Chrysanthemum Green Flower ?phytoplasm infects and damages dying, rotting root of Dendranthema
Foodplant / miner
larva of Chromatomyia syngenesiae mines leaf of Chrysanthemum
Plant / resting place / on
adult of Chrysolina marginata may be found on Chrysanthemum
Remarks: season: early 8-mid 11,4-
Foodplant / mobile cased feeder
larva of Cryptocephalus bilineatus grazes in mobile case on leaf of Chrysanthemum
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced
Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza tanaceti mines leaf of Chrysanthemum
Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Paroxyna producta feeds within capitulum of Chrysanthemum
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Foodplant / miner
larva of Phytomyza leucanthemi mines leaf (usually lower leaf) of Chrysanthemum
Other: minor host/prey
Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Trupanea stellata feeds within capitulum of Chrysanthemum
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:93
Specimens with Barcodes:47
Species With Barcodes:26
Chrysanthemums (//), sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. There are countless horticultural varieties and cultivars.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Taxonomy
- 3 Description
- 4 History
- 5 Economic uses
- 6 Cultural significance and symbolism
- 7 Species
- 8 Gallery
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The name "chrysanthemum" is derived from the Greek words chrysos (gold) and anthemon (flower).
The genus once included more species, but was split several decades ago into several genera, putting the economically important florist's chrysanthemums in the genus Dendranthema. The naming of the genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Botanical Congress in 1999 changed the defining species of the genus to Chrysanthemum indicum, restoring the florist's chrysanthemums to the genus Chrysanthemum.
The other species previously included in the narrow view of the genus Chrysanthemum are now transferred to the genus Glebionis. The other genera separate from Chrysanthemum include Argyranthemum, Leucanthemopsis, Leucanthemum, Rhodanthemum, and Tanacetum.
Wild Chrysanthemum taxa are herbaceous perennial plants or subshrubs. They have alternately arranged leaves divided into leaflets with toothed or occasionally smooth edges. The compound inflorescence is an array of several flower heads, or sometimes a solitary head. The head has a base covered in layers of phyllaries. The simple row of ray florets are white, yellow or red; many horticultural specimens have been bred to bear many rows of ray florets in a great variety of colors. The disc florets of wild taxa are yellow. The fruit is a ribbed achene.
Chrysanthemums were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC. Over 500 cultivars had been recorded by the year 1630. The plant is renowned as one of the Four Gentlemen in Chinese and East Asian art. The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival. The flower may have been brought to Japan in the eighth century AD, and the Emperor adopted the flower as his official seal. The "Festival of Happiness" in Japan celebrates the flower.
Chrysanthemums entered American horticulture in 1798 when Colonel John Stevens imported a cultivated variety known as 'Dark Purple' from England. The introduction was part of an effort to grow attractions within Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey.
Modern cultivated chrysanthemums are showier than their wild relatives. The flower heads occur in various forms, and can be daisy-like or decorative, like pompons or buttons. This genus contains many hybrids and thousands of cultivars developed for horticultural purposes. In addition to the traditional yellow, other colors are available, such as white, purple, and red. The most important hybrid is Chrysanthemum × morifolium (syn. C. × grandiflorum), derived primarily from C. indicum, but also involving other species.
Chrysanthemums are divided into two basic groups, garden hardy and exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of wintering in most northern latitudes. Exhibition varieties are not usually as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance, such as staking, and withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties, though, require staking, overwintering in a relatively dry, cool environment, and sometimes the addition of night lights.
The exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, and many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom, standard (trees), fans, hanging baskets, topiary, bonsai, and cascades.
Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 13 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is in keeping with the international classification system. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the ray and disk florets are arranged. Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers (florets), each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, and the ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female productive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers, as they possess both male and female reproductive organs.
Irregular incurves are bred to produce a giant head called an ogiku. The disk florets are concealed in layers of curving ray florets that hang down to create a 'skirt'. Regular incurves are similar, but usually with smaller blooms and a dense, globular form. Intermediate incurve blooms may have broader florets and a less densely flowered head.
In the reflex form, the disk florets are concealed and the ray florets reflex outwards to create a mop-like appearance. The decorative form is similar to reflex blooms, but the ray florets usually do not radiate at more than a 90° angle to the stem.
The pompon form is fully double, of small size, and very globular in form. Single and semidouble blooms have exposed disk florets and one to seven rows of ray florets.
In the anemone form, the disk florets are prominent, often raised and overshadowing the ray florets. The spoon-form disk florets are visible and the long, tubular ray florets are spatulate.
In the spider form, the disk florets are concealed, and the ray florets are tube-like with hooked or barbed ends, hanging loosely around the stem. In the brush and thistle variety, the disk florets may be visible.
Yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers of the species C. morifolium are boiled to make a sweet drink in some parts of Asia. The resulting beverage is known simply as chrysanthemum tea (菊花茶, pinyin: júhuā chá, in Chinese). In Korea, a rice wine flavored with chrysanthemum flowers is called gukhwaju (국화주).
