Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

"Perennials, 20–180 cm (corms globose to depressed-ovoid or napiform, sometimes elongated, becoming rhizomes, roots all or mostly adventitious).

Stems erect, simple or basally branched.

Leaves basal and cauline; alternate; ± petiolate (basal) or sessile (usually appressed to ascending); blades usually 1-nerved, sometimes 3- or 5-nerved, mostly linear to ovate-lanceolate, margin entire, faces often gland-dotted (stipitate-glandular in L. glandulosa).

Heads discoid, in corymbiform, cymiform, racemiform, or spiciform arrays.

Involucres mostly campanulate to hemispheric or turbinate-cylindric, (2.5–)3–22(–25) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent or tardily falling, 18–40 in (2–)3–7 series, not notably nerved, ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, usually unequal (herbaceous to petaloid, margins often hyaline, often ciliate or irregularly toothed, apices often pink-white). Receptacles flat, epaleate. Florets 3–85; corollas usually lavender to dark magenta or pinkish purple, sometimes white, throats funnelform (lengths 4–6 times diams., externally glanduliferous, glabrous inside or pilose inside near filament insertions, hairs whitish, crisped); styles: bases not enlarged, glabrous, branches linear-clavate (papillate). Cypselae prismatic, 8–11-ribbed, usually hirsutulous to hirtellous-pilose (glabrous in L. oligocephala), usually gland-dotted; pappi persistent, of 12–40 coarsely barbellate to plumose bristles in 1–2 series. x = 10."

Nesom, Guy L. in Flora of North America, Vol 21 Liatris p. 512 Oxford University Press, Inc.; New York, NY, 2006

"Liatris grow from round or oval, woody corms, each of which develops several flowering stems. Numerous, narrow leaves grow alternately on the stem, becoming shorter and thinner near the flower spike. The flower heads grow in several rows along the stem to form a wand-like spike up to 15 inches in height. The flowers on the spikes open from the top downward (basipetally). One variety, L. aspera, flowers from the bottom up. The purple varieties are in greatest demand, though there is also interest in the rose-red and white varieties."

Stevens, Allan B. et.al. in Commercial Specialty Cut Flower production. Liatris. Cooperative Extention Service Kansas State University. Manhattan, Kansas oct 1993. Publication

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Ecology

Diseases and Parasites

Diseases

Leafspots: Erysiphe cichoracearum, Coleosporium lacinariae, Puccinia poarum, Other Leafspots, Phyllosticta liatridis, Septoria liatridis, Wilts, Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Verticillium albo-atrum

Stevens, Allan B. et.al. in Commercial Specialty Cut Flower production. Liatris. Cooperative Extention Service Kansas State University. Manhattan, Kansas oct 1993. Publication

http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/library/hort2/ep55.pdf

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:95
Specimens with Sequences:125
Specimens with Barcodes:53
Species:30
Species With Barcodes:30
Public Records:59
Public Species:29
Public BINs:0
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Barcode data

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"One of the reasons liatris are such popular cut flowers is their unusual mode of blooming. Unlike most plants they bloom from the top of their flower spikes down to the bottom. You can actually cut a portion off the top of the spike to bring indoors, and the remaining flower heads will continue to open and provide color for the landscape."

University of Florida IFAS Extension

"The abundance of fragrant flower produced by the liatris attracts a variety of wildlife all season. The summer blooms attract hummingbirds, butterflies and bees. In the fall, the liatris produces a seed pod (if the blooms are left intact on the plant) that attracts a wide array of hungry birds looking for a meal."

Stewart, Helen. How to grow Liatris. Suit 101.com. Apr. 12. 2010.

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Wikipedia

Liatris

Liatris (/lˈætrɨs/;[2] is a genus of flowering plants in the boneset tribe within the Asteraceae sunflower family native to North America (Canada, United States, Mexico and the Bahamas).[3][4][5] Common names include blazing star and gayfeather.[5][6] Some species are used as ornamental plants, sometimes in flower bouquets.

They are perennials, surviving the winter in the form of corms.[5]

Liatris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the flower moths Schinia gloriosa and Schinia sanguinea, both of which feed exclusively on the genus, and Schinia tertia and Schinia trifascia.

