Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual or biennial herbs (in ours). Flowers yellow in ebracteate racemes. Sepals erect, inner pair saccate. Petals 4, contracted at base into a claw. Stamens 6. Fruit a beaked siliqua with 2 valves, each valve with 1 prominent vein; beak with 0-3 seeds. Seeds in 1 series, ± spherical.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Brassica L.:
Brazil (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
colony of Albugo candida parasitises live, discoloured, distorted leaf of Brassica
Remarks: season: spring, early autumn
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
hypophyllous adult of Aleyrodes proletella sucks sap of leaf of Brassica
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria brassicae causes spots on live leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, densely crowded, black pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta brassicae causes spots on live leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Baris laticollis feeds on Brassica

Foodplant / sap sucker
dense, wet (honeydew) colony of Brevicoryne brassicae sucks sap of live leaf of Brassica
Remarks: season: (7-)9-10...
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spinner
caterpillar of Cacoecimorpha pronubana spins live leaf of Brassica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Cauliflower Mosaic virus infects and damages live, stunted leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / gall
larva of Ceutorhynchus assimilis causes gall of live root of Brassica
Remarks: season: 3-

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus hepaticus feeds on Brassica

Foodplant / gall
larva of Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma causes gall of stem (base) of Brassica

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Chromatomyia horticola may be found in leaf-mine (end of) of Brassica

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura brassicae causes gall of pod of Brassica

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Erwinia carotovora infects and damages Brassica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Heterodera cruciferae causes gall of cysted root of Brassica

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Melanthrips fuscus may be found on live flower of Brassica
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes aeneus feeds on live flower bud pollen of Brassica

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes viridescens feeds on live flower bud pollen of Brassica

Foodplant / sap sucker
Myzus ascalonicus sucks sap of Brassica

Foodplant / sap sucker
Myzus cerasi sucks sap of live, distorted leaf of Brassica
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / parasite
Olpidium brassicae parasitises live root of Brassica

Foodplant / saprobe
cleistothecium of Perisporium kunzei is saprobic on old, dead stalk of Brassica
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / parasite
colony of sporangium of Peronospora parasitica parasitises live Brassica
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Phaedon cochleariae grazes on live leaf of Brassica
Remarks: season: -early 9

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, covered then bursting through a slit pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis cruciferae is saprobic on dead stalk of Brassica
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta aerea grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta atra grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta consobrina grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta cruciferae grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta nemorum grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta nigripes grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta striolata grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta undulata grazes on leaf of Brassica

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Phytomyza rufipes may be found on leaf of Brassica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Pieris brassicae grazes on live leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / gall
Plasmodiophora brassicae causes gall of swollen, distorted, often fused root of Brassica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / web feeder
hypophyllous, nocturnal, web-inhabiting caterpillar of Plutella xylostella feeds from web on live leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous Pseudocercosporella anamorph of Pseudocercosporella brassicae causes spots on live leaf of Brassica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
almost sessile or shortly stalked apothecium of Pseudombrophila deerrata is saprobic on rotting stem of Brassica
Remarks: season: 5-11

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola causes spots on live leaf of Brassica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Psylliodes chrysocephala grazes on leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Scopulariopsis dematiaceous anamorph of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is saprobic on rotting stalk of Brassica

Foodplant / sap sucker
Smynthurodes betae sucks sap of root of Brassica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Thrips tabaci feeds on live leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / pathogen
Turnip Crinkle virus infects and damages live, mottled leaf of Brassica

Foodplant / pathogen
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris infects and damages live, yellow-blotched leaf of Brassica
Other: major host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:139Public Records:89
Specimens with Sequences:115Public Species:28
Specimens with Barcodes:114Public BINs:0
Species:30         
Species With Barcodes:29         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Brassica

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Brassica

Brassica (/ˈbræsɨkə/) is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages, or mustard plant. Crops from this genus are sometimes called cole crops—derived from the Latin caulis, meaning stem or cabbage.[1]

Members of brassica commonly used for food include cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and some seeds. The genus is known for its important agricultural and horticultural crops and includes a number of weeds, both of wild taxa and escapees from cultivation. It counts over 30 wild species and hybrids plus numerous cultivars and hybrids of cultivated origin. Most are seasonal plants (annuals or biennials), but some are small shrubs. Brassica plants have been the subject of much scientific interest for their agricultural importance. Six particularly species (B. carinata, B. juncea, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. nigra and B. rapa) evolved by the combining of chromosomes from three earlier species, as described by the Triangle of U theory.

The genus is native in the wild in western Europe, the Mediterranean and temperate regions of Asia and many wild species grow as weeds, especially in North America, South America, and Australia.

A dislike for cabbage or broccoli can result from the fact that these plants contain a compound similar to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is bitter or tasteless to some people depending on their 'taste buds'.[2]

Uses[edit]

Food[edit]

Almost all parts of some species or other have been developed for food, including the root (rutabaga, turnips), stems (kohlrabi), leaves (cabbage, collard greens), flowers (cauliflower, broccoli), buds (Brussels sprouts, cabbage), and seeds (many, including mustard seed, and oil-producing rapeseed). Some forms with white or purple foliage or flowerheads are also sometimes grown for ornament.

Brassica species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see List of Lepidoptera that feed on Brassica.