Chrysanthemum leaves are steamed or boiled and used as greens, especially in Chinese cuisine. The flowers may be added to thick snakemeat soup (蛇羹) to enhance the aroma. Small chrysanthemums are used in Japan as a sashimi garnish.
Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum [or Tanacetum] cinerariaefolium) is economically important as a natural source of insecticide. The flowers are pulverized, and the active components, called pyrethrins, which occur in the achenes, are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin. This is applied as a suspension in water or oil, or as a powder. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insects, and inhibit female mosquitoes from biting. In sublethal doses they have an insect repellent effect. They are harmful to fish, but are far less toxic to mammals and birds than many synthetic insecticides. They are not persistent, being biodegradable, and also decompose easily on exposure to light. Pyrethroids such as permethrin are synthetic insecticides based on natural pyrethrum.
Cultural significance and symbolism
In some countries of Europe (e.g., France, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Poland, Hungary, Croatia), incurve chrysanthemums are symbolic of death and are used only for funerals or on graves, while other types carry no such symbolism; similarly, in China, Japan and Korea, white chrysanthemums are symbolic of lamentation and/or grief. In some other countries, they represent honesty. In the United States, the flower is usually regarded as positive and cheerful, with New Orleans as a notable exception.
- In Australia,the chrysanthemum is sometimes given to mothers for Mother's Day, which falls in May in the southern hemisphere's autumn, which is when the flower is naturally in season. Men may sometimes also wear it in their lapels to honour mothers.
- The chrysanthemum is one of the "Four Gentlemen" (四君子) of China (the others being the plum blossom, the orchid, and bamboo). The chrysanthemum is said to have been favored by Tao Qian, an influential Chinese poet, and is symbolic of nobility. It is also one of the four symbolic seasonal flowers.
- A chrysanthemum festival is held each year in Tongxiang, near Hangzhou, China.
- Chrysanthemums are the topic in hundreds of poems of China.
- The "golden flower" referred to in the 2006 movie Curse of the Golden Flower is a chrysanthemum.
- "Chrysanthemum Gate" (jú huā mén 菊花门), often abbreviated as Chrysanthemum (菊花), is taboo slang meaning "anus" (with sexual connotations).
- Chrysanthemums were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC.
- An ancient Chinese city (Xiaolan Town of Zhongshan City) was named Ju-Xian, meaning "chrysanthemum city".
- The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival.
- Industrial musicians Einstürzende Neubauten base their song "Blume" around the flower.
- In Japan, the chrysanthemum is a symbol of the Emperor and Imperial family. In particular, a "chrysanthemum crest" (菊花紋章, kikukamonshō or kikkamonshō), i.e. a mon of chrysanthemum blossom design, indicates a link to the Emperor; there are more than 150 patterns on this design. Notable uses of and reference to the Imperial chrysanthemum include:
- The Imperial Seal of Japan, used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. In 1869, a two-layered, sixteen petal design was desingated as the symbol of the Emperor. Princes used a simpler single-layer pattern.
- A number of formerly state-endowed shrines (官国弊社, kankokuheisha) have adopted a chrysanthemum crest; most notable of these is Tokyo's Yasukuni Shrine.
- The Chrysanthemum Throne is the name given to the position of Japanese Emperor.
- The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is a Japanese honor awarded by the Emperor.
- In Imperial Japan, small arms were required to be stamped with the Imperial Chrysanthemum, as they were considered the personal property of the Emperor.
- The city of Nihonmatsu, Japan hosts the "Nihonmatsu Chrysanthemum Dolls Exhibition" every autumn in historical ruin of Nihonmatsu Castle.
- The chrysanthemum is also considered to be the seasonal flower of September.
Chrysanthemum crest on the Mikasa
- The founding of the chrysanthemum industry dates back to 1884, when Enomoto Brothers of Redwood City, CA (San Mateo County) grew the first chrysanthemums to be grown in America.
- In 1913, Sadakasu Enomoto (of San Mateo County) astounded the flower world by successfully shipping a carload of Turner Chrysanthemums to New Orleans for the famed All Saints Day Celebration.
- The chrysanthemum was recognized as the official flower of the city of Chicago by Mayor Richard J. Daley in 1966.
- The chrysanthemum is the official flower of the city of Salinas, California.
- The yellow chrysanthemum is the official flower of the sorority Sigma Alpha and the pharmacy fraternity Lambda Kappa Sigma.
- The white chrysanthemum is the official flower of Triangle Fraternity.
- The chrysanthemum is the official flower of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia. The purported color is white, per Sinfonia headquarters (likely variety is the incurved football mum species).
- The yellow chrysanthemum is the official flower of the fraternity Phi Kappa Sigma.