Classification[edit]

Liatris is in the tribe Eupatorieae of the aster family. Like other members of this tribe, the flower heads have disc florets and no ray florets. Liatris is in the subtribe Liatrinae along with Trilisa, Carphephorus, and other genera.[7] Liatris is closely related to Garberia, a genus with only one species endemic to Florida. The two genera can be distinguished by the shrub form of the latter and by karyotype.[8]

Species[1][5][6][9][10][11]
  1. Liatris acidota – sharp blazing star, Gulf Coast gayfeather - TX LA
  2. Liatris aestivalis – summer gayfeather - TX OK
  3. Liatris aspera – rough gayfeather, tall blazing star - ONT, USA (Mississippi Valley, Great Lakes, scattered locales in East)
  4. Liatris borealis - Allegheny Mountains of PA
  5. Liatris × boykinii - GA AL
  6. Liatris bracteata – bracted blazing star - TX
  7. Liatris chapmanii – Chapman's blazing star - FL GA AL
  8. Liatris cokeri – Coker's gayfeather - NC SC
  9. Liatris compacta – scaly blazing star - AR OK
  10. Liatris creditonensis - ONT
  11. Liatris cylindracea – Ontario blazing star, fewhead blazing star - ONT, central + southeastern USA
  12. Liatris cymosa – branched blazing star - TX
  13. Liatris × deamii
  14. Liatris densispicata - MN
  15. Liatris elegans – pinkscale blazing star, elegant gayfeather - TX OK AR LA MS AL FL GA SC
  16. Liatris elegantula – shaggy blazing star - TN MS AL GA FL
  17. Liatris fallacior - ND
  18. Liatris × frostii - MN MO
  19. Liatris garberi – Garber's blazing star - FL Bahamas
  20. Liatris gholsonii – Gholson's blazing star - FL
  21. Liatris × gladewitzii - ONT, MI WI IL
  22. Liatris glandulosa – glandular blazing star - TX
  23. Liatris gracilis – slender blazing star - MS AL GA FL SC
  24. Liatris helleri – Heller's blazing star, turgid blazing star - MD WV VA NC
  25. Liatris hirsuta – hairy gayfeather - central + southeastern USA
  26. Liatris laevigata – shortleaf blazingstar - FL GA
  27. Liatris lancifolia – lanceleaf blazingstar - NM TX CO WY KS NE SD IA
  28. Liatris ligulistylis – Rocky Mountain blazing star, Northern Plains gayfeather, strap-style gayfeather - MAN SAS ALB ND SD MN WI IL IA MO NE WY MT CO NM
  29. Liatris microcephala – small-head gayfeather - NC SC GA AL TN KY
  30. Liatris ohlingerae – Florida blazing star, scrub blazing star - FL
  31. Liatris oligocephala – Cahaba torch - AL
  32. Liatris patens – spreading blazing star, Georgia gayfeather - FL GA SC
  33. Liatris pauciflora – fewflower blazing star - AL GA FL SC NC
  34. Liatris pilosa – grass-leaf gayfeather, shaggy blazing star - SC NC VA MD DE PA NJ
  35. Liatris × platylepis - LA
  36. Liatris provincialis – Godfrey's blazing star - FL
  37. Liatris punctata – dotted blazing star, plains gayfeather - MAN SAS ALB eastern + central USA Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí
  38. Liatris pycnostachya – prairie blazing star, button snakeroot, cattail gayfeather, thickspike gayfeather, Kansas gayfeather - QUE eastern USA
  39. Liatris × ridgwayi - IL KS
  40. Liatris savannensis – savanna blazing star - FL
  41. Liatris scariosa – northern gayfeather, devil's bite - eastern + central USA
  42. Liatris × serotina - LA
  43. Liatris × spheroidea - ONT
  44. Liatris spicata – dense blazing star, button snakewort, florist gayfeather, marsh blazingstar, prairie-pine - ONT QUE eastern USA
  45. Liatris squarrosa – loosescale gayfeather, colicroot, scaly blazing star - central + southeastern USA
  46. Liatris squarrulosa – southern gayfeather, Appalachian blazing star - south-central + southeastern USA
  47. Liatris × steelei - IL IN KY
  48. Liatris tenuifolia – pine-needle gayfeather, shortleaf gayfeather - MS AL GA TN SC
  49. Liatris tenuis – gulf blazing star, Shinners' gayfeather - TX LA
  50. Liatris virgata – wand blazing star, King's Mountain gayfeather, piedmont gayfeather - VA WV NC SC GA
  51. Liatris × weaveri - NE

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. 606–07.
  3. ^ Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von. 1791. Genera Plantarum 2: 542
  4. ^ Tropicos, Liatris Gaertn. ex Schreb.
  5. ^ a b c d "Liatris Gaertner ex Schreber". Flora of North America. 
  6. ^ a b Liatris. Integrated Taxonomic Information system.
  7. ^ Schmidt, G. J. and E. E. Schilling (2000). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data". American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America) 87 (5): 716–726. doi:10.2307/2656858. JSTOR 2656858. PMID 10811796. 
  8. ^ "Garberia A.Gray". Flora of North America. 
  9. ^ GRIN Species Records of Liatris. GRIN.
  10. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  11. ^ Turner, B. L. 1997. The Comps of Mexico: A systematic account of the family Asteraceae, vol. 1 – Eupatorieae. Phytologia Memoirs 11: i–iv, 1–272
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