Nutrition[edit]

Brassica vegetables are highly regarded for their nutritional value. They provide high amounts of vitamin C and soluble fiber and contain multiple nutrients with potent anticancer properties: 3,3'-diindolylmethane, sulforaphane and selenium.[3][4] Boiling reduces the level of anticancer compounds, but steaming, microwaving, and stir frying do not result in significant loss.[5] Steaming the vegetable for three to four minutes is recommended to maximize sulforaphane.[6]

Brassica vegetables are rich in indole-3-carbinol, a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells in vitro and appears to block the growth of cancer cells in vitro.[7][8] They are also a good source of carotenoids, with broccoli having especially high levels.[9] Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley have recently discovered that 3,3'-diindolylmethane in Brassica vegetables is a potent modulator of the innate immune response system with potent antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activity;[10] however, it also is an antiandrogen.[11]

These vegetables also contain goitrogens, which suppress thyroid function. This can induce hypothyroidism and goiter.[12]

Species[edit]

There is some disagreement among botanists on the classification and status of Brassica species and subspecies.[citation needed] The following is an abbreviated list, with an emphasis on economically important species.

Other species formerly placed in Brassica[edit]

Genome sequencing and genetics[edit]

Bayer CropScience (in collaboration with BGI-Shenzhen, China, Keygene N.V., the Netherlands and the University of Queensland, Australia) announced it had sequenced the entire genome of rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus) and its constituent genomes present in B. rapa and B. oleracea in 2009.[13] The B. rapa genome was sequenced by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project in 2011.[14] This also represents the A genome component of the amphidiploid crop species B. napus and B. juncea.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "caulis". Wordnik. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  2. ^ Overfield, Theresa (1995). "Phenylthiocarbamide". Biological Variations in Health and Illness: Race, Age, and Sex Differences. CRC Press. pp. 102–3. ISBN 978-0-8493-4577-7. 
  3. ^ Finley, John W.; Sigrid-Keck, Anna; Robbins, Rebecca J.; Hintze, Korry J. (2005). "Selenium Enrichment of Broccoli: Interactions between Selenium and Secondary Plant Compounds". The Journal of Nutrition 135 (5): 1236–8. PMID 15867310. 
  4. ^ Banerjee, Sanjeev; Parasramka, Mansi A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H. (2012). "Cellular, Molecular and Biological Insight into Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Potential of 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (DIM)". In Sarkar, Fazlul H. Nutraceuticals and Cancer. pp. 111–33. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2630-7_6. ISBN 978-94-007-2629-1. 
  5. ^ Song, Lijiang; Thornalley, Paul J. (2007). "Effect of storage, processing and cooking on glucosinolate content of Brassica vegetables". Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2): 216–24. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.021. PMID 17011103. Lay summaryUniversity of Warwick (15 May 2007). 
  6. ^ Matusheski, Nathan V.; Swarup, Ranjan; Juvik, John A.; Mithen, Richard; Bennett, Malcolm; Jeffery, Elizabeth H. (2006). "Epithiospecifier Protein from Broccoli (Brassica oleraceaL. Ssp.italica) Inhibits Formation of the Anticancer Agent Sulforaphane". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (6): 2069–76. doi:10.1021/jf0525277. PMID 16536577. Lay summaryScienceDaily (5 April 2005). 
  7. ^ Fan, S; Meng, Q; Auborn, K; Carter, T; Rosen, E M (2006). "BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol and genistein in breast and prostate cancer cells". British Journal of Cancer 94 (3): 407–26. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602935. PMC 2361140. PMID 16434996. Lay summaryBBC News (7 February 2006). 
  8. ^ Wu, Yongsheng; Feng, Xiaoling; Jin, Yucui; Wu, Zhaojia; Hankey, William; Paisie, Carolyn; Li, Lei; Liu, Fengjuan et al. (2010). "A Novel Mechanism of Indole-3-Carbinol Effects on Breast Carcinogenesis Involves Induction of Cdc25A Degradation". Cancer Prevention Research 3 (7): 818–28. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0213. PMID 20587702. Lay summaryScienceDaily (30 June 2010). 
  9. ^ Farnham, Mark W.; Kopsell, Dean A. (2009). "Importance of Genotype on Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Levels in Broccoli Heads". HortScience 44 (5): 1248–53. Lay summaryScienceDaily (8 November 2009). 
  10. ^ Vivar, Omar I.; Lin, Chia-Lei; Firestone, Gary L.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F. (2009). "3,3′-Diindolylmethane induces a G1 arrest in human prostate cancer cells irrespective of androgen receptor and p53 status". Biochemical Pharmacology 78 (5): 469–76. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.05.008. PMC 2706920. PMID 19433067. 
  11. ^ Le, Hien T.; Schaldach, Charlene M.; Firestone, Gary L.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F. (2003). "Plant-derived 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Is a Strong Androgen Antagonist in Human Prostate Cancer Cells". Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (23): 21136–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300588200. PMID 12665522. 
  12. ^ Srilakshmi, B. (2006). Nutrition Science. New Age International. pp. 186–7. ISBN 978-81-224-1633-6. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  13. ^ "Bayer CropScience first to sequence the entire genome of rapeseed/canola" (Press release). Bayer CropScience. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Rifei; Wu, Jian; Liu, Shengyi; Bai, Yinqi; Mun, Jeong-Hwan et al. (2011). "The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa". Nature Genetics 43 (10): 1035–9. doi:10.1038/ng.919. PMID 21873998. 
  15. ^ "brassica.info". Rothamsted Research. Retrieved 25 May 2013. [verification needed]
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