Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Acrodontium dematiaceous anamorph of Acrodontium hydnicola is saprobic on dead Rhododendron

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (base, esp.) of Rhododendron

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
hypostromatic hysterothecia of Aulographum hederae is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-7

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Belemnospora dematiaceous anamorph of Belemnospora epiphylla is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Belemnospora dematiaceous anamorph of Belemnospora verruculosa is saprobic on dead twig of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Alysidium anamorph of Botryobasidium candicans is saprobic on rotten wood of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acladium anamorph of Botryobasidium conspersum is saprobic on dead bark of Rhododendron

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed pseudothecium of Botryosphaeria rhodorae causes spots on newly dead leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 2-9

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium dingleyae is saprobic on dead, rotten wood of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Calocera pallidospathulata is saprobic on decayed wood of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
solitary or in small groups, erumpent bcoming more or less superficial ascocarp of Capronia pleiospora is saprobic on rotten wood of Rhododendron

Plant / epiphyte
epiphyllous thallus of Cephaleuros grows on live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous, erumpent perithecium of Chaetapiospora rhododendri is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 2-4

Plant / epiphyte
seta-bearing mycelial mat of Chaetothyrium babingtonii grows on leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / pathogen
basidiome of Chondrostereum purpureum infects and damages stem of Rhododendron

Foodplant / parasite
mostly hypophyllous telium of Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri parasitises live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, numerous, gregarious pycnidium of Coleophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Coleophoma cylindrospora is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus applanatus var. applanatus is saprobic on decayed log of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed, plurilocular stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora subclypeata is saprobic on dead, locally dark reddish-brown, shining branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 2-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Haplographium dematiaceous anamorph of Dematioscypha dematiicola is saprobic on dead branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
synnema of Graphium dematiacous anamorph of Dendrostilbella smaragdina is saprobic on dead wood of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 3-8

Foodplant / sap sucker
Dialeurodes chittendeni sucks sap of live leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: esp. 6-7

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Rhododendron

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Diplodina coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodina eurhododendri feeds on Rhododendron

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe azaleae parasitises live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / gall
fruitbody of Exobasidium japonicum causes gall of live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / spot causer
concentrically arranged acervulus of Gloeosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Glomerella cingulata causes spots on live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead twig of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / sap sucker
Graphocephala fennahi sucks sap of live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helminthosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Helminthosporium velutinum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Henicospora dematiaceous anamorph of Henicospora minor is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyaloscypha leuconica is saprobic on dead wood of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Hysterium angustatum is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Kleidocerys resedae sucks sap of live Rhododendron
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
opening by slit pseudothecium of Lembosina aulographoides is saprobic on attached twig (bark) of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed apothecium of Lophodermium vagulum is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Mariannaea anamorph of Mariannaea elegans is saprobic on bark of Rhododendron

Plant / nest
female of Megachile builds nest using semicircular or oblong pieces of live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, often in very large clusters pseudothecium of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate branch wood of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Gonytrichum dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella inaequalis is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia cinerea is saprobic on dead wood of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / spot causer
acervulus of Monochaetia coelomycetous anamorph of Monochaetia karstenii causes spots on live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina is saprobic on dead branch of Rhododendron

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / endomycorrhiza
mycelium of Oidiodendron maius is endomycorrhizal with live root of Rhododendron

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Orgyia antiqua grazes on live leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: -7/8

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Otiorhynchus singularis feeds on live Rhododendron

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal adult of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on leaf (margin) of Rhododendron
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, single or in groups of 2-3 apothecium of Ovulinia azaleae is saprobic on Rhododendron
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis funerea is saprobic on dead Rhododendron

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis guepinii causes spots on dead leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis sydowiana is saprobic on dead Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis versicolor is saprobic on dead Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
thinly scattered, mostly hypophyllous, dimorphic pycnidium of Ceuthospora coelomycetous anamorph of Phacidium falconeri is saprobic on fallen, long dead leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 6-10

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus cyclosporus is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus tenuissimus is saprobic on litter of Rhododendron

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma leveillei feeds on Rhododendron

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma pomorum feeds on Rhododendron

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma rhodorae feeds on Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
epiphyllous, immersed, in swarm perithecium of Phomatospora gelatinospora is saprobic on dead, attached leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta cunninghami feeds on Rhododendron

Foodplant / spot causer
Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta rhododendri causes spots on live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta rhododendri sensu Westd. causes spots on leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 5-12

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, scattered, immersed then erumpent pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta saccardoi causes spots on fading leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / false gall
mycelium of Phytophthora ramorum causes swelling of cankered twig of Rhododendron
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, subiculate pseudothecium of Protoventuria arxii is saprobic on dead twig of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Psathyrella piluliformis is saprobic on dead, decayed trunk (large) of Rhododendron
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Pseudocercospora dematiaceous anamorph of Pseudocercospora handelii causes spots on live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / sap sucker
hypophyllous Pulvinaria floccifera sucks sap of live leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / pathogen
coremium of Pycnostysanus dematiacous anamorph of Pycnostysanus azaleae infects and damages leaf of Rhododendron
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Rhopalomesites tardyi feeds on dead wood of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Rosellinia aquila is saprobic on dead branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 2-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Scytinostroma ochroleucum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Rhododendron
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Seimatosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Seimatosporium arbuti is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Seimatosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Seimatosporium mariae is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron

