especially his crucifixion:[citation needed]

Blue Passion Flower (P. caerulea) showing most elements of the Christian symbolism

The flower has been given names related to this symbolism throughout Europe since that time. In Spain, it is known as espina de Cristo ("Christ's thorn"). Older Germanic names[18] include Christus-Krone ("Christ's crown"), Christus-Strauss ("Christ's bouquet"[19]), Dorn-Krone ("crown of thorns"), Jesus-Lijden ("Jesus' passion"), Marter ("passion"[20]) or Muttergottes-Stern ("Mother of God's star"[21]).

Outside the Christian heartland, the regularly shaped flowers have reminded people of the face of a clock. In Israel they are known as "clock-flower" (שעונית) and in Greece as "clock plant" (ρολογιά); in Japan too, they are known as tokeisō (時計草, "clock plant"). In Hawaiian, they are called lilikoʻi;[22] is a string used for tying fabric together, such as a shoelace, and liko means "to spring forth leaves".[23]

In India, blue passionflowers are called Krishnakamala in Karnataka and Maharashtra, while in Uttar Pradesh and generally north it is colloquially called "Paanch Paandav". The flower's structure lends itself to the interpretation along the lines of five Pandavas, the Divine Krishna at centre, and the opposing hundred at the edges. The colour blue is moreover associated with Krishna as colour of his aura.

In northern Peru and Bolivia, the banana passionfruits are known as tumbos. This is one possible source of the name of the Tumbes region of Peru.

In Turkey shape of the flowers have reminded people of Rota Fortunae thus it called Çarkıfelek.

Taxonomy[edit]

Passiflora is the most species rich genus of both the family Passifloraceae and the tribe Passifloreae. With over 530 species, an extensive hierarchy of infrageneric ranks is required to represent the relationships of the species. The infrageneric classification of Passiflora not only uses the widely used ranks of subgenus, section and series, but also the rank of supersection.

The New World species of Passiflora were divided among 22 subgenera by Killip (1938). More recent work reduces these to 4 - Astrophea (Americas, 57 species), Deidamioides (Americas, 17 species), Passiflora (Americas, >200 species) and Decaloba (Americas, Asia and Australasia, >200 species). Other studies have shown that the segregate Old World genera Hollrungia and Tetrapathaea are nested within Passiflora, and form a fifth subgenus (Tetrapathaea).

The Old World species form two clades - supersection Disemma (part of subgenus Decaloba) and subgenus Tetrapathaea. The former is composed of 21 species divided into sections Disemma (3 Australian species), Holrungiella (1 New Guinean species) and Octandranthus (17 south and east Asian species).[24]

The remaining (New World) species of subgenus Decaloba are divided into 7 supersections. Supersection Pterosperma includes 4 species from Central America and southern Mexico. Supersection Hahniopathanthus includes 5 species from Central America, Mexico and northernmost South America. Supersection Cicea includes 19 species, with apetalous flowers. Supersection Bryonioides includes 21 species, with a distribution centered on Mexico. Supersection Auriculata includes 8 species from South America, one of which is also found in Central America. Supersection Multiflora includes 19 species. Supersection Decaloba includes 123 species.[25]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dana et al. [2001]
  2. ^ Sezen, Uzay. "Ants defending extrafloral nectaries of Passiflora incarnata". Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  3. ^ Soule, J.A. 2012. Butterfly Gardening in Southern Arizona. Tierra del Soule Press, Tucson, AZ
  4. ^ Radhamani et al. (1995)
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Passiflora × exoniensis AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Passiflora 'Amethyst' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Passiflora × violacea AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  8. ^ Petersen (1966)
  9. ^ E.g. Hansen et al. (2006)
  10. ^ Smith, Clifford W. "Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota". University of Hawaii. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  11. ^ The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the National Park Service (17 February 2011). "Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States". Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  12. ^ UMMC (2008)[dead link]
  13. ^ a b c d e f Duke (2008)
  14. ^ "Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 26 (5): 363–367. October 2001. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2001.00367.x. 
  15. ^ "Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae)". J Ethnopharmacol 128 (2): 526–32. March 2010. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.037. PMID 19799991. 
  16. ^ a b c d e Drugs.com (2008)
  17. ^ Dhawan, et al. (2002)
  18. ^ Marzell (1927)
  19. ^ "Christ's Flower" is a mistranslation of Marzell (1927)
  20. ^ "Martyr" is a mistranslation of Marzell (1927)
  21. ^ Muttergottes-Schuzchen (or -Schurzchen) is a nonsensical misreading of Marzell (1927)
  22. ^ Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of lilikoʻi ". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 2014-11-02. 
  23. ^ Pukui et al. (1992)
  24. ^ Shawn Elizabeth Krosnick, Ph.D. thesis, Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of morphological evolution in the Old Word species of Passiflora (subgenus Decaloba: supersection Disemma and subgenus Tetrapathaea)
  25. ^ Passiflora Research Network

References[edit]

  • Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Naghavi, H.R.; Vazirian, M.; Shayeganpour, A.; Rashidi, H. & Khani, M. (2001): Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 26(5): 363-367. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2001.00367.x PDF fulltext
  • Dana, E.D.; Sanz-Elorza, M. & Sobrino, E. [2001]: Plant Invaders in Spain Check-List. PDF fulltext
  • Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh & Sharma, Anupam (2002): Beneficial Effects of Chrysin and Benzoflavone on Virility in 2-Year-Old Male Rats. Journal of Medicinal Food 5(1): 43-48. doi:10.1089/109662002753723214 (HTML abstract)
  • Drugs.com [2008]: Passion Flower. Retrieved 2008-NOV-01.
  • Duke, James A. [2008]: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical DatabasesPassiflora spp. Retrieved 2008-NOV-01.
  • Hansen, A. Katie; Escobar, Linda K.; Gilbert, Lawrence E. & Jansen, Robert K. (2006): Paternal, maternal, and biparental inheritance of the chloroplast genome in Passiflora (Passifloraceae): implications for phylogenic studies. Botany 94(1): 42-46. PDF fulltext
  • Marzell, Heinrich (1927): Deutsches Wörterbuch der Pflanzennamen ["German Plant Name Dictionary"]. Leipzig.
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena; Elbert, Samuel Hoyt; Mookini, Esther T. & Nishizawa, Yu Mapuana (1992): New Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary with a Concise Grammars and Given Names in Hawaiian. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1392-8
  • Petersen, Elly (1966): Passionsblume ["Passion flowers"]. In: Praktisches Gartenlexikon der Büchergilde (2nd ed.): 270-271 [in German]. Büchergilde Gutenberg. Frankfurt am Main, Vienna, Zürich.
  • Radhamani, T.R.; Sudarshana, L. & Krishnan, R. (1995): Defence and carnivory: dual roles of bracts in Passiflora foetida. Journal of Biosciences 20(5): 657-664. doi: 10.1007/BF02703305 PDF fulltext
  • University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) (2008): Passionflower. Retrieved 2008-NOV-01.
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Notes

Common Names

Guyana Patamona: man-bi-du-na-yik.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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