Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Description as for the family (only genus in the family)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Selaginella P. Beauv.:
Argentina (South America)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Burma (Asia)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Colombia (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Java (Asia)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
French Guiana (South America)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Guyana (South America)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Peru (South America)
Philippines (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Malaysia (Asia)
Paraguay (South America)
Suriname (South America)
Uruguay (South America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

:
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Selaginella

Terrestrial herbs, usually creeping or decumbent, rarely erect or clambering. Leaves numerous, microphyllous, with a single vein; monomorphic and spirally arranged or dimorphic and distichous. Sporophylls in sessile spikes, compact or separated; sporangia axillary on the sporophylls; spores dimorphic. A genus of 600-700 species, mostly tropical.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Sugars assist desiccation tolerance: spikemoss
 

The tissues of spikemoss survive extremely dry conditions due in part to production of trehalose or sucrose, which behave as water-replacement molecules.

     
  "Desiccation tolerance has been observed in several biological settings other than plant seed maturation. So called 'resurrection plants' (Selaginella and Myrothamnus), Tardigrade (Echiniscoides sigimunde), and brine shrimps (Anemia) are all capable of withstanding extended periods of anhydrobiosis. Although in these cases it has been suggested that the sugar trehalose, behaving as a water replacement molecule, is responsible for desiccation tolerance (Clegg 1986; Crowe et al 1987, 1992), it is sucrose which forms the most abundant sugar in higher order plant seeds and which has been postulated to perform the same function in this setting." (Drew 2006)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Drew, Jeff. 2006. A DESICCATED PRODUCT, Patent # WO2006085082 (A1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Functional adaptation

Plants survive repeated drying and rehydration: lesser clubmoss
 

The cells of lesser clubmoss plants prevent deformation during repeated dehydration via small vacuoles filled with mechanical mixtures called colloids.

     
  "Some plants, for example, in the genus Selaginella, can repeatedly dry and rehydrate without structural damage. They avoid critical cell deformations during severe dehydration by using vacuoles of smaller size that are filled with tannin colloids instead of ions. Upon dehydration these colloids undergo minimal volume changes (Walter, 1956). Nature itself points here to the interesting alternative of replacing crystallizing small molecules with larger-sized colloids. " (Bar-Cohen 2006:476)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Yoseph Bar-Cohen. 2006. Biomimetics: biologically inspired technologies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC/Taylor & Francis. 527 p.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:183Public Records:143
Specimens with Sequences:160Public Species:112
Specimens with Barcodes:139Public BINs:0
Species:116         
Species With Barcodes:113         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Selaginella

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Selaginella

Selaginella is a genus of plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses. Many scientists still place the Selaginellales in the class Lycopodiopsida (often misconstructed as "Lycopsida"). This group of plants has for years been included in what, for convenience, was called "fern allies". S. moellendorffii is an important model organism, and its genome was sequenced by the United States Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute.[1]

Characteristics[edit]

Selaginella species are creeping or ascendant plants with simple, scale-like leaves (microphylls) on branching stems from which roots also arise. The plants are heterosporous (megaspores and microspores), and have structures called ligules, scale-like outgrowths near the base of the upper surface of each microphyll and sporophyll. Under dry conditions, some species of Selaginella roll into brown balls (a phenomenon known as poikilohydry). In this state, they may be uprooted. Under moist conditions the brown balls become green, because of which these are also known as resurrection plants (as in Selaginella bryopteris).

Unusually for the lycopods, each microphyll contains a branching vascular trace.

Generic division[edit]

Some modern authors recognize three generic divisions of Selaginella: Selaginella, Bryodesma Sojak 1992, and Lycopodioides Boehm 1760. Lycopodioides would include the native North American species S. apoda and S. eclipes, while Bryodesma would include the native S. rupestris (as Bryodesma rupestre). Stachygynandrum is also sometimes used to include the bulk of species.

The first major attempt to define and subdivide the group was by Palisot de Beauvois[2] in 1803-1805. He established the genus Selaginella as a monotypic genus, and placed the bulk of species in Stachygynandrum. Gymnogynum was another monotypic genus, but that name is superseded by his own earlier name of Didiclis. This turns out, today, to be a group of around 45-50 species also known as the Articulatae, since his Didiclis/Gymnogynum genus was based on Selaginella plumosa. He also described the genus Diplostachyum to include a group of species similar to Selaginella apoda. Spring inflated the genus Selaginella to hold all selaginelloid species four decades later.

Phylogenetic studies by Korall & Kenrick[3][4] determined that the Euselaginella group, comprising solely the type species, Selaginella selaginoides and a closely related Hawaiian species, Selaginella deflexa, is a basal and anciently diverging sister to all other Selaginella species. Beyond this, their study split the remainder of species into two broad groups, one including the Bryodesma species, the Articulatae, section Ericetorum Jermy and others, and the other centered around the broad Stachygynandrum group.

In the Manual of Pteridology,[5] the following classification was used by Walton & Alston:

genus: Selaginella

  • subgenus: Euselaginella
    • group: selaginoides
    • group: pygmaea
    • group: uliginosa (Ericetorum)
    • group: rupestris (Tetragonostachys or Bryodesma)
  • subgenus: Stachygynandrum
    • series: Decumbentes
    • series: Ascendentes
    • series: Sarmentosae
    • series: Caulescentes
    • series: Circinatae
    • series: Articulatae
  • subgenus: Homostachys
  • subgenus: Heterostachys

Species[edit]

There are about 700 species of Selaginella, showing a wide range of characters; the genus is overdue for a revision which might include subdivision into several genera. Better-known spikemosses include:

A few species of Selaginella are desert plants known as "resurrection plants", because they curl up in a tight, brown or reddish ball during dry times, and uncurl and turn green in the presence of moisture. Other species are tropical forest plants that appear at first glance to be ferns.

Cultivation[edit]

A number of Selaginella species are popular plants for cultivation, mostly tropical species. Some of the species popularly cultivated and actively available commercially include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Selaginella moellendorffii v1.0". Joint Genome Institute. United States Department of Energy. 2007. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  2. ^ Palisot de Beauvois (1805): Prodrome des cinquième et sixième familles de l'Æthéogamie, les mousses, les lycopodes.
  3. ^ Korall, P. & Kenrick, P. (2002), "Phylogenetic relationships in Selaginellaceae based on rbcL sequences", American Journal of Botany 89 (3): 506–17 
  4. ^ Korall & Kenrick (2004): The phylogenetic history of Selaginellaceae based on DNA sequences from the plastid and nucleus: extreme substitution rates and rate heterogeneity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 31, Issue 3, June 2004, Pages 852-864
  5. ^ Verdoorn, F., ed. (1938): Manual of Pteridology: J. Walton and A. H. G. Alston, Lycopodinae, pp. 500-506. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. 640pp, HB.

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!