Foodplant / pathogen
amphigenous, immersed pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria azaleae infects and damages live leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 3-9

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium bombacis is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium leptosporum is saprobic on dead branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Stephanitis rhododendri sucks sap of Rhododendron

Foodplant / sap sucker
Stephanitis takeyai sucks sap of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
extensively subiculate apothecium of Tapesia fusca is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Triposporium elegans is saprobic on dead, often grey or purple stained twig of Rhododendron
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
Tubulicrinis regificus is saprobic on dead branch of Rhododendron

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Veronaea dematiaceous anamorph of Veronaea botryosa is saprobic on wood of Rhododendron

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Zeuzera pyrina feeds within live bud of Rhododendron

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:831Public Records:514
Specimens with Sequences:823Public Species:247
Specimens with Barcodes:799Public BINs:0
Species:265         
Species With Barcodes:263         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Rhododendron

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Wikipedia

Rhododendron subg. Rhododendron

A species of the Vireya section.

Rhododendron subgenus Rhododendron is a subgenus of the genus Rhododendron. With around 400 species, it is the largest of the eight subgenera (more recently reduced to five)[1] containing nearly half of all known species of Rhododendron and all of the lepidote (scales on the underside of the leaves) species.[2][1]

Taxonomy[edit]

The subgenus has traditionally included included three sections:

However, following phylogenetic analysis, Craven (2008) raised the appropriately named Pseudovireya subsection of Vireya to section rank, splitting it into two geographic clades, the Asian mainland species as Pseudovireya, and the Malesian species as Discovireya, making five sections in all.[4] The new sections are thus:

Characteristics: (Craven 2008)

  • Discovireya: Scales entire to undulate; corolla tubular-cylindric; stamens 10, exserted to included, staminal filaments glabrous or hairy from the base; capsule valves not twisting after dehiscence; seeds with a distinct tail at each end
  • Pogonathum: Scales incised; corolla salver-shaped; stamens 5–8, included, staminal filaments glabrous or hairy towards the base; capsule valves not twisting after dehiscence; seeds without distinct tails
  • Pseudovireya: Scales entire; corolla campanulate; stamens 10, exserted, staminal filaments glabrous proximally and distally and hairy in the middle region; capsule valves not twisting after dehiscence; seeds with a distinct tail at each end
  • Rhododendron: Scales entire to crenulate; corolla campanulate to funnel-shaped or tubular; stamens 10, exserted, staminal filaments hairy towards the base or glabrous; capsule valves not twisting after dehiscence; seeds without distinct tails
  • Vireya: Scales sessile or sometimes stalked, lobed to deeply incised or sometimes entire; corolla campanulate, trumpet-like, salver-shaped, tubular or funnel-shaped; stamens (5–)10(–16), exserted to included, staminal filaments glabrous or hairy from the base; capsule valves twisting after dehiscence; seeds with a distinct tail at each end

Craven also provides a formal Key to the subgenus.

Subsections[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Goetsch, Loretta A.; Eckert, Andrew J.; Hall, Benjamin D. (July–September 2005). "The molecular systematics of Rhododendron (Ericaceae): a phylogeny based upon RPB2 gene sequences". Systematic Botany 30 (3): 616–626. doi:10.1600/0363644054782170. Retrieved July 3 2014. 
  2. ^ Chamberlain, DF; Hyam R; Argent G; Fairweather G; Walter KS (1996). The genus Rhododendron: its classification and synonymy. Royal Botanic gardens Edinburgh. ISBN 1 872291 66 X. Retrieved July 3 2014. 
  3. ^ Argent, G. Rhododendrons of subgenus Vireya. 2006. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 1-902896-61-0
  4. ^ Craven, L.A.; Goetsch, L.A.; Hall, B.D.; Brown, G.K. (2008). "Classification of the Vireya group of Rhododendron (Ericaceae)". Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants 53 (2): 435. doi:10.3767/000651908X608070. 

Bibliography[edit]

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Ledum

Ledum was a genus in the family Ericaceae, including 8 species of evergreen shrubs native to cool temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and commonly known as Labrador Tea. It is now recognised as a subsection of section Rhododendron, subgenus Rhododendron, of the genus Rhododendron.

Taxonomy[edit]

Reclassification into Rhododendron[edit]

Recent genetic evidence has shown that the species previously treated in this genus are correctly placed in the genus Rhododendron, where they are now treated as Rhododendron subsect. Ledum.

Because some of the species names used in Ledum could not be used in Rhododendron (the names already having been used for other species already in this large genus), new names had to be coined for them.

Species[edit]

The species formerly listed in Ledum, with their current accepted names in Rhododendron, are:

Hybrids[edit]

One natural hybrid also occurs:

Uses[edit]

Ledum (L. groenlandicum) essential oil in clear glass vial

Some species (e.g. L. groenlandicum) have been used to produce Labrador Tea. Other species have varying levels of toxicity (e.g. L. glandulosum). Evergreen Labrador Tea grows slowly, but retains its leaves year-round. Users should take care not to over-harvest leaves from any single plant.

Ledum sp. often grows together with poisonous plants such as Bog-laurel and Bog-rosemary, but certain species (e.g. L. groenlandicum and L. palustre) are easily distinguished by the distinctive rust coloured fuzz on the bottom of leaves.

According to a Russian study from 1991,[citation needed] Ledum was able to almost completely inactivate the tick-borne bacterial infection caused by Borrelia, involved in the pathogenesis of Lyme Disease.

Bibliography[edit]

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