- The term "chrysanthemum" is also used to refer to a certain type of fireworks shells that produce a pattern of trailing sparks similar to a chrysanthemum flower.
- The chrysanthemum is also the flower of November.
- Tutankhamen was buried with floral collars of chrysanthemum.
- Resins of the plant were used[by whom?] in incense cones used to ward off insects.
- In the Three Stooges short "Pop Goes the Easel"(1935), the spelling of 'chrysanthemum' is used as the foundation of a gag sequence, highlighted by Curly rattling off a quick, correct spelling in a matter-of-fact tone, as though surprised that anyone would not know that.
- accepted species
- Chrysanthemum ×grandiflorum Ramat.
- Chrysanthemum ×rubellum Sealy
- Chrysanthemum abolinii (Kovalevsk.) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum achillaea L.
- Chrysanthemum alabasicum (H.C.Fu) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum brachyanthum (C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Grubov
- Chrysanthemum coreanum (H.Lév. & Vaniot) Nakai
- Chrysanthemum decaisneanum N.E.Br.
- Chrysanthemum delavayanum H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum dichrum (C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum fastigiatum (C.Winkl.) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum gracile (Hook.f. & Thomson) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum grubovii (Muldashev) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum horaimontanum Masam.
- Chrysanthemum hypoleucum (Y.Ling ex C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum indicum L.
- Chrysanthemum junnanicum (Poljakov) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum kinokuniense (Shimot. & Kitam.) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum kokanicum (Krasch.) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum konoanum Makino
- Chrysanthemum marginatum (Miq.) N.E.Br.
- Chrysanthemum mawei Hook.f.
- Chrysanthemum maximum L.
- Chrysanthemum miyatojimense Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.
- Chrysanthemum multifidum Desf.
- Chrysanthemum nitidum (C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum parvifolium Chang
- Chrysanthemum przewalskii (Poljakov) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum purpureiflorum H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum ramosum (C.C.Chang) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum rhombifolium (Y.Ling & C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum roborowskii (Muldashev) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum shihchuanum H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum shimotomaii Makino
- Chrysanthemum trilobatum (Poljakov ex Poljakov) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum tripinnatisectum (Y.Ling & C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum vestitum (Hemsl.) Stapf
- Chrysanthemum vulgare (L.) Bernh.
- Chrysanthemum yoshinyanthemum Makino
- Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich
Chrysanthemum japonense var. ashizuriense
- conserved type ratified by General Committee, Nicolson, Taxon 48: 375 (1999)
- Tropicos, Chrysanthemum L.
- Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
- Liu, P. L., et al. (2012). Phylogeny of the genus Chrysanthemum L.: Evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences. PloS One 7(11), e48970.
- Chrysanthemum. Flora of China. eFloras.
- History of the Chrysanthemum. National Chrysanthemum Society, USA
- The New York Botanical Garden, Curtis' Botanical Magazine, Volume X Bronx, New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 1797
- B. C. Wolverton, Rebecca C. McDonald, and E. A. Watkins, Jr. "Foliage Plants for Removing Indoor Air Pollutants from Energy-efficient Homes" (PDF). Retrieved 27 Dec 2013.
- Flower Meaning. Retrieved 22 September 2007. Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Remarkable Investment Attraction Result of Tongxiang City". Zhejiang Foreign Frade and Economic Cooperation Bureau. Archived from the original on 16 December 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- 2010年03月27日星期六 二月十二庚寅(虎)年. "国学365-中国历代菊花诗365首". Guoxue.com. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- Chao, E. (2009). "Niubi: the real Chinese you were never taught in school". Plume
- Jones, Colin. "Badges of honor: what Japan’s legal lapel pins really mean". Japan Times. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Inoue, Nobutaka (2 June 2005). "Shinmon". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
- "二本松の菊人形". City.nihonmatsu.lg.jp. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- La Peninsula, xlii (1)
- Chrysanthemum: The Official Flower of Chicago. Chicago Public Library.
- City of Salinas Permit Center. City of Salinas Community Development Department.
- Sigma Alpha, University of California, Davis chapter.
- "Birth Month Flower of November – The Chrysanthemum – Flowers, Low Prices, Same Day Delivery". 1st in Flowers!. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- Carvalho, S. M. P. et al. (2005). "Temperature affects Chrysanthemum flower characteristics differently during three phases of the cultivation period". Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 8 (2): 209–216.
- van der Ploeg, A. and E. Heuvelink. (2006). "The influence of temperature on growth and development of chrysanthemum cultivars: a review". Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 81 (2): 174–182.
Atlas of Ancient Egypt Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir 1980 Les Livres De France None Stated Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul/ 1995 Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers ISBN 0-8109-3225-3 Life of the Ancient Egyptian Strouhal, Eugen 1992 University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0-8061-2475-x Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, The Redford, Donald B. (Editor) 2001 American University in Cairo Press, The ISBN 977 424 581 4 Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian 2000 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815034-2
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