The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2006. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 8: Asteraceae, part 3. Fl. N. Amer. 21: i–xxii + 1–616.
  • Genera Plantarum 2: 542. 1791. (Gen. Pl.)
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Nesom, G. L. (2006). Liatris. Flora of North America. 21, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. .
  • Stevens, A. B., Gast K. L. B., & O’Mara J. A. (1993). Commercial Specialty Cut Flower production. Cooperative Extention Service Kansas State University.
  • The Vegetable System. Or, the internal structure and the life of plants; their parts, and nourishment, explained; their classes, orders, genera, and species, ascertained, and described; in a method altogether new: comprehending an artificial index and a natural system. 4: 49. 1762. (Veg. Syst.)
  • Turner, B. L. 1997. The Comps of Mexico: A systematic account of the family Asteraceae, vol. 1 -- Eupatorieae. Phytologia Mem. 11: i–iv, 1–272.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!